9,297 results match your criteria orientation sensitivity


Extended high-frequency hearing and head orientation cues benefit children during speech-in-speech recognition.

Hear Res 2021 Apr 8;406:108230. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign901 S Sixth St, Champaign, IL 61820, United States; Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States.

While the audible frequency range for humans spans approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz, children display enhanced sensitivity relative to adults when detecting extended high frequencies (frequencies above 8 kHz; EHFs), as indicated by better pure tone thresholds. The impact that this increased hearing sensitivity to EHFs may have on children's speech recognition has not been established. One context in which EHF hearing may be particularly important for children is when recognizing speech in the presence of competing talkers. Read More

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Detection of DNA Bases via Field Effect Transistor of Graphene Nanoribbon with a Nanopore: Semi-empirical Modeling.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2021 May 4;PP. Epub 2021 May 4.

DNA sequencing techniques are critical in order to investigate genes' functions. Obtaining fast, accurate, and affordable DNA bases detection makes it possible to acquire personalized medicine. In this article, a semi-empirical technique is used to calculate the electron transport characteristics of the developed z-shaped graphene device to detect the DNA bases. Read More

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A New Practical Decision Rule to Better Differentiate BI-RADS© 3 or 4 Breast Masses on Breast Ultrasound.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Objectives: The BI-RADS© classification provides a standardized way to describe ultrasound findings in breast cancer diagnostics. However, there is little information regarding which BI-RADS© descriptors are most strongly associated with malignancy, to better distinguish BI-RADS© 3 (follow-up imaging) and 4 (diagnostic biopsy) breast masses.

Methods: Patients were recruited as part of an international, multicenter trial (NCT02638935). Read More

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Towards a Fully Automated Scanning Probe Microscope for Biomedical Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK.

The increase in capabilities of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) has resulted in a parallel increase in complexity that limits the use of this technique outside of specialised research laboratories. SPM automation could substantially expand its application domain, improve reproducibility and increase throughput. Here, we present a bottom-up design in which the combination of positioning stages, orientation, and detection of the probe produces an SPM design compatible with full automation. Read More

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Possible Neuroprotective Effects of l-Carnitine on White-Matter Microstructural Damage and Cognitive Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Although l-carnitine alleviated white-matter lesions in an experimental study, the treatment effects of l-carnitine on white-matter microstructural damage and cognitive decline in hemodialysis patients are unknown. Using novel diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques, white-matter microstructural changes together with cognitive decline in hemodialysis patients and the effects of l-carnitine on such disorders were investigated. Fourteen hemodialysis patients underwent dMRI and laboratory and neuropsychological tests, which were compared across seven patients each in two groups according to duration of l-carnitine treatment: (1) no or short-term l-carnitine treatment (NSTLC), and (2) long-term l-carnitine treatment (LTLC). Read More

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A Sensor Designed to Record Underwater Irradiance with Concern for a Shark's Spectral Sensitivity.

Authors:
A Peter Klimley

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

To ascertain how scalloped hammerhead sharks make nightly migrations to their feeding grounds as many as 20 km from their daytime abode, a seamount, a sensor was developed that measured irradiance intensity within the spectral range and sensitivity of the vision of the species. Could the sharks guide their movements by sensing the polarity of irradiation energy radiated from the sun or moon that penetrated into the oceanic depths? Two sensory receptors, cones and rods, are present in the retina of sharks to enable them to see both during daytime and nighttime. The peak sensitivity of the cones is red-shifted due to the presence of these wavelengths during the former period, while their response is linear under the range of the high light levels also present at this time; the peak sensitivity of rods is blue-shifted due to the presence of these wavelengths during dawn, dusk, and nighttime and is linear over the complementary range of low light levels. Read More

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Dilated cardiomyopathy mutations and phosphorylation disrupt the active orientation of cardiac troponin C.

