469 results match your criteria opportunity infancy

Humoral immune responses to AAV gene therapy in the ocular compartment.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.

Viral vectors can be utilised to deliver therapeutic genes to diseased cells. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a commonly used viral vector that is favoured for its ability to infect a wide range of tissues whilst displaying limited toxicity and immunogenicity. Most humans harbour anti-AAV neutralising antibodies (NAbs) due to subclinical infections by wild-type virus during infancy and these pre-existing NAbs can limit the efficiency of gene transfer depending on the target cell type, route of administration and choice of serotype. Read More

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Cellular Energetics of Mast Cell Development and Activation.

Cells 2021 Mar 2;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80016, USA.

Mast cells are essential first responder granulocytes in the innate immune system that are well known for their role in type 1 immune hypersensitivity reactions. Although mostly recognized for their role in allergies, mast cells have a range of influences on other systems throughout the body and can respond to a wide range of agonists to properly prime an appropriate immune response. Mast cells have a dynamic energy metabolism to allow rapid responsiveness to their energetic demands. Read More

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Age and sex-associated variation in the multi-site microbiome of an entire social group of free-ranging rhesus macaques.

Microbiome 2021 03 22;9(1):68. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, USA.

Background: An individual's microbiome changes over the course of its lifetime, especially during infancy, and again in old age. Confounding factors such as diet and healthcare make it difficult to disentangle the interactions between age, health, and microbial changes in humans. Animal models present an excellent opportunity to study age- and sex-linked variation in the microbiome, but captivity is known to influence animal microbial abundance and composition, while studies of free-ranging animals are typically limited to studies of the fecal microbiome using samples collected non-invasively. Read More

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[Advanced practice nurse: new clinical competencies for the benefit of the patient].

Soins 2021 Jan-Feb;66(852):58-60

Groupement hospitalier universitaire Paris psychiatrie et neurosciences, 1 rue Cabanis, 75014 Paris, France; Association nationale française des infirmiers en pratique avancée, 30 avenue de la Tour-d'Auvergne, 92700 Colombes, France. Electronic address:

Advanced practice is an opportunity for nurses wishing to develop their career while keeping their hand in clinical practice, in direct contact with the patient. This new role is in its infancy. Its implantation in the hospital setting must be thought through and assessed by the whole team in order to demonstrate the benefit it can offer. Read More

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Designer Condensates: A Toolkit for the Biomolecular Architect.

J Mol Biol 2021 Feb 1:166837. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Protein phase separation has emerged as a novel paradigm to explain the biogenesis of membraneless organelles and other so-called biomolecular condensates. While the implication of this physical phenomenon within cell biology is providing us with novel ways for understanding how cells compartmentalize biochemical reactions and encode function in such liquid-like assemblies, the newfound appreciation of this process also provides immense opportunities for designing and sculpting biological matter. Here, we propose that understanding the cell's instruction manual of phase separation will enable bioengineers to begin creating novel functionalized biological materials and unprecedented tools for synthetic biology. Read More

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February 2021

Leveraging the Biology of Adversity and Resilience to Transform Pediatric Practice.

Pediatrics 2021 Feb 25;147(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

The Rockefeller University, New York, New York.

Advances in science are fundamentally changing the way we understand how inextricable interactions among genetic predispositions, physical and social environments, and developmental timing influence early childhood development and the foundations of health and how significant early adversity can lead to a lifetime of chronic health impairments. This article and companion article illustrate the extent to which differential outcomes are shaped by ongoing interactive adaptations to context that begin at or even before conception and continue throughout life, with increasing evidence pointing to the importance of the prenatal period and early infancy for the developing brain, the immune system, and metabolic regulation. Although new discoveries in the basic sciences are transforming tertiary medical care and producing breakthrough outcomes in treating disease, this knowledge is not being leveraged effectively to inform new approaches to promoting whole-child development and preventing illness. Read More

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February 2021

Sensing everyday activity: Parent perceptions and feasibility.

Infant Behav Dev 2021 Feb 16;62:101511. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, United States.

