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Gold-Cage Perovskites: A Three-Dimensional Au-X Framework Encasing Isolated MX Octahedra (M = In, Sb, Bi; X = Cl, Br, I).

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

The CsAuMX (M = In, Sb, Bi; X = Cl, Br, I) perovskites are composed of corner-sharing Au-X octahedra that trace the edges of a cube containing an isolated M-X octahedron at its body center. This structure, unique within the halide perovskite family, may be derived from the doubled cubic perovskite unit cell by removing the metals at the cube faces. To our knowledge, these are the only halide perovskites where the octahedral sites do not bear an average 2+ charge. Read More

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Preparation of Monolithic Silica and Polymer Capillary Columns with Ultrahigh Column Efficiencies and Comparisons between van Deemter Plots of Alkylbenzenes on These Two Kinds of Columns.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 306 Zhaowuda Road, Saihan District, Hohhot 010018, China.

Monolithic silica and polymer capillary columns with ultrahigh column efficiencies were prepared. Permeability and electrochromatography performances of these two kinds of columns were compared. Monolithic silica columns bear higher permeability than polymer counterparts by two orders of magnitude. Read More

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Band-Order Anomaly at the γ-AlO/SrTiO Interface Drives the Electron-Mobility Boost.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 4;15(3):4347-4356. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.

The rich functionalities of transition-metal oxides and their interfaces bear an enormous technological potential. Its realization in practical devices requires, however, a significant improvement of yet relatively low electron mobility in oxide materials. Recently, a mobility boost of about 2 orders of magnitude has been demonstrated at the spinel-perovskite γ-AlO/SrTiO interface compared to the paradigm perovskite-perovskite LaAlO/SrTiO interface. Read More

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Total Synthesis of Stelletins through an Unconventional Annulation Strategy.

Acc Chem Res 2021 04 26;54(7):1597-1609. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Roger Adams Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

Marine ecosystems present the largest source of biodiversity on the planet and an immense reservoir of novel chemical entities. Sessile marine organisms such as sponges produce a wide range of complex secondary metabolites, many of these with potent biological activity engineered for chemical defense. That such compounds exert dynamic effects outside of their native context is perhaps not surprising, and the realm of marine natural products has attracted considerable attention as a largely untapped repository of potential candidates for drug development. Read More

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An 'omics approach to investigate the growth effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of guanylurea exposure on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 29;232:105761. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Faculty of Science, Ontario Tech University, 2000 Simcoe St.N., Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4, Canada.

Metformin is a widely prescribed pharmaceutical used in the treatment of numerous human health disorders, including Type 2 Diabetes, and as a results of its widespread use, metformin is thought to be the most prevalent pharmaceutical in the aquatic environment by weight. The removal of metformin during the water treatment process is directly related to the formation of its primary degradation product, guanylurea, generally present at higher concentrations in surface waters relative to metformin. Growth effects observed in 28-day early life stage (ELS) Japanese medaka exposed to guanylurea were found to be similar to growth effects in 28-day ELS medaka exposed to metformin; however, effect concentrations were orders of magnitude below those of metformin. Read More

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January 2021

Systemic paralogy and function of retinal determination network homologs in arachnids.

BMC Genomics 2020 Nov 23;21(1):811. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: Arachnids are important components of cave ecosystems and display many examples of troglomorphisms, such as blindness, depigmentation, and elongate appendages. Little is known about how the eyes of arachnids are specified genetically, let alone the mechanisms for eye reduction and loss in troglomorphic arachnids. Additionally, duplication of Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) homologs in spiders has convoluted functional inferences extrapolated from single-copy homologs in pancrustacean models. Read More

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November 2020

Genomic resources and toolkits for developmental study of whip spiders (Amblypygi) provide insights into arachnid genome evolution and antenniform leg patterning.

Evodevo 2020 28;11:18. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Background: The resurgence of interest in the comparative developmental study of chelicerates has led to important insights, such as the discovery of a genome duplication shared by spiders and scorpions, inferred to have occurred in the most recent common ancestor of Arachnopulmonata (a clade comprising the five arachnid orders that bear book lungs). Nonetheless, several arachnid groups remain understudied in the context of development and genomics, such as the order Amblypygi (whip spiders). The phylogenetic position of Amblypygi in Arachnopulmonata posits them as an interesting group to test the incidence of the proposed genome duplication in the common ancestor of Arachnopulmonata, as well as the degree of retention of duplicates over 450 Myr. Read More

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Performance of spatial capture-recapture models with repurposed data: Assessing estimator robustness for retrospective applications.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(8):e0236978. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Boone and Crockett Quantitative Wildlife Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America.

