7,004 results match your criteria oral antipsychotics


Design of long acting invasomal nanovesicles for improved transdermal permeation and bioavailability of asenapine maleate for the chronic treatment of schizophrenia.

Int J Pharm 2021 Sep 7:121080. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Asenapine Maleate (ASPM) is a second generation antipsychotic used for the management of schizophrenia but with very limited oral bioavailability due to its extensive first pass metabolism. Transdermal administration of ASPM using nanocarriers like invasomes might offer an excellent alternative to its oral administration with enhanced bioavailability and a sustained action. ASPM-loaded invasomes were successfully prepared by thin film hydration technique; meanwhile the penetration enhancing effect of terpenes (cineole and limonene) was compared to hydromiscible cosolvent (Transcutol®). Read More

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September 2021

Long-term oral blonanserin treatment for schizophrenia: a review of Japanese long-term studies.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2021 Sep 7;20(1):41. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

In general, the course of schizophrenia is chronic accompanied not only by positive and negative symptoms but also by cognitive dysfunction associated with psychosocial disability, and thus treatment combining antipsychotics and psychological therapy is considered promising. This review focused on two prospective, open-label, multicenter, phase 3 long-term studies for approval of oral blonanserin for the treatment of schizophrenia. These two studies included both inpatients and outpatients with variable disease duration or symptom prominence according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Read More

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September 2021

A nationwide study of the risk of all-cause, sudden death, and cardiovascular mortality among antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan.

Schizophr Res 2021 Aug 31;237:9-19. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Studies have reported higher risks of mortality for patients with schizophrenia, compared to the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of all-cause, sudden death, and cardiovascular mortality among patients with schizophrenia in terms of types of antipsychotics.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study assessed the risk of mortality among antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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Predictors of functioning and clinical outcomes in inpatient with schizophrenia on clozapine augmented with antipsychotics.

Australas Psychiatry 2021 Aug 31:10398562211037339. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Consultant Psychiatrist, Macquarie Hospital (Northern Sydney Local Health District), NSW, Australia.

Objective: We aimed at exploring predictors of improvement in clinical and functional outcomes of patients on clozapine with chronic treatment-resistant schizophrenia admitted into rehabilitation wards.

Method: In a cross-sectional study of 62 patients on clozapine augmented with oral and parenteral antipsychotics, predictors of HoNOS (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales) scores were analysed using ordinal logistic regression.

Result: Augmentation with parenteral antipsychotics was associated with lower psychotic symptom scores (OR 0. Read More

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Long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications in pregnancy: A review.

J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

LAC+USC Medical Center, 2051 Marengo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Background: Long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications (LAIs) are an evidence-based treatment option for people with severe mental illness (SMI). While women with SMI who are prescribed LAIs can become pregnant, there is a dearth of research examining the safety of these medication formulations during pregnancy. This article summarizes available literature on the use of LAIs in pregnancy to help inform clinical decisions and guide future research. Read More

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Risperidone-Induced Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 17;2021:3980872. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NYC, NY, USA.

Neutropenia is an adverse effect of various pharmacological therapies, including antipsychotics. Among the second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications, clozapine is most notable for neutropenic adverse effect. Risperidone, another SGA drug, is linked mainly with metabolic adverse effects, but rarely, blood dyscrasia adverse reactions have been reported. Read More

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Greater than the Sum: Applying Daily-Dose Equivalents to Antipsychotic Prescription Claims to Study Real-World Effects.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:709349. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

ICES, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Traditional methods to standardize exposures in pharmacoepidemiologic studies, like defined daily-doses, may be inadequate to capture drug class effects when there are many in-class medications, formulations, and administration routes. Antipsychotic medications are one example of a drug class with these complexities. Direct dose conversion methods are pharmacologically-based but often overlooked, potentially for lack of real-world guidance and examples of their implementation. Read More

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Micellar buccal film for safe and effective control of seizures: Preparation, in vitro characterization, ex vivo permeation studies and in vivo assessment.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Nov 18;166:105978. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Pharmacology Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, 12622 Egypt.

The current research article focused on formulating an easily applied, water-based buccal film loaded with the antiepileptic drug, lamotrigine (LTG). The designed film can be comfortably administered by epileptic patients to ensure a controllable therapeutic efficacy against seizures. The solubility of LTG in water was significantly improved by micellar solubilization. Read More

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November 2021

Drugs Associated With Ischemic Stroke: A Review for Clinicians.

Stroke 2021 Aug 18:STROKEAHA120033272. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Stroke Centre, Neurology Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland. (J.P.M., D.S., P.M.).

Certain drugs may increase the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). Our goal was to review associations between frequently used drugs and IS. We created an initial list of frequently used drugs to search Pubmed/MEDLINE from 1966 to 2020 and reviewed phase III and IV data, case series, and drug authorities' safety warnings to assess a potential association with IS. Read More

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Is Olfactory Reference Syndrome a Diagnostic Entity Under Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders?: A Case Report.

Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2021 ;32(2):142-144

Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a rare psychiatric condition involving embarrassment and distress due to persistent mental preoccupation with the idea of emitting body odours foul and offensive enough to disturb others. This disorder is often accompanied by shame, embarrassment, significant distress, avoidance behavior, social phobia and social isolation. The patients may worry that they spread odours originating from their mouth, sweat, genital areas or the gut. Read More

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January 2021

The Impact of THC and CBD in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:694394. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States.

People with schizophrenia are more likely to develop cannabis use disorder (CUD) and experience worse outcomes with use. Yet as cannabis is legalized for medical and recreational use, there is interest in its therapeutic potential. To conduct a systematic review summarizing the design and results of controlled trials using defined doses of THC and CBD in schizophrenia. Read More

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A systematic review and pooled, patient-level analysis of predictors of mortality in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 Oct 25;144(4):329-341. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Division of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal, idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotics. Due to low incidence of NMS, research on risk factors of mortality associated with NMS is limited.

Methods: Two authors independently searched Medline/Embase/Cochrane/CINAHL/PsychINFO databases for case reports with author-defined NMS published in English until 05/30/2020. Read More

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October 2021

Predictors of Lack of Relapse After Random Discontinuation of Oral and Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Clinically Stabilized Patients with Schizophrenia: A Re-analysis of Individual Participant Data.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA.

Objective: To quantify the risk and predictors of relapse among individuals with schizophrenia randomly withdrawn from antipsychotic maintenance treatment.

Methods: We re-analyzed time-to-event and baseline predictors from placebo arms in five placebo-controlled randomized trials of antipsychotics (n = 688 individuals; 173 stabilized on oral antipsychotic [OAP] and 515 on long-acting injectables [LAI]) for relapse-prevention available in the Yale Open Data Access repository. Using a survival and Cox-proportional hazards regression analyses, we estimated survival rates of "relapse-free" individuals by the end of follow-up (median = 118 days, IQR = 52. Read More

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Dosing antipsychotics in special populations of patients with schizophrenia: severe psychotic agitation, first psychotic episode and elderly patients.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Aug 17:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Clermont Ferrand, France.

Antipsychotic (AP) dosing is well established in nonelderly patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia, but not in special populations.This review describes the AP dosing procedures that have been used in clinical studies for acute psychotic agitation, a first episode of psychosis (FEP), and elderly patients. AP dosing data was extracted from the databases of drug regulatory authorities, and from clinical studies available in the medical literature. Read More

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Predictors of long-acting injectable antipsychotic prescription at discharge in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep;36(5):251-256

Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) increase drug compliance and offer a reliable treatment option with stable pharmacokinetics. The aim of our study is to examine the rate and predictors of LAIs' prescription at discharge in inpatients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This retrospective study included 400 inpatients. Read More

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September 2021

Hospitalization Risk for Adults with Bipolar I Disorder Treated with Oral Atypical Antipsychotics as Adjunctive Therapy with Mood Stabilizers: A Retrospective Analysis of Medicaid Claims Data.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2021 27;94:100629. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marlborough, Massachusetts.

Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) with mood stabilizers are recommended as a first-line treatment for patients with bipolar disorder. No studies have compared the inpatient health care resource utilization for patients with bipolar disorder treated with lurasidone as adjunctive therapy with mood stabilizers compared with other oral AAPs. To compare the risk of hospitalization for adult Medicaid beneficiaries with bipolar I disorder when treated with lurasidone compared with other oral AAPs as adjunctive therapy with mood stabilizers. Read More

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Consideration of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for Polypharmacy Regimen in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Put It on the Table or Not?

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2021 Aug;19(3):434-448

Global Medical Education, New York, NY, USA.

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Read More

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Trial of Pimavanserin in Dementia-Related Psychosis.

N Engl J Med 2021 07;385(4):309-319

From Banner Alzheimer's Institute and University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix (P.N.T.); Chambers-Grundy Center for Transformative Neuroscience, Department of Brain Health, School of Integrated Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas (J.L.C.); Gérontopôle Alzheimer Clinical and Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Geriatric Department, Maintain Functions and Intrinsic Capacities with Aging Research Team, Center for Epidemiology and Population Health Research, INSERM, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France (M.E.S.-M.); University of Exeter School of Medicine, Exeter, United Kingdom (C.B.); the Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland (D.E.-L.); the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior and the Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders, University of California, Irvine, Irvine (D.L.S.), and Acadia Pharmaceuticals, San Diego (B.M., J.M.Y., S.S., E.P.F.) - both in California; the Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (D.P.D.); and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (D.W.).

Background: Patients with dementia due to neurodegenerative disease can have dementia-related psychosis. The effects of the oral 5-HT inverse agonist and antagonist pimavanserin on psychosis related to various causes of dementia are not clear.

Methods: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled discontinuation trial involving patients with psychosis related to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, or vascular dementia. Read More

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Enhancement of bioavailability through transdermal drug delivery of paliperidone palmitate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.

Ther Deliv 2021 08 21;12(8):583-596. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Faculty of Pharmacy, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, 390001, India.

The work describes enhanced bioavailability of paliperidone palmitate through transdermal delivery using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLCs were formulated by nanoprecipitation method followed by incorporation in transdermal patch and physicochemical characterization. NLCs showed high percentage entrapment efficiency of 83. Read More

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Therapeutic prevention of COVID-19 in elderly: a case-control study.

