9,206 results match your criteria orientation discrimination

Pre-saccadic attention spreads to stimuli forming a perceptual group with the saccade target.

Cortex 2021 Apr 15;140:179-198. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; Exzellenzcluster Science of Intelligence, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The pre-saccadic attention shift-a rapid increase in visual sensitivity at the target-is an inevitable precursor of saccadic eye movements. Saccade targets are often parts of the objects that are of interest to the active observer. Although the link between saccades and covert attention shifts is well established, it remains unclear if pre-saccadic attention selects the location of the eye movement target or rather the entire object that occupies this location. Read More

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Intersections of Racial Discrimination and LGB Victimization for Mental Health: A Prospective Study of Sexual Minority Youth of Color.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, SEA 2.444 108 E. Dean Keeton St., Stop A2702, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

Sexual minority youth (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; LGB) of color have multiple minoritized identities, and few studies examine the implications of intersectional minority stressors for their prospective mental health. Read More

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Intact tactile anisotropy despite altered hand perception in complex regional pain syndrome: rethinking the role of the primary sensory cortex in tactile and perceptual dysfunction.

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e11156. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroscience Research Australia, NEURA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by pain, autonomic, sensory and motor abnormalities. It is associated with changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 representation), reductions in tactile sensitivity (tested by two-point discrimination), and alterations in perceived hand size or shape (hand perception). The frequent co-occurrence of these three phenomena has led to the assumption that S1 changes underlie tactile sensitivity and perceptual disturbances. Read More

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Sexual and Gender Minority Health Care Disparities: Barriers to Care and Strategies to Bridge the Gap.

Prim Care 2021 Jun 22;48(2):179-189. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, 940 Belmont Street, Brockton, MA 02310, USA.

Gender and sexual minority individuals face considerable physical and mental health disparities, health risk factors, and barriers to care. These disparities are rooted in systemic and interpersonal prejudice, discrimination, and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other (LGBTQ+) individuals and communities that place LGBTQ+ individuals at increased risk for negative social determinants of health. While also advocating for systemic change, individual providers and clinics have an ethical duty to promote an openly affirming, culturally competent health care environment that can help to address these disparities on an individual patient level. Read More

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Global Prevalence and Impact of Hostility, Discrimination, and Harassment in the Cardiology Workplace.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(19):2398-2409

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Discrimination and emotional and sexual harassment create a hostile work environment (HWE). The global prevalence of HWE in cardiology is unknown, as is its impact.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate emotional harassment, discrimination, and sexual harassment experienced by cardiologists and its impact on professional satisfaction and patient interactions worldwide. Read More

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Beyond the axes of inequality: Religion, race, and everything in between.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):217-235

School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.

This study examined the mental health outcomes of a diverse group of 549 individuals experiencing discrimination based on their multiple subordinate identities: ethnicity/race, religion, nativity, and sexual orientation. Applying an intersectionality framework, the findings provide an understanding of the impact of discrimination and racism on minority groups' mental health within the heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) context. Significant differences were found on levels of discrimination and racism across ethnic, racial, sexual, and gender minority groups, particularly among Muslim/Jewish, Arab/African, male, and foreign-born participants. Read More

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January 2021

Implicit racism, colour blindness, and narrow definitions of discrimination: Why some White people prefer 'All Lives Matter' to 'Black Lives Matter'.

Br J Soc Psychol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

KU Leuven, Belgium.

The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement has been called the 'civil rights issue of our time' (Holt & Sweitzer, 2020, Self and Identity, 19(, p. 16) but the All Lives Matter (ALM) movement swiftly emerged as an oppositional response to BLM. Prior research has investigated some predictors of support for ALM over BLM, but these predictors have thus far not included levels of racial bias or potentially relevant constructions of racism. Read More

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(De)Politicizing Polyamory: Social Media Comments on Media Representations of Consensual Non-Monogamies.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

NOVA School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Lisbon, Portugal.

Our research sits at the intersection of communication studies, sociology, cyberculture, and political philosophy and theory. In 2014, a 10+-min segment on polyamory aired on Portuguese open-access national television, during the prime-time newscast, and was viewed by several million people, according to official reports. The news piece was also advertised and shared online, especially via Facebook, by the network's official page. Read More

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BetAware-Deep: An Accurate Web Server for Discrimination and Topology Prediction of Prokaryotic Transmembrane β-barrel Proteins.

J Mol Biol 2021 May 3;433(11):166729. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Biocomputing Group, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Italy; Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies, National Research Council (CNR), Bari, Italy.