Mobile and wearable sensors provide a unique opportunity to capture the daily activities and interactions that shape developmental trajectories, with potential to revolutionize the study of development (de Barbaro, 2019). However, developmental research employing sensors is still in its infancy, and parents' comfort using these devices is uncertain. This exploratory report assesses parent willingness to participate in sensor studies via a nationally representative survey (N = 210) and live recruitment of a low-income, minority population for an ongoing study (N = 359). Read More

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February 2021

High-Entropy Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Applications.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Jan 11;23(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK.

The expanded compositional freedom afforded by high-entropy alloys (HEAs) represents a unique opportunity for the design of alloys for advanced nuclear applications, in particular for applications where current engineering alloys fall short. This review assesses the work done to date in the field of HEAs for nuclear applications, provides critical insight into the conclusions drawn, and highlights possibilities and challenges for future study. It is found that our understanding of the irradiation responses of HEAs remains in its infancy, and much work is needed in order for our knowledge of any single HEA system to match our understanding of conventional alloys such as austenitic steels. Read More

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January 2021

A Hospital-Based Multi-Centric Study to Determine the Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Intussusception in Children < 2 Years in Rajasthan, India.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 Mar 6;88(Suppl 1):131-137. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: To determine the clinical and epidemiological profile of Intussusception in children aged <2 y after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Universal Immunization Programme of Rajasthan.

Method: This was a hospital-based multi-centric surveillance study conducted at three tertiary care sentinel sites in Rajasthan over a period of 2 y. Children <2 y of age admitted with intussusception as per Brighton's criteria 1 were enrolled. Read More

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Biomarkers for Heart Failure Prognosis: Proteins, Genetic Scores and Non-coding RNAs.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 23;7:601364. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Clinic for Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease in which cardiomyocyte injury leads to a cascade of inflammatory and fibrosis pathway activation, thereby causing decrease in cardiac function. As a result, several biomolecules are released which can be identified easily in circulating body fluids. The complex biological processes involved in the development and worsening of HF require an early treatment strategy to stop deterioration of cardiac function. Read More

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November 2020

Challenges and Way Forward for Establishing Population Based Cancer Registry in Nepal.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2020 Nov 14;18(3):544-546. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Nepal Health Research Council, Ramshahpath, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Population Based Cancer Registry plays a crucial role in cancer control through identifying cancer incidence, mortality, pattern and trends over time in a particular population. The registry is in a very infancy stage in Nepal. During the process of establishing Population Based Cancer Registry in Nepal, the major challenges include adequate coverage of the cases, high cost of registration, sustainability along with expansion of the registry to other regions and non-linkage of Hospital Based Cancer Registry with Population Based Cancer Registry. Read More

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November 2020

Complementary feeding and future health in Mexico. Introduction to the XI Nestlé Nutrition Conference.

Nutr Rev 2020 12;78(Suppl 2):1-5

Fondo Nestlé para la Nutrición, Fundación Mexicana para la Salud, Ciudad de México, México.

Nutrition in infancy provides an important window of opportunity to shape good health during childhood and adult life. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an introduction to the review articles that bring together the proceedings of the XI Nestlé Nutrition Conference "Complementary Feeding: A Piece of the Puzzle to Understand Future Health". The studies and description of complementary feeding practices in Mexico, from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT 2012), support the urgent need for strong policy actions to promote healthy eating and appropriate complementary feeding practices. Read More

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December 2020

Intervention during the first 1000 days in Mexico.

Nutr Rev 2020 12;78(Suppl 2):80-90

Dirección de Investigación y Unidad de Vinculación de la Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, México City, México.

Health systems and society are facing the growing problem of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities. New approaches to reduce these problems must be oriented to population groups in which long-lasting effects of interventions may occur. Biological processes occurring during the first 1000 days of life, which may be modulated by environmental modifications and result in phenotypes with differential risk for noncommunicable chronic disease, constitute an opportunity for interventions. Read More

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December 2020

Autoimmunity and NMDA receptor in brain disorders: Where do we stand?

Neurobiol Dis 2021 01 6;147:105161. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, IINS, UMR 5297, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Over the past decades, the identification of autoimmune encephalitis in which patients express autoantibodies directed against neurotransmitter receptors has generated great hope to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underpinning neurological and psychiatric conditions. Among these autoimmune encephalitides, the discovery of autoantibodies directed against the glutamatergic NMDA receptor (NMDAR-Ab), in the anti-NMDAR encephalitis, has provided some key information on how complex neuropsychiatric symptoms can be caused by a deficit in NMDAR signalling. Yet, NMDAR-Abs have also been detected in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, as well as in healthy individuals. Read More

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January 2021

Measurement of genetic diseases as a cause of mortality in infants receiving whole genome sequencing.