Geroscience 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

ICube Laboratory, UMR 7357 and CNRS, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

COVID-19 is a particularly aggressive disease for the elderly as 86% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 65 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment, there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to find a pharmacological preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Read More

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The efficacy and safety of intravenous chlorpromazine treatment for sleep disturbance in patients with incurable cancer, with oral administration difficulty: a 1-week, prospective observational study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug 14;10(8):8547-8556. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmacist, Kansai Medical University Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Sleep disturbance is a common psychiatric disorder in patients with cancer. However, many patients with incurable cancer have difficulty receiving oral administrations, which limits treatment options during disease progression. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous chlorpromazine treatment for sleep disturbances in patients with incurable cancer, with oral administration difficulty. Read More

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Efficacy of long-acting injectable versus oral antipsychotic drugs in early psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Aim: Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs (LAIs) are often used as an alternative to oral antipsychotics (OAPs) in individuals with psychosis who demonstrate poor medication adherence. Previous meta-analyses have found mixed results on the efficacy of LAIs, compared to OAPs, in patients with psychotic disorders. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of using LAIs versus OAPs in the early stages of psychosis. Read More

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Differences in Antipsychotic Treatment Discontinuation Among Veterans With Schizophrenia in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 Jul 14:appiajp202020111657. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Stanley Medical Research Institute, Kensington, Md. (Weiser); Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel (Weiser, Levi); Department of Psychiatry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel (Weiser); Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago (Davis); VA Capitol Healthcare Network (VISN 5) Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Baltimore (Brown, Medoff, Kreyenbuhl); Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (Brown; Medoff, Kreyenbuhl); Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimore (Slade); Department of Psychiatry, Division of Psychiatric Services Research, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (Fang); Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (Buchanan); and University of Nicosia Medical School, Nicosia, Cyprus (Davison).

Objective: Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs is inferred from relatively small randomized clinical trials conducted with carefully selected and monitored participants. This evidence is not necessarily generalizable to individuals treated in daily clinical practice. The authors compared the clinical effectiveness between all oral and long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications used in the treatment of schizophrenia in the U. Read More

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Antipsychotic Polypharmacy among patients with schizophrenia in Africa: A Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

BSC in pharmacy, Department of pharmacy, Pawe Health Science College, Pawe, Ethiopia.

Objectives: In Africa, antipsychotic polypharmacy is growing high due to a high antipsychotic dose prescribing, repeated psychiatric hospitalization, uncontrolled psychotic symptoms, and greater side effect burden. Therefore, the aim of this review and meta-analysis is to assess the prevalence and correlates of antipsychotic polypharmacy among patients with schizophrenia in Africa.

Methods: A systematic search was performed from August 1 to 31, 2020 on PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases to select articles based on the inclusion criteria. Read More

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The impact of COVID-19 on antipsychotic prescriptions for patients with schizophrenia in Australia.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Jul 9:48674211025716. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Covance Market Access Services, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To assess the impact, in the Australian setting, of the COVID-19 lockdown on antipsychotic supplies for patients with schizophrenia following a prescription from a new medical consultation when compared to the same periods in the previous 4 years. A secondary objective was to assess the volume of all antipsychotic supplies, from new and repeat prescriptions, over these same periods.

Methods: A retrospective pharmaceutical claims database study was undertaken, using the Department of Human Services Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 10% sample. Read More

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Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Practical Considerations.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2021 Jul 1;59(7):7-12. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are usually treated with oral antipsychotics despite high rates of nonadherence leading to relapse and rehospitalization. Seven long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are currently approved by the U.S. Read More

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Review of Pharmacotherapy for Tinnitus.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jun 21;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Various medications are currently used in the treatment of tinnitus, including anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, calcium channel blockers, cholinergic antagonists, NMDA antagonists, muscle relaxants, vasodilators, and vitamins. To date, however, no medications have been specifically approved to treat tinnitus by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, medicines used to treat other diseases, as well as foods and other ingested materials, can result in unwanted tinnitus. Read More

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Review of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacogenetics in Atypical Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 23;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Clinical Pharmacology Group, Institute of Health Research (IDIS), Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Over the last two decades, pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics have been increasingly used in clinical practice in Psychiatry due to the high variability regarding response and side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Specifically, long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics have different pharmacokinetic profile than oral formulations due to their sustained release characteristics. In addition, most of these drugs are metabolized by , whose interindividual genetic variability results in different metabolizer status and, consequently, into different plasma concentrations of the drugs. Read More

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An extrapyramidal reaction presenting as an acute temporomandibular episode: a case report.

Gen Dent 2021 Jul-Aug;69(4):54-55

This case report describes an adverse reaction (phenothiazine reaction) to prochlorperazine (Compazine), a commonly prescribed drug. The patient had been referred to a dental clinic for an oral evaluation because of muscle spasms in the oral musculature. He had severe muscle spasms, a reduced range of motion, difficulty registering a repeatable maximum intercuspation, facial grimacing, and difficulty speaking because of the spasms. Read More

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