J Mol Biol 2021 Apr 23:167010. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3, Canada. Electronic address:

Cardiac troponin (cTn) is made up of three subunits, cTnC, cTnI, and cTnT. The regulatory N-terminal domain of cTnC (cNTnC) controls cardiac muscle contraction in a calcium-dependent manner. We show that calcium-saturated cNTnC can adopt two different orientations, with the "active" orientation consistent with the 2020 cryo-EM structure of the activated cardiac thin filament by Yamada et al. Read More

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Decline of Orientation and Direction Sensitivity in the Aging Population.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:643414. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

While the aging population is growing, our knowledge regarding age-related deterioration of visual perception remains limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aging on orientation and direction sensitivity in a healthy population using a weighted up-down adaptive method to improve the efficiency and reliability of the task. A total of 57 healthy participants aged 22-72 years were included and divided into old and young groups. Read More

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The importance of moral sensitivity in nursing education: A comparative study.

Nurs Forum 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey.

Background/aim: This study aims to determine the importance of the "Ethics and Deontology in Nursing" course in nursing education for the purpose of revealing the level of moral sensitivity of nursing students.

Materials And Methods: In our research, which is a descriptive study, data were collected from 461 nursing students who studied at the Faculty of Health Sciences. In the study, the Personal Information Form and Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire (MSQ) were used as data collection forms. Read More

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Contrast adaptation and interocular transfer in cortical cells: A re-analysis & a two-stage gain-control model of binocular combination.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 21;185:29-49. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, CF10 3AX, UK.

How do V1 cells respond to, adapt to, and combine signals from the two eyes? We tested a simple functional model that has monocular and binocular stages of divisive contrast gain control (CGC) that sit before, and after, binocular summation respectively. Interocular suppression (IOS) was another potential influence on contrast gain. Howarth, Vorobyov & Sengpiel (2009, Cerebral Cortex, 19, 1835-1843) studied contrast adaptation and interocular transfer in cat V1 cells. Read More

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Applying limiting entropy to quantify the alignment of collagen fibers by polarized light imaging.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 Mar;18(3):2331-2356

Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Collagen alignment has shown clinical significance in a variety of diseases. For instance, vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is characterized by homogenization of collagen fibers with increasing risk of malignant transformation. To date, a variety of imaging techniques have been developed to visualize collagen fibers. Read More

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Directional differences in head stabilisation in Acanthodactylus pardalis lizards.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 9;121:110418. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.

Running inevitably causes the animal trunk to undulate. The consequential head rotations have to be stabilised in space for a steady gaze and an accurate sense of self-motion for balance. The ecology and anatomy of the species determine the necessity to stabilise the head in yaw, pitch, and roll direction. Read More

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The Oppel-Kundt Illusion and Its Relation to Horizontal-Vertical and Oblique Effects.

Authors:
Klaus Landwehr

Perception 2021 Apr 17:3010066211006545. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.

The Oppel-Kundt illusion consists in the overestimation of the length of filled versus empty extents. Two experiments explored its relation to the horizontal-vertical illusion, which consists in the overestimation of the length of vertical versus horizontal extents, and to the oblique effect, which consists in poorer discriminative sensitivity for obliquely as opposed to horizontally or vertically oriented stimuli. For Experiment 1, Kundt's (1863) original stimulus was rotated in steps of 45° full circle around 360°. Read More

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How the Affective Quality of Social Connections May Contribute to Public Health: Prosocial Tendencies Account for the Links Between Positivity Resonance and Behaviors that Reduce the Spread of COVID-19.

Affect Sci 2021 Apr 13:1-21. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 309 Davie Hall, Campus Box 3270, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3720 USA.

Although behaviors such as handwashing, mask wearing, and social distancing are known to limit viral spread, early in the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals in the United States did not adopt them. The positivity resonance theory of co-experienced positive affect (Fredrickson, 2016) holds that shared pleasant states that include the key features of mutual care and a sense of oneness through behavioral synchrony function to build prosocial tendencies (e.g. Read More

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[Evidence-based public health: perspectives and specific implementation factors].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 May 13;64(5):514-523. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (BZgA), Köln, Deutschland.

An evidence-based approach is considered a central requirement in the public health system. Five general principles apply in evidence-based medicine as well as in evidence-based public health (EBPH). These comprise a systematic approach, transparency in relation to uncertainty, integration and participation, management of conflicts of interest, and a structured, reflective process. Read More

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Extreme C-to-A Hypermutation at a Site of Cytosine-N4 Methylation.