TransMembrane β-Barrel (TMBB) proteins located in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria are crucial for many important biological processes and primary candidates as drug targets. Structure determination of TMBB proteins is challenging and hence computational methods devised for the analysis of TMBB proteins are important for complementing experimental approaches. Here, we present a novel web server called BetAware-Deep that is able to accurately identify the topology of TMBB proteins (i. Read More

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The effects of COVID-19 on perceived intergroup competition and negative intergroup outcomes.

J Soc Psychol 2021 May 7:1-16. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Rochester.

This research examined the effects of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived Black-White intergroup competition and negative intergroup psychological outcomes. Two datasets (collected before [2018] and after the onset of [April, 2020] COVID-19) were combined ( = 2,131) for this research. The data provided support for the hypothesis that perceptions of Black-White intergroup competition, and subsequently perceptions of discrimination, behavioral avoidance, intergroup anxiety, and interracial mistrust would be higher after the onset of COVID-19. Read More

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Influence of Stress, Gender, and Minority Status on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Hispanic/Latino Community: Protocol for a Longitudinal Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 6;10(5):e28997. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Background: Hispanic/Latino sexual and gender minorities (SGM) are the fastest growing ethnic group of SGM in the United States. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Hispanics/Latinos. SGM inequities in CVD risk have been identified as early as young adulthood, and minority stress has been identified as a potential mediator. Read More

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Microaggressions towards lesbian and transgender women: Biased information gathering when working alongside gender and sexual minorities.

J Clin Psychol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Milano - Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Microaggressions, a concept originally introduced for ethnic minorities, represent subtle day-to-day discrimination, damaging the psychological health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals as well. This study aimed to assess whether microaggressions occur in psychotherapists' assessments of clients who identify as either lesbian or transgender woman when compared with those identifying as heterosexual woman.

Methods: The study included a sample of 135 licensed psychotherapists (110 cisgender women and 25 cisgender men). Read More

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The Impact of Shape-Based Cue Discriminability on Attentional Performance.

Vision (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;5(2). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

With rapidly developing technology, visual cues became a powerful tool for deliberate guiding of attention and affecting human performance. Using cues to manipulate attention introduces a trade-off between increased performance in cued, and decreased in not cued, locations. For higher efficacy of visual cues designed to purposely direct user's attention, it is important to know how manipulation of cue properties affects attention. Read More

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Intersectional minority stress and identity conflict among sexual and gender minority people of color assigned female at birth.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati.

Sexual and gender minority people of color (SGM-POC) experience intersectional forms of minority stress, including heterosexism within racial/ethnic minority communities, which can contribute to feelings of conflict between SGM and racial/ethnic identities. Internalized stigma may be a consequence of sexual orientation-based discrimination but has not been tested as a mechanism linking intersectional minority stress to identity conflict among SGM-POC. We hypothesized that the association between experiences of heterosexism in racial/ethnic minority communities and identity conflict would be mediated by internalized stigma among SGM assigned female at birth (SGM-AFAB). Read More

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Initial Clinical Needs Among Transgender and Non-binary Individuals in a Large, Urban Gender Health Program.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Transgender and gender-diverse individuals are particularly vulnerable to healthcare discrimination and related health sequelae.

Objective: To demonstrate diversity in demographics and explore variance in needs at the time of intake among patients seeking care at a large, urban gender health program.

Design: We present summary statistics of patient demographics, medical histories, and gender-affirming care needs stratified by gender identity and sexual orientation. Read More

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Decline of Orientation and Direction Sensitivity in the Aging Population.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:643414. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

While the aging population is growing, our knowledge regarding age-related deterioration of visual perception remains limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aging on orientation and direction sensitivity in a healthy population using a weighted up-down adaptive method to improve the efficiency and reliability of the task. A total of 57 healthy participants aged 22-72 years were included and divided into old and young groups. Read More

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"It is not an acceptable disease": A qualitative study of HIV-related stigma and discrimination and impacts on health and wellbeing for people from ethnically diverse backgrounds in Australia.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 23;21(1):779. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: People from ethnically diverse backgrounds living with HIV are susceptible to adverse health and wellbeing outcomes, particularly as a consequence of HIV-related stigma and discrimination (HSD), though relatively little is known about experiences in Australia.

Methods: This paper reports on HSD in ethnically diverse communities in South Australia and impacts on health and wellbeing. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 10 individuals living with HIV from ethnically diverse backgrounds, 14 ethnically diverse community leaders, and 50 service providers. Read More

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Discriminatory Behavior in Nursing Persist Regardless Antidiscriminatory Legislation.

