102 results match your criteria opium exposure

Cohort-based analysis of paternal opioid use in relation to offspring's BMI and plasma lipid profile.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9462. Epub 2021 May 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

A growing body of evidence suggests that opioid use may affect consumer's offspring by second-hand passive smoke exposure, as well as by transgenerational impacts mediated by genetic and epigenetic alterations of paternal gametes. In human studies, these effects are limited to investigating the neural, behavioral and cognitive characteristics of offspring. Only animal studies have investigated the metabolic parameters influenced by passive opium smoke exposure. Read More

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Dietary quality using four dietary indices and lung cancer risk: the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS).

Cancer Causes Control 2021 May 21;32(5):493-503. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Stony Brook Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: The lung cancer incidence in Iran has increased almost ten times over the past three decades. In addition to the known causes such as smoking and certain occupational exposure, dietary quality has been suggested to play a role in lung cancer. We aim to explore the association between dietary pattern and lung cancer risk among a Middle East population. Read More

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Opium Effect in Pregnancy on the Dynamics of Maternal Behavior: Testing a Neurochemical Model.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 19;80(2):147-157. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Investigations into neurochemical mechanisms of opioid addiction are difficult due to the complexity of behavior and multiplicity of involved neurotransmitter and hormonal systems. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of structured analysis of these mechanisms using the framework of the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) and the example of maternal behavior under the condition of opium consumption in pregnancy. The FET differentiates between (a) endurance, (b) speed of integration, and (c) emotionality aspects of behavior suggesting that these systems are differentially regulated by (a) serotonin-neuropeptides-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), (b) dopamine-GABA, and (c) opioid receptor systems, correspondingly. Read More

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February 2021

Blood Lead Levels in Opium-Poisoned Children: One Cross-Sectional Study in Iran.

Addict Health 2020 Jul;12(3):159-166

Legal Medicine Research Center, Legal Medicine Organization, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Lead poisoning is now more common due to accidental or intentional exposure to opium impregnated with lead. We aimed to determine the relationship between the blood lead levels (BLLs) and basic characteristics in opium-poisoned children.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 32 children younger than 13 years old who had been admitted to Loghman Hakim Poison Center, Tehran, Iran, due to opium poisoning, were evaluated for BLLs. Read More

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Changing trends in the types of drug used and infectious disease prevalence among drug users in jiangsu province, china.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Feb 21;88:103034. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Center for Public Health Research, San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 710, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: In recent years, a boom of synthetic drugs, especially methamphetamine has been documented in China, however, the situation in Jiangsu was unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changing trends in types of drug used, examine the prevalence trends of HIV, syphilis and HCV over time and compare the demographic, drug and sexual behaviors among different types of people who use drugs (PWD) in Jiangsu Province, China.

Methods: Consecutive cross-sectional studies were conducted from 2011 to 2015 in nine compulsory detoxification centers, which were HIV sentinel surveillance sites, in Jiangsu Province, China. Read More

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February 2021

Association of Treatment With Medications for Opioid Use Disorder With Mortality After Hospitalization for Injection Drug Use-Associated Infective Endocarditis.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2016228. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Although hospitalizations for injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis (IDU-IE) have increased during the opioid crisis, utilization of and mortality associated with receipt of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) after discharge from the hospital among patients with IDU-IE are unknown.

Objective: To assess the proportion of patients receiving MOUD after hospitalization for IDU-IE and the association of MOUD receipt with mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study used a population registry with person-level medical claims, prescription monitoring program, mortality, and substance use treatment data from Massachusetts between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015; IDU-IE-related discharges between July 1, 2011, and June, 30, 2015, were analyzed. Read More

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October 2020

Association between mitochondrial DNA content and opium exposure.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Oct 6;34(10):e22559. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

To date, not much study has been done to investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number as the potential biomarker for opium exposure. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the relative mtDNA content as the potential biomarker for opium exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the mtDNA copy number variation across 205 individuals, including blood samples of 45 opium users, 41 cigarette users, 47 dual users, and 72 never users of any product. Read More

