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Formalizing the use of training methods in developing a career path.

J Community Psychol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Psychology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Coaching methods are aimed at motivating people to achieve career or social skills. Therewith, coaching acts only as an additional form of career development for persons engaged in certain professions. The novelty of the study lies in the need to apply coaching methods not only during the period of active career implementation, but also during its interruption. Read More

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A systematic review of spatial habitat associations and modeling of marine fish distribution: A guide to predictors, methods, and knowledge gaps.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251818. Epub 2021 May 14.

NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Beaufort, North Carolina, United States of America.

As species distribution models, and similar techniques, have emerged in marine ecology, a vast array of predictor variables have been created and diverse methodologies have been applied. Marine fish are vital food resources worldwide, yet identifying the most suitable methodology and predictors to characterize spatial habitat associations, and the subsequent distributions, often remains ambiguous. Our objectives were to identify knowledge gaps in fish guilds, identify research themes, and to determine how data sources, statistics, and predictor variables differ among fish guilds. Read More

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The Application of 'Elite Interviewing' Methodology in Transdisciplinary Research: a Record of Process and Lessons Learned during a 3-Year Pilot in Urban Planetary Health Research.

J Urban Health 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

This paper sets out the rationale and process for the interviewing methodology utilized during a 3-year research pilot, 'Moving Health Upstream in Urban Development' (UPSTREAM). The project had two primary aims: firstly, to attempt to value economically the health cost benefits associated with the quality of urban environments and secondly, to engage with those in control of urban development in the UK in order to determine what are the barriers to and opportunities for creating healthy urban environments, including those identified through the utilisation of economic valuation. Engagement at senior level with those who have most control over key facets of planning and development implementation-such as land disposal, investment, development delivery and planning permission-was central to the approach, which encompassed the adoption of 'elite interviewing', a method developed in the USA in the 1950s and used in the political sciences but relatively unutilized in the health and environmental sciences [1]. Read More

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Fugitive aerosols in the intensive care unit: a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):592

Aerogen, IDA Business Park, Dangan, Galway, Ireland.

The risk of unintended inhalation of fugitive aerosols is becoming a topic of increasing interest in the healthcare arena. These fugitive aerosols may be bioaerosols, generated by the patient themselves through cough or sneeze, or they may be therapeutic medical aerosols, generated by therapeutic medical aerosol generators with the intent of delivery to a specific patient's respiratory tract. This review focus' on therapeutic aerosols in the intensive care unit (ICU) only, those typically generated by nebulisers. Read More

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Aerosol delivery via invasive ventilation: a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):588

Department of Respiratory Care, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

In comparison with spontaneously breathing non-intubated subjects, intubated, mechanically ventilated patients encounter various challenges, barriers, and opportunities in receiving medical aerosols. Since the introduction of mechanical ventilation as a part of modern critical care medicine during the middle of the last century, aerosolized drug delivery by jet nebulizers has become a common practice. However, early evidence suggested that aerosol generators differed in their efficacies, and the introduction of newer aerosol technology (metered dose inhalers, ultrasonic nebulizer, vibrating mesh nebulizers, and soft moist inhaler) into the ventilator circuit opened up the possibility of optimizing inhaled aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation that could meet or exceed the delivery of the same aerosols in spontaneously breathing patients. Read More

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Postoperative adjuvant EGFR-TKIs for resected -mutant NSCLC-opportunities and obstacles.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):586

University of Queensland Thoracic Research Centre at The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

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Juggling with lipids, a game of Russian roulette.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Metabolism and Cell Death, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany; Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Moscow 117997, Russia. Electronic address:

Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is the molecular mechanism involved in oxidative damage of cellular membranes and the hallmark of a nonapoptotic form of cell death, known as ferroptosis. This iron-dependent cell death is an emerging strategy in cancer treatment and one of the central cell death mechanisms accounting for early cell loss and organ dysfunction in both neurodegenerative disease and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the biological roles of LPO products have attracted considerable attention, not only for their pathological mechanisms but also for their potential clinical application as biomarkers, the existence of a common lethal lipid death signal generated during ferroptosis remains poorly explored. Read More

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Transparent, Compliant 3D Mesostructures for Precise Evaluation of Mechanical Characteristics of Organoids.