NPJ Genom Med 2020 2;5:49. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine, San Diego, CA 92123 USA.

Understanding causes of infant mortality shapes public health policy and prioritizes diseases for investments in surveillance, intervention and medical research. Rapid genomic sequencing has created a novel opportunity to decrease infant mortality associated with treatable genetic diseases. Herein, we sought to measure the contribution of genetic diseases to mortality among infants by secondary analysis of babies enrolled in two clinical studies and a systematic literature review. Read More

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November 2020

Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma and rhinitis from infancy through adulthood in rural Bangladesh: a population-based, cross-sectional survey.

BMJ Open 2020 11 4;10(11):e042380. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Objective: Describe the pattern of atopic disease prevalence from infancy to adulthood.

Design: Cross-sectional household survey.

Setting: Community-based demographic surveillance site, Mirzapur, Bangladesh. Read More

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November 2020

Prenatal air pollution exposure and neurodevelopment: A review and blueprint for a harmonized approach within ECHO.

Environ Res 2020 Oct 22:110320. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, And Pediatrics, Institute for Exposomics Research, Kravis Children's Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Air pollution exposure is ubiquitous with demonstrated effects on morbidity and mortality. A growing literature suggests that prenatal air pollution exposure impacts neurodevelopment. We posit that the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program will provide unique opportunities to fill critical knowledge gaps given the wide spatial and temporal variability of ECHO participants. Read More

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October 2020

Differential transcriptome response to proton versus X-ray radiation reveals novel candidate targets for combinatorial PT therapy in lymphoma.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Feb 20;155:293-303. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Division of Oncology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Knowledge of biological responses to proton therapy (PT) in comparison to X-ray remains in its infancy. Identification of PT specific molecular signals is an important opportunity for the discovery of biomarkers and synergistic drugs to advance clinical application. Since PT is used for the treatment of lymphoma, we report here transcriptomic responses of lymphoma cell lines to PT vs X-ray and identify potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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February 2021

Recent approaches in clinical applications of 3D printing in neonates and pediatrics.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Feb 6;180(2):323-332. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad (IITH), Kandi , Sangareddy, Telangana, 502285, India.

Neonates and pediatric populations are vulnerable subjects in terms of health. Proper screening and early optimal treatment would reduce infant and child mortality, improving the quality of life. Researchers and clinicians all over the world are in pursuit of innovations to improve the medical care delivery system. Read More

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February 2021

The LH/FSH ratio is not a sex-dimorphic marker after infancy: data from 6417 healthy individuals and 125 patients with Differences of Sex Development.

Hum Reprod 2020 10;35(10):2323-2335

Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Study Question: What is the course of the LH/FSH ratio from infancy into adulthood in healthy individuals and in patients with Differences of Sex Development (DSD)?

Summary Answer: The LH/FSH ratio had a marked overlap between the sexes after infancy and onwards throughout adulthood in healthy individuals and it was not a marker of hypogonadism in DSD patients.

What Is Known Already: The LH/FSH ratio is a distinct marker of sex during minipuberty. No study has evaluated the LH/FSH ratio from infancy into adulthood. Read More

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October 2020

Introducing Juice and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Early Infancy: Parental Knowledge and Intended Behaviors.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2021 Feb 23;60(2):109-118. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Objective: Assess caregivers' knowledge about juice and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and identify factors that contribute to their early introduction.

Methods: One hundred forty-four parents of young infants completed a 45-item questionnaire focused on infant nutrition.

Results: Seventy-two percent of parents plan to give juice to their babies starting in the first year of life; only 16% plan to introduce SSBs. Read More

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February 2021

Adipose Tissue Development and Expansion from the Womb to Adolescence: An Overview.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 8;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Pediatrics and Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R7, Canada.

