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Comparison of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity profiles of various chemically characterized Turkish propolis sub-types: Which propolis type is a promising source for pharmaceutical product development?

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 7;203:114196. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Yeditepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Kayisdagi Cad., Atasehir, 34755, Istanbul, Turkey.

Propolis shows a great variation in its chemical content depending on the vegetation around the beehive. Determination of its botanical origin and the chemical characterization are the most important issues for the standardization and the quality evaluation for propolis samples that are intended to be used in the pharmaceutical industry. This study has focused on the identification of the botanical origin of 47 propolis samples collected from different locations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Read More

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Temporal phylogeny and molecular characterization of echovirus 30 associated with aseptic meningitis outbreaks in China.

Virol J 2021 Jun 6;18(1):118. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

WHO WPRO Regional Polio Reference Laboratory, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of biosafety, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.

Background: An outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred from June to August 2016, in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

Methods: To determine its epidemiological characteristics, etiologic agent, and possible origin, specimens were collected for virus isolation and identification, followed by molecular epidemiological analysis.

Results: A total of 363 patients were clinically diagnosed from June 1st to August 31st 2016, and most cases (63. Read More

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Bacterial community dynamics during different stages of processing of smoked bacon using the 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Aug 28;351:109076. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Food Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China. Electronic address:

To identify the microbial community and origin of the spoilage flora of bacon, the changes in microbial population numbers and community structure were followed along the processing line, using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (16S-seq) analysis showed that community complexity and structure significantly differed at different processing stages. Some 428 bacterial groups were ascertained at genus level, and Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, and Brochothrix were the predominant bacteria on raw meats. Read More

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Regulation of groundwater arsenic concentrations in the Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej floodplains of Punjab, India.

Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2020 May 12;276:384-403. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York, USA.

Recent testing has shown that shallow aquifers of the Ravi River floodplain are more frequently affected by groundwater arsenic (As) contamination than other floodplains of the upper Indus River basin. In this study, we explore the geochemical origin of this contrast by comparing groundwater and aquifer sand composition in the 10-30 m depth range in 11 villages along the Ravi and adjacent Beas and Sutlej rivers. The drilling was preceded by testing wells in the same villages with field kits not only for As but also for nitrate (NO), iron (Fe), and sulfate (SO). Read More

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Intensive cycling of nickel in a New Caledonian forest dominated by hyperaccumulator trees.

Plant J 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The hyperaccumulator Pycnandra acuminata is a New Caledonian rainforest tree known to have the highest concentration of nickel in any living organism with 25 wt% in its latex. All trees (with diameter >10 cm) and soil profiles in a 0.25-hectare permanent plot were sampled to assess the biogeochemical compartmentalisation of nickel in a dense stand of Pycnandra acuminata trees. Read More

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Potential toxic metals (PTMs) contamination in agricultural soils and foodstuffs with associated source identification and model uncertainty.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 23;789:147962. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 9004, Saudi Arabia; Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004, Saudi Arabia.

The research aimed to find out physiochemical properties, metal concentration, sources of metals using statistical analyses, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model using 315 soil and 250 foodstuff samples (25 species) in Jhenidah as well as Kushtia district, Bangladesh. The range of Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Ni and Cr contents (mg/kg) in soils were found to be 0.97-114. Read More

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The assembled and annotated genome of the fairy-ring fungus Marasmius oreades.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

Marasmius oreades is a basidiomycete fungus that grows in so called "fairy rings", which are circular, underground mycelia common in lawns across temperate areas of the world. Fairy rings can be thought of as natural, long-term evolutionary experiments. As each ring has a common origin and expands radially outwards over many years, different sectors will independently accumulate mutations during growth. Read More

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A novel system for intensive Diadema antillarum propagation as a step towards population enhancement.

Sci Rep 2021 May 27;11(1):11244. Epub 2021 May 27.

Center for Conservation, The Florida Aquarium, 529 Estuary Shore Lane, Apollo Beach, FL, 33572, USA.

