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Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Potential Target for in Utero Therapy.

Clin Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a life-threatening autosomal recessive disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy, respiratory insufficiency and scoliosis. SMA is currently the most common monogenic cause of infant mortality. Amazing advancements have been made in the therapeutic options available for these children since 2016. Read More

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September 2021

Pediatric Odontogenic and Maxillofacial Bone Pathology: A Global Analysis.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS Keck School of Medicine Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Division of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Although pathology in the maxillary and mandibular bones is rare in young patients, the differential diagnosis is broad. The World Health Organization (WHO) updated its classification of maxillofacial bone pathology in 2017. Using these updated guidelines, a systematic review of common maxillofacial bone lesions in the pediatric population was performed. Read More

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September 2021

A case report detailing the use of 3D printing technology in surgical planning and decision making in ENT surgery-an axial 3D first in Northern Ireland.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Sep 15;87:106407. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

ENT Department, Craigavon Hospital 68 Lurgan Rd, Portadown BT63 5QQ, Craigavon, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: This case report details the first use of Axial 3D printing technology in Northern Ireland for surgical planning and decision making in ENT skull base surgery.

Case Presentation: 39 year old male seen at ENT clinic with nasal congestion. CT showed multi-sinus mucosal thickening. Read More

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September 2021

Burkitt's lymphoma of medial part of clavicle: Case report of unusual localization.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Sep 9;87:106393. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

ENT Department, Face and Neck Surgery, Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco.

Introduction: Burkitt lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which cancer starts in immune cells called B-cells. Recognized as a fast-growing human tumor, it is considered as a medical emergency requiring immediate diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. However, intensive chemotherapy can achieve long-term survival in more than half the people with Burkitt lymphoma. Read More

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September 2021

A review on recent trends in the removal of emerging contaminants from aquatic environment using low-cost adsorbents.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 18;287(Pt 3):132270. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Deprtament of Chemical Engineering, St. Joseph' College of Engineering, Chennai, 603110, India.

Emerging contaminants (ECs), a class of contaminants with low concentrations but significant harm, have received a lot of attention in recent times. ECs comprises of various chemicals that enter the environment every day. In today's modern lifestyle, we use many chemical-based products. Read More

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September 2021

Predicting adverse scenarios for a transboundary coastal aquifer system in the Atacama Desert (Peru/Chile).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 17;806(Pt 1):150386. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey 64849, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Electronic address:

The Caplina/Concordia transboundary coastal aquifer system, located in the Atacama Desert, is the primary source of water supply for domestic use and irrigation for La Yarada-Los Palos (Peru) and Concordia (Chile) agriculture districts, and to a lesser extent, for Tacna province public supply use (Peru). Despite the scarce amount of rainfall (<20 mm/year) in the area and the limited recharge coming from the Andean highlands, this transboundary aquifer system has been overexploited mainly for agriculture since before the 2000s on the Peruvian side. Consequently, this has caused groundwater depletion and seawater intrusion. Read More

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September 2021

Avian scavengers' contributions to people: The cultural dimension of wildlife-based tourism.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 20;806(Pt 1):150419. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Applied Biology, Miguel Hernández University of Elche, 03202 Elche, Spain; Centro de Investigación e Innovación Agroalimentaria y Agroambiental (CIAGRO-UMH), Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, 03312 Orihuela, Spain. Electronic address:

Scavengers provide significant nature's contributions to people (NCP), including disease control through carcass removal, but their non-material NCP are rarely considered. For the first time, we assess the extent and value of the NCP provided by European avian scavengers through a scavenger-based tourism at Pyrenean supplementary feeding sites (SFS). Using a two-step cluster analysis, two different types of visitor were identified (specialist avian scavenger-watchers and generalist nature-lovers) at those SFS offering recreational experiences (n = 20, i. Read More

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September 2021

Current understanding of autophagy in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Placenta 2021 Sep 20;115:53-59. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China; Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Sichuan University, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disease during pregnancy. Manifested with pruritus and elevation in bile acids, the etiology of ICP is still poorly understood. Although ICP is considered relatively benign for the mother, increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes including sudden fetal demise are possible devastating outcomes associated with ICP. Read More

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September 2021

From Child-Pugh to MELD score and beyond: taking a walk down memory lane.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Sep 21:100535. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Chief Medical Officer, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center. Professor of Surgery, Tufts University School of Medicine, Brighton, MA. USA.

The Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and the MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) scores were designed to predict the outcome of decompressive therapy for portal hypertension. They were prospectively validated to predict mortality risk in patients with a wide spectrum of liver disease etiology and severity. Unlike the CTP score, the MELD score was derived from prospectively gathered data. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of hydrophilic resin-based sealant: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Dent 2021 Sep 21:103816. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Restorative Dentistry, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, The Medical University of South Carolina, James B. Edwards College of Dental Medicine, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This meta-analysis review aims to answer two questions: 1) What is the effectiveness of hydrophilic resin-based sealant (RBS) in preventing/arresting pits and fissures caries in permanent teeth, and 2) What is the retention rate of a hydrophilic RBS as compared to alternative treatments.