Authors:
Joshua L Cherry

mBio 2021 Apr 13;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Methylation of cytosine in DNA at position C5 increases the rate of C→T mutations in bacteria and eukaryotes. Methylation at the N4 position, employed by some restriction-modification systems, is not known to increase the mutation rate. Here, I report that a Type III restriction-modification system that includes a cytosine-N4 methyltransferase causes an enormous increase in the rate of mutation of the methylated cytosines, which occur at the overlined C in the motif CACC̅GT Mutations consist mainly of C→A transversions, the rate of which is increased ∼500-fold by the restriction-modification system. Read More

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Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Optophysiology Nanofibers for the Detection of Heavy Metals in Single Breast Cancer Cells.

ACS Sens 2021 04 13;6(4):1649-1662. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Département de chimie, Centre québécois des matériaux fonctionnels (CQMF) and ⊥Regroupement québécois des matériaux de pointe (RQMP), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada.

Mercury(II) ions (Hg) and silver ions (Ag) are two of the most hazardous pollutants causing serious damage to human health. Here, we constructed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active nanofibers covered with 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy)-modified gold nanoparticles to detect Hg and Ag. Experimental evidence suggests that the observed spectral changes originate from the combined effect of (i) the coordination between the nitrogen on 4-Mpy and the metal ions and (ii) the 4-Mpy molecular orientation (from flatter to more perpendicular with respect to the metal surface). Read More

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Measuring compartmental T-orientational dependence in human brain white matter using a tiltable RF coil and diffusion-T correlation MRI.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 29;236:117967. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

The anisotropy of brain white matter microstructure manifests itself in orientational-dependence of various MRI contrasts, and can result in significant quantification biases if ignored. Understanding the origins of this orientation-dependence could enhance the interpretation of MRI signal changes in development, ageing and disease and ultimately improve clinical diagnosis. Using a novel experimental setup, this work studies the contributions of the intra- and extra-axonal water to the orientation-dependence of one of the most clinically-studied parameters, apparent transverse relaxation T. Read More

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Exploring the Effect of Collective Cultural Attributes on Covid-19-Related Public Health Outcomes.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:627669. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Infections and deaths associated with COVID-19 show a high degree of heterogeneity across different populations. A thorough understanding of population-level predictors of such outcomes is crucial for devising better-targeted and more appropriate public health preparedness measures. While demographic, economic, and health-system capacity have featured prominently in recent work, cultural, and behavioral characteristics have largely been overlooked. Read More

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Additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V thin struts via laser powder bed fusion: Effect of building orientation on geometrical accuracy and mechanical properties.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Mar 27;119:104495. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Industrial Engineering - DII, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Porous metal lattice structures have a very high potential in biomedical applications, setting as innovative new generation prosthetic devices. Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is one of the most widely used additive manufacturing (AM) techniques involved in the production of Ti6Al4V lattice structures. The mechanical and failure behavior of lattice structures is strongly affected by geometrical imperfections and defects occurring during L-PBF process. Read More

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Personalized prescriptions of therapeutic skills from patient characteristics: An ecological momentary assessment approach.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry.

Objective: Rather than relying on a single psychotherapeutic orientation, most clinicians draw from a range of therapeutic approaches to treat their clients. To date, no data-driven approach exists for personalized predictions of which skill domain would be most therapeutically beneficial for a given patient. The present study combined ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and machine learning to test a data-driven approach for predicting patient-specific skill-outcome associations. Read More

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Microsaccadic rate signatures correlate under monocular and binocular stimulation conditions.

J Eye Mov Res 2020 Aug 11;11(4). Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Germany.

Microsaccades are involuntary eye movements occurring naturally during fixation. In this study, microsaccades were investigated under monocularly and binocularly stimulated conditions with respect to their directional distribution and rate signature, that refers to a curve reporting the frequency modulation of microsaccades over time. For monocular stimulation the left eye was covered by an infrared filter. Read More

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Precisely Controlled Vertical Alignment in Mesostructured Carbon Thin Films for Efficient Electrochemical Sensing.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 6;15(4):7713-7721. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

Two-dimensional carbon materials, incorporating a large mesoporosity, are attracting considerable research interest in various fields such as catalysis, electrochemistry, and energy-related technologies owing to their integrated functionalities. However, their potential applications, which require favorable mass transport within mesopore channels, are constrained by the undesirable and finite mesostructural configurations due to the immense synthetic difficulties. Herein, we demonstrate an oriented monomicelle assembly strategy, for the facile fabrication of highly ordered mesoporous carbon thin films with vertically aligned and permeable mesopore channels. Read More