The long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum was once an abundant reef grazing herbivore throughout the Caribbean. During the early 1980s, D. antillarum populations were reduced by > 93% due to an undescribed disease. Read More

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Paleoecology, biochronology, and paleobiogeography of Eurasian Rhinocerotidae during the Early Pleistocene: The contribution of the fossil material from Dmanisi (Georgia, Southern Caucasus).

J Hum Evol 2021 May 21;156:103013. Epub 2021 May 21.

Earth Science Department, Paleo[Fab]Lab, University of Florence, via La Pira 4, 50121, Firenze, Italy.

Rhinocerotidae represents a common element in the Eurasian Pleistocene faunas. Origin, dispersal route, and biochronology of several species are still poorly understood due to gaps in the fossil record, in particular from central Eurasia. A remarkable collection of rhinoceros remains was recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Dmanisi (Georgia). Read More

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Robust Plasma Cell Response to Skin-Inoculated Dengue Virus in Mice.

J Immunol Res 2021 26;2021:5511841. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, The National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, Gustavo A. Madero, 07360 Mexico City, Mexico.

Dengue is a worldwide expanding threat caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection. To date, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is available. Antibodies produced by plasma cells (PCs) might be involved concomitantly in protection and severe dengue immunopathology. Read More

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Has stocking contributed to an increase in the rod catch of anadromous trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the Shetland Islands, UK?

J Fish Biol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hatherly Building, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

The stocking of hatchery-origin fish into rivers and lakes has long been used in fisheries management to try to enhance catches, especially for trout and salmon species. Frequently, however, the long-term impacts of stocking programmes have not been evaluated. In this study, the authors investigate the contribution of a stocking programme undertaken to support the rod catch of sea trout in the Shetland Islands, UK. Read More

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Crop origins explain variation in global agricultural relevance.

Nat Plants 2021 May 13;7(5):598-607. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Human food production is dominated globally by a small number of crops. Why certain crops have attained high agricultural relevance while others have remained minor might partially stem from their different origins. Here, we analyse a dataset of 866 crops to show that seed crops and species originating from seasonally dry environments tend to have the greatest agricultural relevance, while phylogenetic affinities play a minor role. Read More

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Strain engraftment competition and functional augmentation in a multi-donor fecal microbiota transplantation trial for obesity.

Microbiome 2021 05 13;9(1):107. Epub 2021 May 13.

The Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Donor selection is an important factor influencing the engraftment and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for complex conditions associated with microbial dysbiosis. However, the degree, variation, and stability of strain engraftment have not yet been assessed in the context of multiple donors.

Methods: We conducted a double-blinded randomized control trial of FMT in 87 adolescents with obesity. Read More

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Source allocation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with supervised machine learning: Classification performance and the role of feature selection in an expanded dataset.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 26;275:130124. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney Manly Vale, NSW, 2093, Australia.

This work explores the use of supervised machine learning as a tool for identifying the source of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in water samples on the basis of the detected component concentrations. Specifically, the work focuses on distinguishing between PFAS used in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) fire suppression applications, and PFAS from other sources. The fact that many sites contaminated with legacy PFOS-based AFFF formulations are dominated by perfluorinated sulfonates can make it tempting to naïvely classify samples dominated by perfluorinated sulfonates as being of AFFF origin. Read More

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Claustral Input to the Macaque Medial Posterior Parietal Cortex (Superior Parietal Lobule and Adjacent Areas).

Cereb Cortex 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience Program, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

The projections from the claustrum to cortical areas within and adjacent to the superior parietal lobule were studied in 10 macaque monkeys, using retrograde tracers, computerized reconstructions, and quantitative methods. In contrast with the classical view that posterior parietal areas receive afferents primarily from the dorsal and posterior regions of the claustrum, we found that these areas receive more extensive projections, including substantial afferents from the anterior and ventral regions of the claustrum. Moreover, our findings uncover a previously unsuspected variability in the precise regions of the claustrum that originate the projections, according to the target areas. Read More

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LSD1 defines erythroleukemia metabolism by controlling the lineage-specific transcription factors GATA1 and C/EBPα.