Advancements in statistical ecology offer the opportunity to gain further inferences from existing data with minimal financial cost. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models extend traditional capture-recapture models to incorporate spatial position of capture and enable direct estimation of animal densities across a region of interest. The additional inferences provided are both ecologically interesting and valuable for decision making, which has resulted in traditional capture-recapture data being repurposed using SCR. Read More

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October 2020

High-Efficiency Cellular Reprogramming by Nanoscale Puncturing.

Nano Lett 2020 07 17;20(7):5473-5481. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bear great potential for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine; however, the wide adoption of iPSC for clinically relevant applications has been hindered by the extremely low reprogramming efficiency. Here, we describe a high-efficiency cellular reprogramming strategy by puncturing cells with an array of diamond nanoneedles, which is applied to temporally disrupt the cell membrane in a reversible and minimally invasive format. This method enables high-efficiency cytoplasmic delivery of mini-intronic plasmid vectors to initiate the conversion of human fibroblast cells to either primed iPSCs or naı̈ve iPSCs. Read More

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Vexing, Veiled, and Inequitable: Social Distancing and the "Rights" Divide in the Age of COVID-19.

Am J Bioeth 2020 07 19;20(7):55-61. Epub 2020 May 19.

Mailman School of Public Health.

Although unprecedented in scope and beyond all our life experiences, sweeping social distancing measures are not without historical precedent. Historically, racism, stigma, and discrimination resulted in grossly inequitable application of disease containment measures. But history also provides examples in which broad measures enjoyed remarkable public support. Read More

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Comment on "Shallow-water soliton dynamics beyond the Korteweg-de Vries equation".

Authors:
G I Burde

Phys Rev E 2020 Mar;101(3-2):036201

The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, 84990, Israel.

The authors of the paper "Shallow-water soliton dynamics beyond the Korteweg-de Vries equation" [1] write that they derived a new nonlinear equation describing shallow water gravity waves for an uneven bottom in the form of the higher (fifth)-order Korteweg-de Vries equation for surface elevation. The equation has been obtained by applying a perturbation method [2] for specific relations between the orders of the three small parameters of the problem α=O(β) and δ=O(β) up to the second order in β. In this comment, it is shown that the derivation presented in [1] is inconsistent because of an oversight concerning the orders of terms in equations of the Boussinesq system. Read More

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Phylomitogenomic analyses on collembolan higher taxa with enhanced taxon sampling and discussion on method selection.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(4):e0230827. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Environmental Management, School of Applied and Biomedical Science, Federation University, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

Collembola are a basal group of Hexapoda renowned for both unique morphological characters and significant ecological roles. However, a robust and plausible phylogenetic relationship between its deeply divergent lineages has yet to be achieved. We carried out a mitophylogenomic study based on a so far the most comprehensive mitochondrial genome dataset. Read More

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Trade-off between environmental benefits and time costs for public bicycles: An empirical analysis using streaming data in China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 21;715:136847. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China; Center for Energy & Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

In recent years, bicycle sharing has become more popular in cities and towns around the world. Public bicycles are one of the important forms of bicycle sharing. The use of public bicycles instead of motor vehicles has brought about changes in environmental benefits for the society, and at the same time, it has also changed the travel time of residents. Read More

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Developmental gene expression as a phylogenetic data class: support for the monophyly of Arachnopulmonata.

Dev Genes Evol 2020 03 11;230(2):137-153. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Despite application of genome-scale datasets, the phylogenetic placement of scorpions within arachnids remains contentious between two different phylogenetic data classes. Paleontologists continue to recover scorpions in a basally branching position, partly owing to their morphological similarity to extinct marine orders like Eurypterida (sea scorpions). Phylogenomic datasets consistently recover scorpions in a derived position, as the sister group of Tetrapulmonata (a clade of arachnids that includes spiders). Read More

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A critical review about neurotoxic effects in marine mammals of mercury and other trace elements.

Chemosphere 2020 May 18;246:125688. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Area of Toxicology, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain; Toxicology and Risk Assessment Group, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Marine mammals are more exposed to mercury (Hg) than any others animals in the world. As many trace elements, Hg it is able to impair the brain function, which could be a cause of population decline. Nevertheless, these issues have been scarcely studied because of the technical and ethical difficulties. Read More

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Why DCD Donors Are Dead.

Authors:
John P Lizza

J Med Philos 2020 01;45(1):42-60

Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Kutztown, Pennsylvania, USA.