Adv Mater 2021 May 13:e2100026. Epub 2021 May 13.

Querrey Simpson Institute for Bioelectronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

Recently developed methods for transforming 2D patterns of thin-film materials into 3D mesostructures create many interesting opportunities in microsystems design. A growing area of interest is in multifunctional thermal, electrical, chemical, and optical interfaces to biological tissues, particularly 3D multicellular, millimeter-scale constructs, such as spheroids, assembloids, and organoids. Herein, examples of 3D mechanical interfaces are presented, in which thin ribbons of parylene-C form the basis of transparent, highly compliant frameworks that can be reversibly opened and closed to capture, envelop, and mechanically restrain fragile 3D tissues in a gentle, nondestructive manner, for precise measurements of viscoelastic properties using techniques in nanoindentation. Read More

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Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations -United States, 2018.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2021 May 14;70(3):1-26. Epub 2021 May 14.

Problem/condition: Adults are at risk for illness, hospitalization, disability and, in some cases, death from vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly influenza and pneumococcal disease. CDC recommends vaccinations for adults on the basis of age, health conditions, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U. Read More

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Implementing Value-Added Medical Education: Lessons Learned From the Student-Initiated "Stanford Frontline" COVID-19 Consult Service.

Acad Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

B. Zhou is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0253-9179. C. Calkins is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4159-1957. T. Jayaraman is a third-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6732-6652. S. Cassells is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5470-8149. T. Rotto is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. L. Vaughan is a clinical assistant professor, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9394-0995. M. Srinivasan is a clinical professor, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9951-0016. E. Schillinger is a clinical professor and vice chief of education, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0836-6237.

Problem: Value-added medical education (VAME) has been difficult to implement due to student and educator constraints. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a mass transition to online learning, removed students from clinical settings, and underscored students' desires for meaningful VAME opportunities. The authors introduced the Stanford Frontline COVID-19 Consult Service (SFCS), through which off-service medical and physician assistant (PA) students provided assistance to clinicians in the form of rapid research regarding COVID-19 clinical questions. Read More

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Perovskite-Derived CsSnCl-Silica Composites as Advanced Waste Forms for Chloride Salt Wastes.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York 12180, United States.

Advanced materials and processes are required to separate halides and fission products from complex salt waste streams associated with the chemical reprocessing of used nuclear fuels and molten salt reactor technologies for immobilization into chemically durable waste forms. In this work, we explore an innovative concept using metal halide perovskites as advanced host phases to incorporate Cs and Cl with very high waste loadings. Wet chemistry-synthesized CsSnCl powders from CsCl salt solutions are successfully encapsulated into a silica matrix to form a composite using low-temperature spark plasma sintering with tunable Cs and Cl loadings up to 31 and 26 wt %, respectively. Read More

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3D printing of lignin: Challenges, opportunities and roads onward.

Biopolymers 2021 May 11:e23431. Epub 2021 May 11.

Chair of Forest Biomaterials, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Br., Germany.

As the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, and as a resource recently becoming more available in separated and purified form on an industrial scale due to the development of new isolation technologies, lignin has a key role to play in transitioning our material industry towards sustainability. Additive manufacturing (AM), the most efficient-material processing technology to date, has likewise made great strides to promote sustainable industrial solutions to our needs in engineered products. Bringing lignin research to AM has prompted the emergence of the nascent "lignin 3D printing" field. Read More

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Distributive health literacy and medication management: A longitudinal qualitative study with Bhutanese former-refugees in Tasmania.

