1,680 results match your criteria orienting cues

Automatic classification of children with autism spectrum disorder by using a computerized visual-orienting task.

Psych J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Early screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) primarily rely on behavioral observations by qualified clinicians whose decision process can benefit from the combination of machine learning algorithms and sensor data. We designed a computerized visual-orienting task with gaze-related or non-gaze-related directional cues, which triggered participants' gaze-following behavior. Based on their eye-movement data registered by an eye tracker, we applied the machine learning algorithms to classify high-functioning children with ASD (HFA), low-functioning children with ASD (LFA), and typically developing children (TD). Read More

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Does gaze direction of fearful faces facilitate the processing of threat? An ERP study of spatial precuing effects.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Social Cognitive Neuroscience and Mental Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Eye gaze is very important for attentional orienting in social life. By adopting the event-related potential (ERP) technique, we explored whether attentional orienting of eye gaze is modulated by emotional congruency between facial expressions and the targets in a spatial cuing task. Faces with different emotional expressions (fearful/angry/happy/neutral) directing their eye gaze to the left or right were used as cues, indicating the possible location of subsequent targets. Read More

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The Gaze Cueing Effect and Its Enhancement by Facial Expressions Are Impacted by Task Demands: Direct Comparison of Target Localization and Discrimination Tasks.

Front Psychol 2021 11;12:618606. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

The gaze cueing effect is characterized by faster attentional orienting to a gazed-at than a non-gazed-at target. This effect is often enhanced when the gazing face bears an emotional expression, though this finding is modulated by a number of factors. Here, we tested whether the type of task performed might be one such modulating factor. Read More

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Attentional Bias to High-Calorie Food in Binge Eaters With High Shape/Weight Concern.

Front Psychiatry 2021 4;12:606296. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Individuals with high shape/weight concern (SWC) place disproportionate emphasis on shape and weight in evaluating their self-worth, making them more vulnerable to body-related cues. Binge eaters (BE), who are obsessed with devouring high-calorie foods, would show severe symptomatology, especially when they have clinically high SWC. The present study attempted to elucidate how SWC influences binging based on attentional patterns toward high-calorie food cues. Read More

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Attention recruits frontal cortex in human infants.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511.

Young infants learn about the world by overtly shifting their attention to perceptually salient events. In adults, attention recruits several brain regions spanning the frontal and parietal lobes. However, it is unclear whether these regions are sufficiently mature in infancy to support attention and, more generally, how infant attention is supported by the brain. Read More

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Spatial, but not temporal, aspects of orientation are controlled by the fine scale distribution of chemical cues in turbulent odor plumes.

J Exp Biol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, University of Mount Olive, Mount Olive, NC 28365, USA.

Orientation within turbulent odor plumes occurs across a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. From salmon homing across featureless oceans to microbes forming reproductive spores, the extraction of spatial and temporal information from chemical cues is a common sensory phenomenon. Yet, given the difficulty of quantifying chemical cues at the spatial and temporal scales used by organisms, discovering what aspects of chemical cues controls orientation behavior has remain elusive. Read More

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Rethinking attention in time: Expectancy violations reconcile contradictory developmental evidence.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jun 15;206:105070. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Cognition, Development and Educational Psychology, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain; Cognition and Brain Plasticity Unit, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), 08908 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

Temporal expectations critically influence perception and action. Previous research reports contradictory results in children's ability to endogenously orient attention in time as well as the developmental course. To reconcile this seemingly conflicting evidence, we put forward the hypothesis that expectancy violations-through the use of invalid trials-are the source of the mixed evidence reported in the literature. Read More

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Do eyes and arrows elicit automatic orienting? Three mutually exclusive hypotheses and a test.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Mar 19:1747021821998572. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Cognition and Perception Unit (CPU), Psychology Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Eyes in a schematic face and arrows presented at fixation can each cue an upcoming lateralized target such that responses to the target are faster to a valid than an invalid cue (sometimes claimed to reflect "automatic" orienting). One test of an automatic process concerns the extent to which it can be interfered with by another process. The present experiment investigates the ability of eyes and arrows to cue an upcoming target when both cues are present at the same time. Read More

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Eye-movement patterns to social and non-social cues in early deaf adults.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Mar 17:1747021821998511. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Centre for Mind/Brain Sciences (CIMeC), University of Trento, Rovereto, Italy.