Critics of organ donation after circulatory death (DCD) argue that, even if donors are past the point of autoresuscitation, they have not satisfied the "irreversibility" requirement in the circulatory and respiratory criteria for determining death, since their circulation and respiration could be artificially restored. Thus, removing their vital organs violates the "dead-donor" rule. I defend DCD donation against this criticism. Read More

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January 2020

Impact of water on the BrO + HO gas-phase reaction: mechanism, kinetics and products.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Sep;21(36):20296-20307

School of Life Science, Shandong University, Binhai Road 72, Qingdao 266237, China.

The BrO + HO2 reaction, which participates in the cycle of ozone removal via BrOH formation, was explored both in the absence and in the presence of water using ab initio calculations. Two main sets of products, (i) HBr + O3 and (ii) BrOH + O2, are formed regardless of the presence of water, following a hydrogen abstraction mechanism. The HBr + O3 products are formed from the intermediate BrOOOH adduct, whereas BrOH + O2 are formed either from the intermediate OBrOOH adduct or via a barrierless hydrogen transfer from HO2 to BrO. Read More

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September 2019

Widespread male sex bias in mammal fossil and museum collections.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 3;116(38):19019-19024. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia;

A recent study of mammoth subfossil remains has demonstrated the potential of using relatively low-coverage high-throughput DNA sequencing to genetically sex specimens, revealing a strong male-biased sex ratio [P. Pečnerová et al., 27, 3505-3510. Read More

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September 2019

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of perfluoroalkyl acids and precursors in East Greenland polar bears and their ringed seal prey.

Environ Pollut 2019 Sep 11;252(Pt B):1335-1343. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada and the Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of 22 major perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were investigated in tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their major prey species, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), from the Scoresby Sound region of East Greenland. In polar bear liver the mean ΣPFSA (perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid) concentration (C, C, C and C) was 2611 ± 202 ng/g wet weight (ww; 99% perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and two orders of magnitude higher than the 20 ± 3 ng/g ww (89% PFOS) concentration in fat. The mean ΣPFSAs in seal liver was 111 ± 5 ng/g ww (98% PFOS) and three orders of magnitude higher relative to the 0. Read More

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September 2019

Bioinspired Variable Stiffness Dielectric Elastomer Actuators with Large and Tunable Load Capacity.

Soft Robot 2019 10 6;6(5):631-643. Epub 2019 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

This article proposes a bioinspired variable stiffness dielectric elastomer actuator (VSDEA) that is inspired by the leaf habit of monocots. The VSDEA is a fully flexible strip with a curved cross section and a tip dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES). An arc fixture is used to clamp the strip that imitates the connection mode between the leaf and the cylindrical stem of the monocot. Read More

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October 2019

A graph-based genetic algorithm and generative model/Monte Carlo tree search for the exploration of chemical space.

Authors:
Jan H Jensen

Chem Sci 2019 Mar 11;10(12):3567-3572. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Chemistry , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark . Email: ; http://www.twitter.com/janhjensen.

This paper presents a comparison of a graph-based genetic algorithm (GB-GA) and machine learning (ML) results for the optimization of log  values with a constraint for synthetic accessibility and shows that the GA is as good as or better than the ML approaches for this particular property. The molecules found by the GB-GA bear little resemblance to the molecules used to construct the initial mating pool, indicating that the GB-GA approach can traverse a relatively large distance in chemical space using relatively few (50) generations. The paper also introduces a new non-ML graph-based generative model (GB-GM) that can be parameterized using very small data sets and combined with a Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) algorithm. Read More

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Extraordinary optical fields in nanostructures: from sub-diffraction-limited optics to sensing and energy conversion.

Chem Soc Rev 2019 Apr;48(8):2458-2494

State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano-Fabrication and Micro-Engineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610209, China.

Along with the rapid development of micro/nanofabrication technology, the past few decades have seen the flourishing emergence of subwavelength-structured materials and interfaces for optical field engineering at the nanoscale. Three remarkable properties associated with these subwavelength-structured materials are the squeezed optical fields beyond the diffraction limit, gradient optical fields in the subwavelength scale, and enhanced optical fields that are orders of magnitude greater than the incident field. These engineered optical fields have inspired fundamental and practical advances in both engineering optics and modern chemistry. Read More

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Evidence of avian-mediated long distance dispersal in American tardigrades.

PeerJ 2018 4;6:e5035. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Mid America Parasitology Services, LLC, Juniata, NE, United States of America.

Terrestrial tardigrades, commonly known as "water bears", are part of a phylum of microscopic, aquatic invertebrates famous for cryptobiosis and space travel, but little is known about their modes of dispersal on Earth. Wind is assumed, but not truly demonstrated, to be the major method of global dispersal. Yet, some water bear distribution patterns cannot be explained by patterns of prevailing winds. Read More

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Role of Seroalbumin in the Cytotoxicity of cis-Dichloro Pt(II) Complexes with (N^N)-Donor Ligands Bearing Functionalized Tails.