Health Promot J Austr 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Issue Addressed: Tasmania, Australia is home to a population of Bhutanese former-refugees who have resettled since 2007. Their refugee journey and disrupted education opportunities has resulted in gaps in literacy in their primary language (Nepali), and many suffer one or more chronic conditions (ongoing communicable or non-communicable diseases (NCDs)). This research explored how this community perceives chronic conditions and managed their medication using the concept of distributed health literacy. Read More

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Odd Willis coupling induced by broken time-reversal symmetry.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2615. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

When sound interacts with geometrically asymmetric structures, it experiences coupling between pressure and particle velocity, known as Willis coupling. While in most instances this phenomenon is perturbative in nature, tailored asymmetries combined with resonances can largely enhance it, enabling exotic acoustic phenomena. In these systems, Willis coupling obeys reciprocity, imposing an even symmetry of the Willis coefficients with respect to time reversal and the impinging wave vector, which translates into stringent constraints on the overall scattering response. Read More

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Quantifying opportunities for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation using big data from smallholder crop and livestock farmers across Bangladesh.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;786:147344. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Climate change is and will continue to have significant implications for agricultural systems. While adaptation to climate change should be the priority for smallholder production systems, adoption of cost-effective mitigation options in agriculture not only contributes to food security but also reduces the extent of climate change and future adaptation needs. Utilizing management data from 16,413 and 12,548 crop and livestock farmers and associated soil and climatic data, we estimated GHG emissions generated from crop and livestock production using crop and livestock models, respectively. Read More

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A huge malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1508-1514

Department of Breast Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

The malignant phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breasts is a rare type of fibroepithelial neoplasm. Osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGCs) exist in many types of tumors. But malignant PTs with OLGCs were rarely reported. Read More

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Strengthening clinical microbiology skill acquisition; a nationwide survey of faculty perceptions & practices on teaching & assessment of practical skills to undergraduate students.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr 9;39(2):154-158. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Deemed to Be University, Belagavi, Karnataka, 590010, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: New Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME) curriculum has emphasized on the acquisition of core competencies by an Indian Medical Graduate (IMG). Likewise ability to perform basic microbiological investigations, and diagnose infectious disease is deemed critical for a doctor of first contact. In order to prepare students to achieve these competencies, effective skill training and assessment is paramount. Read More

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Application of stem cell-derived exosomes in ischemic diseases: opportunity and limitations.

J Transl Med 2021 May 8;19(1):196. Epub 2021 May 8.

Solid Tumor Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 1138, 57147, Urmia, Iran.

Ischemic diseases characterized by an insufficient blood flow that leads to a decrease in oxygen and nutrient uptake by cells have emerged as an important contributor to both disability and death worldwide. Up-regulation of angiogenesis may be a key factor for the improvement of ischemic diseases. This article searched articles in PubMed with the following keywords: stem cells, exosomes, angiogenesis, ischemic diseases either alone or in grouping form. Read More

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Types of Physical Activity Recommended by Primary Care Providers for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease.

Prev Chronic Dis 2021 May 6;18:E43. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Primary care providers (PCPs) are uniquely positioned to promote physical activity for cardiovascular health. We sought to determine the types of physical activity that PCPs most often recommend to patients at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and how these recommendations vary by PCPs' physical activity counseling practices. We examined the types of physical activity (walking, supervised exercise sessions, or other) PCPs most often suggested for CVD prevention among respondents to the 2018 DocStyles survey (N = 1,088). Read More

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Multifaceted Design and Emerging Applications of Tissue Adhesives.

Adv Mater 2021 May 6:e2007663. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC, H3A 0C3, Canada.

Tissue adhesives can form appreciable adhesion with tissues and have found clinical use in a variety of medical settings such as wound closure, surgical sealants, regenerative medicine, and device attachment. The advantages of tissue adhesives include ease of implementation, rapid application, mitigation of tissue damage, and compatibility with minimally invasive procedures. The field of tissue adhesives is rapidly evolving, leading to tissue adhesives with superior mechanical properties and advanced functionality. Read More

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How happenings do (not) turn into events: A typology and an application to the case of 9/11 in the American and Dutch public spheres.