Policy Polit Nurs Pract 2021 Apr 22:15271544211011942. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Health Research Ethics Committee, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Discriminatory behavior seems to persist in nursing in South Africa despite the presence of antidiscriminatory legislation. Little is known on the views of nurses on discrimination related to their basic rights in the workplace. The objective of this article is to report findings of discriminatory behavior among nurses regarding race, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, and marital status. Read More

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Customer and Worker Discrimination against Gay and Lesbian Business Owners: A Web-Based Experiment among Students in Sweden.

J Homosex 2021 Apr 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnæus University, Växjö, Sweden.

We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants ( = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Read More

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Small-Molecule Tunnels in Metalloenzymes Viewed as Extensions of the Active Site.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 22;54(9):2185-2195. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55391, United States.

ConspectusRigorous substrate selectivity is a hallmark of enzyme catalysis. This selectivity is generally ascribed to a thermodynamically favorable process of substrate binding to the enzyme active site based upon complementary physiochemical characteristics, which allows both acquisition and orientation. However, this chemical selectivity is more difficult to rationalize for diminutive molecules that possess too narrow a range of physical characteristics to allow either precise positioning or discrimination between a substrate and an inhibitor. Read More

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"It's Being Compassionate, Not Making Assumptions": Transmasculine and Nonbinary Young Adults' Experiences of "Women's" Health Care Settings.

Womens Health Issues 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Sexual Health and Reproductive Equity Program, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Background: Transgender and nonbinary (TNB) individuals assigned female sex at birth experience discrimination, misgendering, problems with insurance, and denial of services when accessing health care. This study aimed to understand the experiences of TNB young adults in accessing "women's" health care-a form of care that is structurally gendered that few studies have investigated.

Methods: In 2015, we conducted in-depth interviews with 20 TNB young (ages 18-29) adults assigned female sex at birth. Read More

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Gender Identities in Organized Sports-Athletes' Experiences and Organizational Strategies of Inclusion.

Front Sociol 2020 29;5:578213. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Institute of Sociology and Gender Studies, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

In relation to conceptualizing sports, beliefs about sex binary and male hegemony are dominant. To match these assumptions and provide level playing fields, sport systems are based on sex-segregation. Thus, people who do not fit into or reject fitting into sex categories are hindered from participating in sports, particularly organized sports. Read More

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October 2020

Moderate-to-Severe Tobacco Use Disorder and Discrimination among U.S. Sexual Minority Older Adults.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Center for the Study of Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking and Health, Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Objectives: The dearth of research on age-related differences in risk factors for tobacco use disorder (TUD) among sexual minorities, particularly among older adults, can obscure the differential needs of sexual minority age groups for tobacco prevention and cessation. We examined the association of cumulative ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual orientation discrimination with moderate-to-severe TUD among U.S. Read More

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Case Report: Doubts and Pre-occupations About Being Transgender: Questioning One's Gender Identity or a Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:644114. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney Medical School, Nepean Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

We report the case of a biological female with gender identity-related doubts that were misconstrued as suggesting obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient's parent seemed to favor an OCD explanation for the gender-based self-questioning over acceptance of possible transgender identity. We discuss what OCD is and what it is not in the context of gender identity-based doubt; analogy with the better studied sexual orientation-related OCD; cultural flashpoints around sex and gender that can become the object of OCD; how confusion about biological sex, assigned gender and gender identity can lead to clinical harm; and the role of mental health professionals in fighting the stigma faced by gender minorities. Read More

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High-precision coding in visual cortex.

Cell 2021 May 14;184(10):2767-2778.e15. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

HHMI Janelia Research Campus, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. Electronic address:

Individual neurons in visual cortex provide the brain with unreliable estimates of visual features. It is not known whether the single-neuron variability is correlated across large neural populations, thus impairing the global encoding of stimuli. We recorded simultaneously from up to 50,000 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) and in higher order visual areas and measured stimulus discrimination thresholds of 0. Read More

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The Sexual Risk Behaviors Scale (SRBS): Development & Validation in a University Student Sample in the UK.

Eval Health Prof 2021 Jun 15;44(2):152-160. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, 6122Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom.

University students are at risk of poor sexual health outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Sexual Risk Behaviors Scale (SRBS), a novel short tool for measuring engagement in sexual risk behaviors in university students. We developed a pool of six items based on a review of recent literature and tested its properties in 547 undergraduate students in the United Kingdom. Read More

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Spatial integration during active tactile sensation drives orientation perception.

Neuron 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; The Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Active haptic sensation is critical for object identification, but its neural circuit basis is poorly understood. We combined optogenetics, two-photon imaging, and high-speed behavioral tracking in mice solving a whisker-based object orientation discrimination task. We found that orientation discrimination required animals to summate input from multiple whiskers specifically along the whisker arc. Read More

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