Inorg Chem 2018 May 3;57(10):6124-6134. Epub 2018 May 3.

Departamento de Química , Universidad de Burgos , Plaza Misael Bañuelos s/n , 09001 Burgos , Spain.

Given the potent anticancer properties of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and knowing its mode of action, we synthesized four new cis-[PtCl(N^N)] organoplatinum complexes, two with N-substituted pbi ligands (pbiR = 1-R-2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole) (namely, 1 and 2) and two more with 4,4'-disubstituted bpy ligands (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) (namely, 3 and 4). We explored their cytotoxicity and ability to bind to deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP), DNA, and albumin models. By H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, circular dichroism, agarose gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry measurements, and density functional theory calculations, we verified that only 3 can form aquacomplex species after dimethyl sulfoxide solvation; surprisingly, 1, 2, and 3 can bind covalently to DNA, whereas 4 can form a noncovalent complex. Read More

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Scalable and Automated Fabrication of Conductive Tough-Hydrogel Microfibers with Ultrastretchability, 3D Printability, and Stress Sensitivity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Apr 21;10(13):11204-11212. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

HKU-Zhejiang Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-ZIRI) , Hangzhou 310000 , Zhejiang , China.

Creating complex three-dimensional structures from soft yet durable materials enables advances in fields such as flexible electronics, regenerating tissue engineering, and soft robotics. Tough hydrogels that mimic the human skin can bear enormous mechanical loads. By employing a spider-inspired biomimetic microfluidic nozzle, we successfully achieve continuous printing of tough hydrogels into fibers, two-dimensional networks, and even three-dimensional structures without compromising their extreme mechanical properties. Read More

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Bamboo Specialists from Two Mammalian Orders (Primates, Carnivora) Share a High Number of Low-Abundance Gut Microbes.

Microb Ecol 2018 Jul 29;76(1):272-284. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Bamboo specialization is one of the most extreme examples of convergent herbivory, yet it is unclear how this specific high-fiber diet might selectively shape the composition of the gut microbiome compared to host phylogeny. To address these questions, we used deep sequencing to investigate the nature and comparative impact of phylogenetic and dietary selection for specific gut microbial membership in three bamboo specialists-the bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus, Primates: Lemuridae), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Carnivora: Ursidae), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, Carnivora: Musteloideadae), as well as two phylogenetic controls-the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus). We detected significantly higher Shannon diversity in the bamboo lemur (10. Read More

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Improving admission medication reconciliation with pharmacists or pharmacy technicians in the emergency department: a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Qual Saf 2018 07 6;27(7):512-520. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Admission medication history (AMH) errors frequently cause medication order errors and patient harm.

Objective: To quantify AMH error reduction achieved when pharmacy staff obtain AMHs before admission medication orders (AMO) are placed.

Methods: This was a three-arm randomised controlled trial of 306 inpatients. Read More

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"Polymultivalent" Polymer-Peptide Cluster Conjugates for an Enhanced Targeting of Cells Expressing αβ Integrins.

Bioconjug Chem 2017 09 21;28(9):2241-2245. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1 , INSA de Lyon, CNRS, Laboratoire Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, UMR5223, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France.

A new class of "polymultivalent" ligands combining several ligand clusters and a water-soluble biocompatible polymer is introduced. These original conjugates bear two levels of multivalency. They are prepared by covalent coupling of a controlled number of tetrameric cRGD peptide clusters along a well-defined copolymer synthesized by RAFT polymerization. Read More

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September 2017

Equivalence of the Floquet-Magnus and Fer Expansions to Investigate the Dynamics of a Spin System in the Three-Level System.

J Phys Chem A 2017 Aug 2;121(32):6063-6078. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Ph.D. Program in Physics and Ph.D. Program in Chemistry, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York , 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016, United States.

In this work, we investigated the orders to which the Floquet-Magnus expansion (FME) and Fer expansion (FE) are equivalent or different for the three-level system. Specifically, we performed the third-order calculations of both approaches based on elegant integrations formalism. We present an important close relationship between the Floquet-Magnus and Fer expansions. Read More

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Opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions: from the perspectives of evidence based on randomized controlled trials and clinical risk management.

J Pain Res 2017 24;10:1225-1239. Epub 2017 May 24.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Multimorbidity results in complex polypharmacy which may bear a risk of drug interactions. A better understanding of opioid analgesics combination therapy used for pain management could help warrant medication safety, efficacy, and economic relevance. Until now there has been no review summarizing the opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions from the perspective of evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Read More

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