Br J Sociol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Why do some happenings become incentives for cultural or political transformation (that is: turn into events), whereas others remain ordinary occurrences? The theoretical perspectives of cultural repertoires, cleavage structures, and discursive opportunities are prominent and fruitful approaches for explaining cultural or political behavior and attitudes, yet they do not have a satisfactory answer to this question. To fill in this gap, I introduce a typology that indicates how certain happenings merely reproduce existing trends, whereas other ones turn into motives to change them. This can be either because they are "focus events," which confirm dominant cultural or political patterns, or because they are "shock events," which form a break from them. Read More

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Providers' perspectives on the performance of primary healthcare centres in India: The missing link.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Primary Care, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Primary healthcare centres (PHCs) form the foundation of the Indian public health system, and thus their effective functioning is paramount in ensuring the population's health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set six aspects of performance assessment for general health systems, which are hardly applicable to the PHC setup in a low- and middle-income country. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) has prescribed a framework with five domains consisting of 36 indicators for primary healthcare performance assessment from a policy point of view. Read More

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The DIAMOND portal: An innovative platform for sharing translational research workforce training and assessment resources.

J Clin Transl Sci 2020 Jul 6;4(6):480-484. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Although several initiatives have produced core competency domains for training the translational science workforce, training resources to help clinical research professionals advance these skills reside primarily within local departments or institutions. The Development, Implementation, and AssessMent of Novel Training in Domain (DIAMOND) project was designed to make this training more readily and publicly available. DIAMOND includes a digital portal to catalog publicly available educational resources and an ePortfolio to document professional development. Read More

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A systematic review into healthcare professionals' attitudes towards self-harm in children and young people and its impact on care provision.

J Child Health Care 2021 Apr 30:13674935211014405. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Senior Lecturer, School of Health and Social Care, 4914London South Bank University, London, UK.

Self-harming behaviours in children and young people are an alarming reality, with provision of effective treatment historically compromised. The present systematic literature review highlights attitudes displayed by healthcare professionals towards this health problem, providing valuable insight by analysing how these attitudes can impact patient care. Ten studies were included, allowing creation of a narrative synthesis of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods evidence. Read More

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An untold story of a novel mushroom from tribal cuisine: an ethno-medicinal, taxonomic and pharmacological approach.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata, 700019, West Bengal, India.

India showcases an array of fascinating and rare mushrooms that grow exclusively in the wilderness of West Bengal. Thus, the state has always been our prime choice to document myco-diversity and associated indigenous knowledge. Fortuitously, a recent expedition gifted us a violet-coloured Russuloid macrofungus, called "Jam Patra", that plays an integral part in the food security of local ethnic groups. Read More

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Characterizing Continuous Manipulation Families for Dexterous Soft Robot Hands.

Front Robot AI 2021 13;8:645290. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Foam Robotics Lab, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

There has been an explosion of ideas in soft robotics over the past decade, resulting in unprecedented opportunities for end effector design. Soft robot hands offer benefits of low-cost, compliance, and customized design, with the promise of dexterity and robustness. The space of opportunities is vast and exciting. Read More

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Highly reproducible solid contact ion selective electrodes: Emerging opportunities for potentiometry - A review.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 17;1162:338304. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Singapore; Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore, 637141, Singapore. Electronic address:

The solid contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) have been extensively studied in the field of ion sensing as they offer the possibility of miniaturization, are relatively inexpensive in comparison to other analytical techniques and allow straightforward and routine analyses of ions in a number of clinical, environmental and industrial process samples. In recent years, significant interest has grown in the development of SC-ISEs with well-defined interfacialpotentials at the membrane, solid contact, and substrate electrode interfaces. This has resulted in interesting SC-ISEs exhibiting high electrode-to-electrode potential reproducibility, for those made in a single batch of electrodes, some approaching or exceeding those observed in liquid-contact ISEs. Read More

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Editorial to the Special Issue "Food Bioactives: Chemical Challenges and Bio-Opportunities".

Molecules 2021 Apr 26;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy.

This Special Issue, entitled "Food Bioactives: Chemical Challenges and Bio-Opportunities", was born with the aim of attracting contributions on analytical challenges in food bioactives' chemistry and bioactivity, which form the basis of proper bio-opportunities [... Read More

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Planned Relocation and Health: A Case Study from Fiji.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 20;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Pacific Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development (PACE-SD), Marine Campus, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.

In Fiji, low-lying coastal villages are beginning to retreat and relocate in response to coastal erosion, flooding and saltwater intrusion. Planned relocation is considered a last resort as a form of adaptation to the impacts of climatic and environmental change. The health impacts of planned relocation are poorly understood. Read More

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