Previous research on covert orienting to the periphery suggested that early profound deaf adults were less susceptible to uninformative gaze-cues, though were equally or more affected by non-social arrow-cues. The aim of this work was to investigate whether spontaneous eye movement behaviour helps explain the reduced impact of the social cue in deaf adults. We tracked the gaze of 25 early profound deaf and 25 age-matched hearing observers performing a peripheral discrimination task with uninformative central cues (gaze vs arrow), stimulus-onset asynchrony (250 vs 750 ms), and cue validity (valid vs invalid) as within-subject factors. Read More

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Dream Lucidity and the Attentional Network Task.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:586808. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

This study investigated the relationship between dream lucidity, i.e., a dreamer's insight to the ongoing dream, and attention by considering lucidity as a trait. Read More

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January 2021

Influence of Background Musical Emotions on Attention in Congenital Amusia.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 25;14:566841. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

International Laboratory for Brain, Music and Sound Research, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Congenital amusia in its most common form is a disorder characterized by a musical pitch processing deficit. Although pitch is involved in conveying emotion in music, the implications for pitch deficits on musical emotion judgements is still under debate. Relatedly, both limited and spared musical emotion recognition was reported in amusia in conditions where emotion cues were not determined by musical mode or dissonance. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of Acute Visual Stimulation Exercise on Attention Processes: An ERP Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 27;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Sport Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

Backgrounds: It remains to be determined whether visual stimuli during exercise differentially influence the attention process. The purpose of the present study was to examine if different color stimuli during aerobic exercise are associated with different attention processes.

Methods: 22 college students completed a four 30-min running session during the presentation of different color stimuli (blue, green, red, and yellow) and without color stimulus on separate visits. Read More

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January 2021

Repetitive Robot Behavior Impacts Perception of Intentionality and Gaze-Related Attentional Orienting.

Front Robot AI 2020 9;7:565825. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Social Cognition in Human-Robot Interaction (S4HRI) Unit, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.

Gaze behavior is an important social signal between humans as it communicates locations of interest. People typically orient their attention to where others look as this informs about others' intentions and future actions. Studies have shown that humans can engage in similar gaze behavior with robots but presumably more so when they adopt the intentional stance toward them (i. Read More

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November 2020

Investigating how the modularity of visuospatial attention shapes conscious perception using type I and type II signal detection theory.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2021 Mar 25;47(3):402-422. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Chapman University.

Attention abilities rest on the coordinated interplay of multiple components. One consequence to this multifaceted account is that selection processes likely intersect with perception at various junctures. Drawing from this overarching view, the current research examines how different forms of visuospatial attention influence various aspects of conscious perception, including signal detection, signal discrimination, visual awareness, and metacognition. Read More

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Performance in a gaze-cueing task is associated with autistic traits.

AIMS Neurosci 2021 17;8(1):148-160. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

System Emotional Science, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairments in processing social cues such as facial expressions and gaze direction. Several researchers have proposed that autistic traits form a continuum that may be distributed within the general, typically developed, population. Accordingly, several studies have indicated that typically developed individuals with high levels of self-reported autistic traits have autistic-like performance in a variety of paradigms. Read More

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December 2020

Few Sensory Cues Differentiate Host and Dead-End Trap Plant for the Sugarcane Spotted Borer Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

J Chem Ecol 2021 Feb 16;47(2):153-166. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

CIRAD, UMR PVBMT, F-97410, St Pierre, Réunion, France.