Blood Adv 2021 05;5(9):2305-2318

Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, and.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous malignancy characterized by distinct lineage subtypes and various genetic/epigenetic alterations. As with other neoplasms, AML cells have well-known aerobic glycolysis, but metabolic variations depending on cellular lineages also exist. Lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) has been reported to be crucial for human leukemogenesis, which is currently one of the emerging therapeutic targets. Read More

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Looking for Minor Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using Neutron and Raman Spectroscopies.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension, Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is defined as a functional food as it contains numerous phenolic components with well-recognized health-beneficial properties, such as high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity. These characteristics depend on their structural/conformational behavior, which is largely determined by intra- and intermolecular H-bond interactions. While the vibrational dynamics of isolated compounds have been studied in a number of recent investigations, their signal in a real-life sample of EVOO is overwhelmed by the major constituent acids. Read More

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Nasal septal abscess with a dental origin: a case report and a review of the literature.

J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr;47(2):135-140

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea.

Since the first report of a nasal septal abscess (NSA) from a dental origin (1920), six articles have been published in the English literature to date. The most common cause of NSA is an infection of the nasal septal hematoma after trauma. This is a report of an uncommon cause of NSA with a dental origin. Read More

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Monsoon forced evolution of savanna and the spread of agro-pastoralism in peninsular India.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 27;11(1):9032. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Research Station of Quaternary Palaeontology, Senckenberg Research Institute, Am Jakobskirchhof 4, 99423, Weimar, Germany.

An unresolved issue in the vegetation ecology of the Indian subcontinent is whether its savannas, characterized by relatively open formations of deciduous trees in C-grass dominated understories, are natural or anthropogenic. Historically, these ecosystems have widely been regarded as anthropogenic-derived, degraded descendants of deciduous forests. Despite recent work showing that modern savannas in the subcontinent fall within established bioclimatic envelopes of extant savannas elsewhere, the debate persists, at least in part because the regions where savannas occur also have a long history of human presence and habitat modification. Read More

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Origin of agricultural plant pathogens: Diversity and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia fungi associated with native prairie grasses in the Sandhills of Nebraska.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(4):e0249335. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.

The Sandhills of Nebraska is a complex ecosystem, covering 50,000 km2 in central and western Nebraska and predominantly of virgin grassland. Grasslands are the most widespread vegetation in the U.S. Read More

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Structure optimization of gasket based on orthogonal experiment and NSGA-II.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211011347

Vehicle Engineering Department, Army Academy of Armored Forces, Beijing, China.

With the aim of enhancing both reliability and fatigue life of gasket, this study combines finite element analysis, orthogonal experimental design, dynamically-guided multi-objective optimization, and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with elitist strategy to optimize the geometric parameters of the cylinder gasket. The finite element method was used to analyze the temperature field, thermal-mechanical coupling stress field, and deformation of cylinder gasket. The calculation results were experimentally validated by measured temperature data, and comparison results show that the maximum error between calculated value and experiment value is 7. Read More

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Atmospheric deposition of semivolatile organic pollutants in European high mountains: Sources, settling and chemical degradation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 14;784:147099. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18. 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Bulk atmospheric deposition samples, including wet and dry deposition, were collected during 2004-2006 in four high mountain European lakes: Skalnate Pleso (Tatra mountains, Slovakia), Gossenköllesee (Alps, Austria), Redon (Pyrenees, Spain), and Lochnagar (Grampian Mountains, Scotland). Samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), endosulfans, and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The deposition of PCBs, HCHs, and low brominated BDEs reflected baseline contributions from long range atmospheric transport. Read More

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Molecular Origin of Blood-Based Infrared Spectroscopic Fingerprints*.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Physics, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 85748, Garching, Germany.