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October 2020

The profile of Rafsanjan Cohort Study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 28;36(2):243-252. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Owning the largest human-made jungle of pistachio, the second largest copper mine, and being located on the trade route of opium transit, distinguish Rafsanjan from many other cities in Iran. The environmental exposures and lifestyle factors associated with these characteristics of Rafsanjan, have raised concern about possible health outcomes for individuals living in and around this city. Thus, local health authorities initiated the Rafsanjan Cohort Study (RCS), as part of the prospective epidemiological research studies in IrAN (PERSIAN). Read More

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February 2021

A Preliminary Report on the Largest Ongoing Outbreak of Lead Toxicity in Iran.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11797. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

No countrywide data exists on the patients' characteristics of lead exposure in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics and blood lead level (BLL) of these patients in the country scale during five consecutive years, including the epidemic outbreak year (2016). Between 2014 and 2018, records of all patients who had referred to two reference laboratories in Tehran, Iran, to check BLL were evaluated. Read More

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Clinical trials and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Spyros Retsas

Hell J Nucl Med 2020 Jan-Apr;23(1):4-5

Former Consultant Medical Oncologist, Formerly, Lead Clinician of the Melanoma Unit, Imperial College at Charing Cross Hospital, London, U.K.

"... Read More

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Bladder Cancer in Iran: An Epidemiological Review.

Res Rep Urol 2020 5;12:91-103. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Purpose: Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Iran. Information about the epidemiological situation of the disease and its risk factors is necessary for conducting a planning program to reduce the disease. This study is conducted with the aim of evaluating the epidemiological features of bladder cancer in Iran. Read More

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Emerging therapies for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Mar 9:1-9. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

School of Pharmacy, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Erie, PA, USA.

To examine the evidence for emerging treatment options, buprenorphine or clonidine, as monotherapy for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) against standards of care, morphine or methadone. A PubMed literature search from 1946 to 2019 was performed using the terms NAS, neonatal withdrawal, buprenorphine and NAS, clonidine and NAS, morphine and NAS, methadone and NAS, opioids and pregnancy, opioids and NAS, prenatal exposure and opioids. Study evaluation was limited to English-language studies conducted in humans. Read More

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Determination of thallium in urine, blood, and hair in illicit opioid users in Iran.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2020 Jun 3;39(6):808-815. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Addiction Studies, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Context: Heavy metals, including thallium and lead, are introduced to illicit drug users' body as a result of using drugs such as cocaine and heroin.

Objective: This study aimed to determine urine, blood, and hair thallium (Tl) concentrations in illicit opioid users along with the relevant clinical signs and symptoms consistent with thallotoxicosis and to compare them with the corresponding variables in the control non-opioid user group.

Materials And Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 50 illicit opioid users who had abused opioids continuously for more than a year, referred to Amirie Drug Abuse Treatment Clinic in Kashan, Iran. Read More

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What do we know about health risks related to thebaine in food?

Food Chem 2020 Mar 14;309:125564. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Food Safety, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8 - 10, 10589 Berlin, Germany.

Opium alkaloids such as morphine and thebaine occur in the latex of Papaver somniferum varieties. Some varieties are used for both, pharmaceutical opium alkaloid generation and poppy seed production for food use. Poppy seeds can be contaminated with opium alkaloid-containing latex, e. Read More

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Lead poisoning due to ingestion of lead-contaminated opium: A diagnostic study on patients' imaging findings.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Sep 25;55:26-32. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Washington Poison Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Objectives: Our study attempts to determine if for patients following ingestion of lead-contaminated opium, radiographs [plain X-ray (KUB)] or unenhanced computed tomography (CT scan) of the abdomen may be predictive of lead poisoning.

Methods: Our study is concerned with patients of >21 years with elevated lead concentrations, who had undergone KUB or CT. Patients with other toxicities who had undergone similar imaging profiles but who had low blood lead level (BLL) were enrolled as controls. Read More

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September 2019

Blood lead level risk factors and reference value derivation in a cross-sectional study of potentially lead-exposed workers in Iran.

BMJ Open 2019 07 2;9(7):e023867. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Objectives: This exploratory investigation aimed to measure blood lead levels and associated risk factors in exposed workers in Iran, and to derive appropriate reference values for blood lead in this population as a means of epidemiological comparison.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Manufacturing plants with potential lead exposure in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran. Read More

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A Challenge between Central Nervous System Infection and Lead Toxicity: Opioid Case Reports from Iran.