Data: Randomized control trials investigating the efficacy of hydrophilic RBS compared to any other (placebo) treatment for permanent teeth. Outcomes were retention rate and caries prevention/arresting. Read More

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September 2021

Improving the measurement of oral health-related quality of life: Rasch model of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14.

J Dent 2021 Sep 21:103819. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Section for Outcomes Research, Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Intelligent Systems, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Arthritis and Rehabilitation, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objectives: The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) is the most frequently used instrument to measure oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) in adults. Despite its popularity, its psychometric properties have been predominantly investigated based on the classical test theory while the fundamental principles of measurement have not been fully assessed. Therefore, our aim was to investigate to what extent the OHIP-14 meets the fundamental requirments of measurements. Read More

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September 2021

Minimal residual disease, long-term outcome, and IKZF1 deletions in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia: a matched cohort study.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Oct;8(10):e700-e710

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, Netherlands; Oncode Institute, Utrecht, Netherlands; Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia are at an increased risk of treatment-related mortality and relapse, which is influenced by unfavourable genetic aberrations (eg, IKZF1 deletion). We aimed to investigate the potential underlying effect of Down syndrome versus the effects of adverse cancer genetics on clinical outcome.

Method: Patients (aged 1-23 years) with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia and matched non-Down syndrome patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (matched controls) from eight trials (DCOG ALL10 and ALL11, ANZCHOG ALL8, AIEOP-BFM ALL2009, UKALL2003, NOPHO ALL2008, CoALL 07-03, and CoALL 08-09) done between 2002 and 2018 across various countries (the Netherlands, the UK, Australia, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Germany) were included. Read More

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October 2021

NAD flux is maintained in aged mice despite lower tissue concentrations.

Cell Syst 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Physiology and Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

NAD is an essential coenzyme for all living cells. NAD concentrations decline with age, but whether this reflects impaired production or accelerated consumption remains unclear. We employed isotope tracing and mass spectrometry to probe age-related changes in NAD metabolism across tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Direct administration of the non-competitive interleukin-1 receptor antagonist rytvela transiently reduced intrauterine inflammation in an extremely preterm sheep model of chorioamnionitis.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257847. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Intraamniotic inflammation is associated with up to 40% of preterm births, most notably in deliveries occurring prior to 32 weeks' gestation. Despite this, there are few treatment options allowing the prevention of preterm birth and associated fetal injury. Recent studies have shown that the small, non-competitive allosteric interleukin (IL)-1 receptor inhibitor, rytvela, may be of use in resolving inflammation associated with preterm birth (PTB) and fetal injury. Read More

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September 2021

Tumor growth rate during re-challenge chemotherapy with previously used agents as salvage treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: A retrospective study.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257551. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In clinical practice, the same chemotherapeutic agents are occasionally reused (re-challenge) after failure of all available standard chemotherapy options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the benefits of re-challenge chemotherapy (Re-Cx) are unclear. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of Re-Cx, focusing on the tumor growth rate (TGR). Read More

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September 2021

Evolution of Radioembolization in Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Pictorial Review.

Radiographics 2021 Sep 24:210014. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

From the Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N St. Clair St, Ste 800, Chicago, IL 60611.

Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium 90 has increasingly been performed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TARE was historically used as a palliative lobar therapy for patients with advanced HCC beyond surgical options, ablation, or transarterial chemoembolization, but recent advancements have led to its application across the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging paradigm. Newer techniques, termed and , are being performed before liver resection to facilitate hypertrophy of the future liver remnant, before liver transplant to bridge or downstage to transplant, or as a definite curative treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jan 9;1:CD008394. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The frequency of skin ulceration makes an important contributor to the morbidity burden in people with sickle cell disease. Many treatment options are available to the healthcare professional, although it is uncertain which treatments have been assessed for effectiveness in people with sickle cell disease. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. Read More

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January 2021

Treatment options for progression or recurrence of glioblastoma: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 4;5:CD013579. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumour that almost inevitably progresses or recurs after first line standard of care. There is no consensus regarding the best treatment/s to offer people upon disease progression or recurrence. For the purposes of this review, progression and recurrence are considered as one entity. Read More

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The codification of hazard and its impact on the hazard versus risk controversy.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Syngenta Crop Protection LLC, Greensboro, NC, 27419, USA.