The use of Erianthus arundinaceus as a trap plant in association with sugarcane reduces populations of the spotted sugarcane stalk borer Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). This grass acts as a dead-end trap crop because it is the preferred plant for oviposition relative to sugarcane, and it precludes larval development. We explored the chemical mechanisms involved in host choice by C. Read More

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February 2021

Temporal orienting in Parkinson's disease.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Temporal orienting of attention can affect multiple stages of processing to guide adaptive behaviour. We tested whether temporal expectation in different task contexts is compromised in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In Experiment 1 two temporal-orienting tasks were used: a speeded task emphasizing motor preparation and a non-speeded task emphasizing perceptual discrimination using rapid serial visual presentation. Read More

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January 2021

Orienting auditory attention in time: Lateralized alpha power reflects spatio-temporal filtering.

Neuroimage 2021 03 29;228:117711. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Lübeck, Germany; Center of Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM), University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

The deployment of neural alpha (8-12 Hz) lateralization in service of spatial attention is well-established: Alpha power increases in the cortical hemisphere ipsilateral to the attended hemifield, and decreases in the contralateral hemisphere, respectively. Much less is known about humans' ability to deploy such alpha lateralization in time, and to thus exploit alpha power as a spatio-temporal filter. Here we show that spatially lateralized alpha power does signify - beyond the direction of spatial attention - the distribution of attention in time and thereby qualifies as a spatio-temporal attentional filter. Read More

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Spatiotemporal factors influence sound-source segregation in localization behavior.

J Neurophysiol 2021 02 30;125(2):556-567. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Biophysics, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

To program a goal-directed response in the presence of acoustic reflections, the audio-motor system should suppress the detection of time-delayed sources. We examined the effects of spatial separation and interstimulus delay on the ability of human listeners to localize a pair of broadband sounds in the horizontal plane. Participants indicated how many sounds were heard and where these were perceived by making one or two head-orienting localization responses. Read More

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February 2021

Encoding and control of orientation to airflow by a set of fan-shaped body neurons.

Elife 2020 12 30;9. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, United States.

The insect central complex (CX) is thought to underlie goal-oriented navigation but its functional organization is not fully understood. We recorded from genetically-identified CX cell types in and presented directional visual, olfactory, and airflow cues known to elicit orienting behavior. We found that a group of neurons targeting the ventral fan-shaped body (ventral P-FNs) are robustly tuned for airflow direction. Read More

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December 2020

Sky radiance and spectral gradient are orienting cues for the sandhopper (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

J Exp Biol 2021 Jan 29;224(Pt 2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, Via Romana 17/19, 50125 Firenze, Italy

The sandhopper relies on both the sun and the moon compasses to return to the belt of damp sand on the beach in which it lives buried during the day. In addition to the sun, the gradient of radiance and the spectral distribution across the sky could provide directional information that can potentially use to orient itself during the day even when the sun is not visible (e.g. Read More

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January 2021

Spatial attention modulates earliest visual processing: An electrical neuroimaging study.

Heliyon 2020 Nov 23;6(11):e05570. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Several studies showed that shifting of visuospatial attention modulates sensory processing at multiple levels of the visual pathways and beyond, including the occipital striate cortices level. However, inconsistent findings have been reported thus leaving these issues still disputed. 21 participants took part to the present study (the EEG signals of 4 of them were discarded due to artifacts). Read More

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November 2020

Rheotaxis revisited: a multi-behavioral and multisensory perspective on how fish orient to flow.

J Exp Biol 2020 12 7;223(Pt 23). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

University of Auckland, School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Marine Science, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

Here, we review fish rheotaxis (orientation to flow) with the goal of placing it within a larger behavioral and multisensory context. Rheotaxis is a flexible behavior that is used by fish in a variety of circumstances: to search for upstream sources of current-borne odors, to intercept invertebrate drift and, in general, to conserve energy while preventing downstream displacement. Sensory information available for rheotaxis includes water-motion cues to the lateral line and body-motion cues to visual, vestibular or tactile senses when fish are swept downstream. Read More

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December 2020

Asymmetric practices of reading and writing shape visuospatial attention and discrimination.