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Meridian-Specific and Post-Optical Deficits of Spatial Vision in Human Astigmatism: Evidences From Psycho-Physical and EEG Scalings.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:595536. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Previous studies have demonstrated that orientation-specific deprivation in early life can lead to neural deficits of spatial vision in certain space, and can even result in meridional amblyopia (MA). Individuals with astigmatism are the optimal and natural models for exploring this asymmetric development of spatial vision in the human visual system. This study aims to assess the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and EEG signals along two principal meridians in participants with regular astigmatism when being optimal optical corrected. Read More

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The peripheral sensitivity profile at the saccade target reshapes during saccade preparation.

Cortex 2021 Mar 4;139:12-26. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Psychologie, Berlin, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Goal-directed eye movements (saccades) bring peripheral objects of interest into high-acuity foveal vision. In preparation for the incoming foveal image, the perception of the saccade target may sharpen gradually before the eye movement is executed. Indeed, previous studies suggest that pre-saccadic attention shifts enhance sensitivity to high spatial frequencies (SFs) more than sensitivity to lower SFs. Read More

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A Label-Free Liquid Crystal Biosensor Based on Specific DNA Aptamer Probes for Sensitive Detection of Amoxicillin Antibiotic.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;12(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Chemistry, Gachon University, Seongnam-daero 1342, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13120, Korea.

We developed a liquid crystal (LC) aptamer biosensor for the sensitive detection of amoxicillin (AMX). The AMX aptamer was immobilized onto the surface of a glass slide modified with a mixed self-assembled layer of dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride (DMOAP) and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES). The long alkyl chains of DMOAP maintained the LC molecules in a homeotropic orientation and induced a dark optical appearance under a polarized light microscope (POM). Read More

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Frequency Domain Analysis of Partial-Tensor Rotating Accelerometer Gravity Gradiometer.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Linyi University, Linyi 276000, China.

The output model of a rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer (RAGG) established by the inertial dynamics method cannot reflect the change of signal frequency, and calibration sensitivity and self-gradient compensation effect for the RAGG is a very important stage in the development process that cannot be omitted. In this study, a model based on the outputs of accelerometers on the disc of RGAA is established to calculate the gravity gradient corresponding to the distance, through the study of the RAGG output influenced by a surrounding mass in the frequency domain. Taking particle, sphere, and cuboid as examples, the input-output models of gravity gradiometer are established based on the center gradient and four accelerometers, respectively. Read More

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Brain Development From Newborn to Adolescence: Evaluation by Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 15;15:616132. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a diffusion model specifically designed for brain magnetic resonance imaging. Despite recent studies suggesting that NODDI modeling might be more sensitive to brain development than diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), these studies were limited to a relatively small age range and mainly based on the manually operated region of interest analysis. Therefore, this study applied NODDI to investigate brain development in a large sample size of 214 subjects ranging in ages from 0 to 14. Read More

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Van der Waals interaction affects wrinkle formation in two-dimensional materials.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester, United Kingdom;

Nonlinear mechanics of solids is an exciting field that encompasses both beautiful mathematics, such as the emergence of instabilities and the formation of complex patterns, as well as multiple applications. Two-dimensional crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures allow revisiting this field on the atomic level, allowing much finer control over the parameters and offering atomistic interpretation of experimental observations. In this work, we consider the formation of instabilities consisting of radially oriented wrinkles around mono- and few-layer "bubbles" in two-dimensional vdW heterostructures. Read More

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Detection of magnetic tracers with M atomic magnetometer for application to blood velocimetry.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7156. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

In the new generation of blood velocimeter systems, considerable attention has been paid to atomic magnetometers due to their high resolution and high sensitivity for detection of magnetic tracers. Passing the magnetic tracers adjacent to the atomic magnetometer produces a spike-like signal, the shape of which depends on the position of the tracer, as well as its velocity and orientation. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of abrupt variations in the instantaneous velocity of the magnetic tracer on the magnetometer response compare to constant velocity. Read More

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