The long running controversy about the relative merits of hazard-based versus risk-based approaches has been investigated. There are three levels of hazard codification: level 1 divides chemicals into dichotomous bands of hazardous and non-hazardous; level 2 divides chemicals into bands of hazard based on severity and/or potency; and level 3 places each chemical on a continuum of hazard based on severity and/or potency. Any system which imposes compartments onto a continuum will give rise to issues at the boundaries, especially with only two compartments. Read More

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September 2021

Outcomes of female and male patients suffering from coronary artery disease: A nation-wide registry of patients admitted as emergency.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(38):e27298

University Heart Center Freiburg, Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Abstract: Presentation and mortality of coronary artery disease (CAD) substantially differs in both sexes. Most of the existing data analyzing sex differences is older than 10 years and mostly was retrieved in clinical trials, which are potentially structured with a bias against the inclusion of women, leading to a potential selection-bias. Meanwhile, with better diagnostic and therapeutic options, actual data analyzing sex differences in emergency CAD patients is rare. Read More

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September 2021

Pharmacopuncture and joint movement manual therapy for post-traumatic phalangeal osteoarthritis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(38):e27081

Guideline Center for Korean Medicine, National Institute for Korean Medicine Development, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a type of osteoarthritis that develops after ligament injury, meniscus injury, or fracture. Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for PTOA. This report describes the case of a 38-year-old man who suffered from PTOA of the right second distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint after practicing judo. Read More

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September 2021

Immunoregulatory T cell epitope peptides for the treatment of allergic disease.

Immunotherapy 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 ON, Canada.

Allergic diseases are type 2 inflammatory reactions with an increasing worldwide prevalence, making the search for new therapeutic options pertinent. Allergen immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying approach for allergic rhinitis, though it can result in systemic reactions. Recently, peptide immunotherapy (PIT), involving T cell epitope peptides that bind to major histocompatibility complexes, have been developed. Read More

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September 2021

The evolution of epistemological methodologies in anatomy: From antiquity to modern times.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Present day scenario regarding epistemological methods in anatomy is in sharp contrast to the situation during ancient period. This study aimed to explore the evolution of epistemological methodologies in anatomy across centuries. In ancient times Egyptian embalmers acquired anatomical knowledge from handling human bodies and likewise anatomical studies in India involved human dissection. Read More

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September 2021

Use of Oral Tetracyclines in the Treatment of Adult Outpatients with Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Focus on Doxycycline, Minocycline, and Omadacycline.

Pharmacotherapy 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York, USA.

Oral tetracyclines have been used in clinical practice for over 60 years. One of the most common indications for use of oral tetracyclines is for treatment of adult outpatients with skin and soft infections (SSTIs), including acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). The 2014 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) skin and soft tissue guideline strongly recommend sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, clindamycin, and tetracyclines as oral treatment options for patients with purulent SSTIs, especially when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is of clinical concern. Read More

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September 2021

Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids alone or in combination with fluconazole on Candida krusei biofilms in vitro and in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Med Mycol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Pathogenic Yeast Research Group, Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The incidence of infections by non-albicans Candida species, including Candida krusei, is increasing. Candida krusei exhibits intrinsic resistance to fluconazole and rapidly develops acquired resistance to other antifungals. Moreover, this yeast can form biofilm with increased resistance. Read More

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September 2021

Alternate dosage formulations of oral targeted anticancer agents.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2021 Sep 24:10781552211037976. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky HealthCare Markey Cancer Center, USA.

Objective: Oral anticancer therapies have demonstrated superior outcomes compared to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy in many disease states. However, certain patients may not be candidates for these agents due to odynphagia or dysphagia. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data for extemporaneous compounding of oral anticancer agents. Read More

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September 2021

Parapharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis From Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Sep 24:1455613211045566. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tahar Sfar Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia.

Metastatic parapharyngeal lymph nodes (LNs) from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) are uncommon and can easily remain undetected. We describe a case that involves a 62-year-old woman treated for a PTC, who presented a rise in serum thyroglobulin (TG) levels. A computed tomography scan was performed, and revealed metastatic nodes in the left parapharyngeal space (PPS). Read More

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September 2021

A Transcanal Endoscopic Approach for Management of Pulsatile Tinnitus due to High-Riding Dehiscent Jugular Bulb.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Sep 24:1455613211043683. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine and Medical Center, 63461National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Pulsatile tinnitus (PT) caused by a high-riding dehiscence jugular bulb (HDJB) is a rare but treatable otology disease. There are several managements include transcatheter endovascular coil embolization, transvenous stent-assisted coil embolization, or resurfacing the dehiscent bony wall of high jugular bulb under the use of microscope. Among those options, surgical resurfacing of HDJB might be an effective and safe choice with less destruction. Read More

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September 2021

Dental management of a 26-year-old female with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: A case report.

Spec Care Dentist 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Erie County Medical Center, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of the report is to present a rare case of clinical management of a 26-year-old patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), and discuss treatment options and possible outcomes.

Summary: FOP is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue that affects one in two million people. It is characterized by multiple areas of progressive heterotopic endochondral ossifications. Read More

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September 2021

Parental Views on the Non-Operative Management of Simple Appendicitis in Children: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey.

World J Surg 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Departments of Paediatrics & Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: To determine parental attitudes for the non-operative management of simple appendicitis and determine willingness to participate in research evaluating different management options.

Method: Voluntary cross-sectional survey of parents/guardians presenting to paediatric outpatient department. Likert scale of 0-10 (strongly disagree-strongly agree) was utilised, analysis by individual question responses. Read More

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September 2021