Sci Rep 2020 12 3;10(1):21100. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim Do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041, Lisbon, Portugal.

Movement is generally conceived of as unfolding laterally in the writing direction that one is socialized into. In 'Western' languages, this is a left-to-right bias contributing to an imbalance in how attention is distributed across space. We propose that the rightward attentional bias exercises an additional unidirectional influence on discrimination performance thus shaping the congruency effect typically observed in Posner-inspired cueing tasks. Read More

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December 2020

The effects of olfactory bulb removal on single-pellet skilled reaching task in rats.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Feb 15;53(3):827-840. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

We focused on how the rat uses olfactory cues in a single-pellet reaching task, which is composed of three successive learned responses, Orient, Transport, and Withdrawal. Orient comprised: front wall detection, slot localisation, and nose poke until reach start. High-speed video-recording enabled us to describe the temporal features of this sequence in controls vs. Read More

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February 2021

Eating restraint is associated with reduced attentional capture by signals of valuable food reward.

Appetite 2021 04 27;159:105050. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Psychology, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.

Previous paradigms used to examine attentional distraction by task-irrelevant food words and food images were not suited for the investigation of involuntary and automatic attentional capture. In the current experiments we adapted a well-established visual-search paradigm (with eye tracking) to investigate involuntary attentional capture by food and drink rewards. We first used a satiety procedure to manipulate relative preference for different food and drink outcomes (potato chips and water in Experiment 1 and popcorn and chocolate Smarties in Experiment 2). Read More

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Environmental rhythms orchestrate neural activity at multiple stages of processing during memory encoding: Evidence from event-related potentials.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(11):e0234668. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Accumulating evidence suggests that rhythmic temporal structures in the environment influence memory formation. For example, stimuli that appear in synchrony with the beat of background, environmental rhythms are better remembered than stimuli that appear out-of-synchrony with the beat. This rhythmic modulation of memory has been linked to entrained neural oscillations which are proposed to act as a mechanism of selective attention that prioritize processing of events that coincide with the beat. Read More

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December 2020

Evolution of social attentional cues: Evidence from the archerfish.

Cognition 2021 Feb 15;207:104511. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel; The Institute of Information Processing and Decision Making, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel. Electronic address:

Social cues such as gaze, head, and body orientation are essential for the survival of any social animal. The gaze cuing paradigm is a well-studied experimental manipulation, employed to detect automatic attentional shifts in humans. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has tested non-primates in a paradigm that is similar to the one typically used on humans. Read More

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February 2021

Multivariate analysis of EEG activity indexes contingent attentional capture.

Neuroimage 2021 02 12;226:117562. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, USA; Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, USA.

An extensive body of work has shown that attentional capture is contingent on the goals of the observer: Capture is strongly reduced or even eliminated when an irrelevant singleton stimulus does not match the target-defining properties (Folk et al., 1992). There has been a long-standing debate on whether attentional capture can be explained by goal-driven and/or stimulus-driven accounts. Read More

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February 2021

Lateralized alpha activity and slow potential shifts over visual cortex track the time course of both endogenous and exogenous orienting of attention.

Neuroimage 2021 01 24;225:117495. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego 92092, USA; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, USA.

Spatial attention can be oriented endogenously, based on current task goals, or exogenously, triggered by salient events in the environment. Based upon literature demonstrating differences in the time course and neural substrates of each type of orienting, these two attention systems are often treated as fundamentally distinct. However, recent studies suggest that rhythmic neural activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) and slow waves in the event-related potential (ERP) may emerge over parietal-occipital cortex following both endogenous and exogenous attention cues. Read More

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January 2021