Infrared spectroscopy of liquid biopsies is a time- and cost-effective approach that may advance biomedical diagnostics. However, the molecular nature of disease-related changes of infrared molecular fingerprints (IMFs) remains poorly understood, impeding the method's applicability. Here we probe 148 human blood sera and reveal the origin of the variations in their IMFs. Read More

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Three new D.G.Mann (Bacillariophyta) species from Rapa Nui (Easter Island) found in terrestrial diatom assemblages dominated by widely distributed taxa.

PeerJ 2021 5;9:e11142. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Rapa Nui (Easter Island = Isla de Pasqua) is of volcanic origin, best known for about 900 man-made stone statues known as . It is one of the most isolated inhabited islands on Earth and studies on the diatoms of Rapa Nui are very few.

Methods: Light (LM) and electron microscopic (SEM) observations of a single sample collected from Rapa Nui are presented. Read More

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Oxidized sulfur-rich arc magmas formed porphyry Cu deposits by 1.88 Ga.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 13;12(1):2189. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Canadian Centre for Isotopic Microanalysis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Most known porphyry Cu deposits formed in the Phanerozoic and are exclusively associated with moderately oxidized, sulfur-rich, hydrous arc-related magmas derived from partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. Yet, whether similar metallogenic processes also operated in the Precambrian remains obscure. Here we address the issue by investigating the origin, fO, and S contents of calc-alkaline plutonic rocks associated with the Haib porphyry Cu deposit in the Paleoproterozoic Richtersveld Magmatic Arc (southern Namibia), an interpreted mature island-arc setting. Read More

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Aroma Profiles Analysis of Two Populations of Salvia palaestina Benth. Collected from Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian Zones in Jordan.

J Oleo Sci 2021 May 12;70(5):713-719. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Applied Science Private University.

The volatile principles emitted from different aerial organs of two S. palaestina Benth. populations (Mediterranean (Med) and Irano-Turanian (IrT)) growing wild in Jordan were extracted by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and analysed by GC/MS technique. Read More

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Genetic diversity and the presence of circular plasmids in Bacillus cereus isolates of clinical and environmental origin.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The diversity of 61 Bacillus cereus strains isolated from different clinical specimens, food including raw milk and milk products, and water was evaluated. PFGE analysis could discriminate 61 distinct pulsotypes with similarity levels from 25 to 82%, which were divided into 13 clonal complexes. The similarity between clonal complexes was at least 40%. Read More

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Non-Native Impacts Diversity of Pastures in South-Eastern Australia Even When Native Remains Co-Dominant.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Faculty of Science and the Centre for the Environment, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Lowland grassy woodlands in Australia's south-east face reductions in native plant diversity because of invasion by non-native plants. We compared the relative abundance and diversity of plant species among sites dominated by the native Kangaroo grass (KG) with sites co-dominated by the non-native African lovegrass (ALG) and KG. We found significant differences in plant species composition depending on the dominant species. Read More

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The Health and Welfare of Rabbits as Indicated by Post-Mortem Findings at the Slaughterhouse.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Central Veterinary Administration of the State Veterinary Administration, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic.

The aim of the study was to assess post-mortem findings according to their localization and the nature of damage and to assess the standard of health and welfare of farmed rabbits on the basis of these findings. A total of 40,206 pathological findings were recorded in 1,876,929 rabbits slaughtered at slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic in the period from 2010 to 2019. Pathological findings on the limbs (0. Read More

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Extinction at the end-Cretaceous and the origin of modern Neotropical rainforests.

Science 2021 04;372(6537):63-68

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

The end-Cretaceous event was catastrophic for terrestrial communities worldwide, yet its long-lasting effect on tropical forests remains largely unknown. We quantified plant extinction and ecological change in tropical forests resulting from the end-Cretaceous event using fossil pollen (>50,000 occurrences) and leaves (>6000 specimens) from localities in Colombia. Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) rainforests were characterized by an open canopy and diverse plant-insect interactions. Read More

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