Prevalence rates of pediatric obesity continue to rise worldwide. Adipose tissue (AT) development and expansion initiate in the fetus and extend throughout the lifespan. This paper presents an overview of the AT developmental trajectories from the intrauterine period to adolescence; factors determining adiposity expansion are also discussed. Read More

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September 2020

Integrating anthropometric and cardiometabolic health methods in stress, early experiences, and development (SEED) science.

Dev Psychobiol 2020 Sep 9. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Within Stress, Early Experiences, and Development (SEED) science, there is a growing body of research demonstrating complex associations not only between stress, development, and psychopathology, but also with chronic disease risk factors. We argue that it is important for SEED researchers to consider including child anthropometric and physical health measures to more comprehensively capture processes of risk and resilience. Broader adoption of harmonized anthropometry and health measures in SEED research will facilitate collaborations, yielding larger datasets for research in high-risk populations, and greater opportunity to replicate existing findings. Read More

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September 2020

Opportunities and Challenges of Value-Based Health Care: How Brazil Can Learn from U.S. Experience.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2020 Sep;26(9):1172-1175

Senior Vice President, Director, Access Experience Team, Precision Value, Gladstone, New Jersey.

The movement toward value-based care is occurring in many countries of the world. The increasing population, longer life expectancy, and rising cost for high-tech care necessitates that government and private payers around the world devise new ways to ensure that health care dollars are spent on the most effective interventions. In this Viewpoints article, we present the value-based care transformation that is currently in its infancy in Brazil, which has a mix of private and public payers but still largely reimburses based on a fee-for-service model. Read More

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September 2020

Nursing & Midwifery students' experience of immersive virtual reality storytelling: an evaluative study.

BMC Nurs 2020 17;19:78. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Innovation Academy, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) storytelling is a concept that merges ground-breaking virtual reality technology with the traditional art of storytelling. Virtual reality storytelling offers a rare opportunity to present abstract experiences that challenge boundaries, heighten emotions, and convey previously intangible concepts. Scientific research into immersive virtual reality storytelling is still in its infancy, particularly regarding the field of education in Nursing and Midwifery. Read More

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Multivariate Neural Connectivity Patterns in Early Infancy Predict Later Autism Symptoms.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Jan 13;6(1):59-69. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Functional brain connectivity is altered in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Functional disruption during infancy could provide earlier markers of ASD, thus providing a crucial opportunity to improve developmental outcomes. Using a whole-brain multivariate approach, we asked whether electroencephalography measures of neural connectivity at 3 months of age predict autism symptoms at 18 months. Read More

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January 2021

Eighteen-Month-Old Infants Correct Non-Conforming Actions by Others.

Infancy 2019 Jul 3;24(4):613-635. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

At around their third birthday, children begin to enforce social norms on others impersonally, often using generic normative language, but little is known about the developmental building blocks of this abstract norm understanding. Here, we investigate whether even toddlers show signs of enforcing on others interpersonally how "we" do things. In an initial dyad, 18-month-old infants learnt a simple game-like action from an adult. Read More

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Light-Driven Catalytic Regulation of Enzymes at the Interface with Plasmonic Nanomaterials.

Biochemistry 2021 Apr 14;60(13):991-998. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

CIC biomaGUNE, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Paseo de Miramón 182, 20014 Donostia, San Sebastián, Spain.

Regulation of enzymes is highly relevant toward orchestrating cell-free and stepwise biotransformations, thereby maximizing their overall performance. Plasmonic nanomaterials offer a great opportunity to tune the functionality of enzymes through their remarkable optical properties. Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) can be used to modify chemical transformations at the nanomaterial's surface, upon light irradiation. Read More

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Minipuberty of human infancy - A window of opportunity to evaluate hypogonadism and differences of sex development?

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 30;25(2):84-91. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis happens in 3 phases during life. The first phase is during fetal life and is only separated from the second phase, called minipuberty, by the high concentration of placental hormones at birth. The third period of activation of the HPG axis is puberty and is well-described. Read More

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Associations between feeding practices in infancy and fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood.

Br J Nutr 2020 12 30;124(12):1320-1328. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Research, The University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Herston, QLD4006, Australia.

A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases. However, in many countries, the majority of children do not eat the recommended quantities of fruits and vegetables. The present study aimed to understand associations between feeding practices in infancy (breast-feeding and first complementary food) and fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood (frequency and variety). Read More

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December 2020