Iran J Med Sci 2019 Mar;44(2):168-171

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although lead pollution has long been known as a cause of poisoning, it has remained a challenge to reliably diagnose it due to its common symptoms in various diseases. In this article, we report two cases of acute loss of consciousness due to the ingestion of opium-contaminated with lead. The reported cases share patterns of symptoms similar to meningitis and encephalitis which are usual etiology for the loss of consciousness. Read More

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Metabolism and metabolomics of opiates: A long way of forensic implications to unravel.

J Forensic Leg Med 2019 Feb 19;61:128-140. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

IINFACTS - Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, Gandra, Portugal; UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Public Health and Forensic Sciences, and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Opium poppy has important medical, socioeconomic, forensic and political implications. More than 80 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids have been described, many of them with relevant therapeutic properties such as morphine, codeine, papaverine and noscapine. Heroin, a semi-synthetic drug produced from morphine is a worldwide serious cause of morbidity and mortality. Read More

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February 2019

Individual and Combined Effects of Environmental Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer Based on Results From the Golestan Cohort Study.

Gastroenterology 2019 Apr 3;156(5):1416-1427. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Northeast Iran has one of the highest reported rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) worldwide. Decades of investigations in this region have identified some local habits and environmental exposures that increase risk. We analyzed data from the Golestan Cohort Study to determine the individual and combined effects of the major environmental risk factors of ESCC. Read More

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Impact of chronic lead exposure on liver and kidney function and haematologic parameters.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 May 18;124(5):621-628. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Background: Lead, one of the most widely used metals because of its beneficial physical properties, has been reported to adversely influence several different organs and organ systems. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lead exposure on liver and renal function and haematologic parameters.

Methods: This was a case-cohort study comparing adults with occupational, environmental or opium-related lead exposure with blood lead levels [BLL] >10 μg/dL (High blood lead level (HBLL) group and age- and gender-matched normal healthy individuals (Low blood lead level [LBLL] group with BLL <10 μg/dL). Read More

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Opium use during pregnancy and infant size at birth: a cohort study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Oct 1;18(1):358. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit & Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The reported positive association between opiatic drug use during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviors, including the use of other harmful substances. In rural areas of Iran, opium use during pregnancy is relatively common among women who otherwise do not have a hazardous lifestyle, which reduces the risk of residual confounding and increasing the possibility to identify its effects. We aimed to examine the association of antenatal exposure to opium with risks of small for gestational age, short birth length, and small head circumference at birth. Read More

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October 2018

Occurrence of bacterial and toxic metals contamination in illegal opioid-like drugs in Iran: a significant health challenge in drug abusers.

Daru 2018 Sep 29;26(1):77-83. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 8678-3-65178, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: The toxic metals and/or bacterial contaminants in illicit drugs are the main health problems in drug users worldwide. Hence, the potential risks of these contaminants were evaluated in some of the illicit drugs during 2015 and 2016.

Methods: The metals analysis were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Read More

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September 2018

The Texture of Psychoactive Illicit Drugs in Iran: Adulteration with Lead and other Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2018 Nov-Dec;50(5):451-459. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

c Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy , Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University , Tehran , Iran.

Psychoactive illicit drugs are widely used all over the world. Due to the high demand for illicit drugs, adulteration of substances with poisonous and active pharmaceutical ingredients is a common phenomenon in some countries. Lead and other active pharmaceutical ingredients are among adulterants added to illicit drugs intentionally. Read More

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October 2019

Lead poisoning outbreak among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2016-2017.

Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):165-172. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Objective: To describe an outbreak of lead poisoning among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran and estimate the number of affected people in the country.

Methods: We used data from the country's largest poison treatment centre to illustrate the epidemiology of an outbreak of lead poisoning in oral opium users. We describe the government's referral and treatment guidelines in response to the outbreak. Read More

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Synthetic Cannabinoid and Mitragynine Exposure of Law Enforcement Agents During the Raid of an Illegal Laboratory - Nevada, 2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 1;66(47):1291-1294. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures. Read More

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December 2017

Clinical profile of hepatitis C virus infection in a developing country: India.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Apr 14;33(4):926-933. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background And Aim: The epidemiology and clinical profile of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies worldwide, and data from developing countries are sparse. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical profile of HCV infection in a developing country in South-East Asia (India).

Methods: This observational study assessed patient demographics, viral characteristics, risk factors for virus acquisition, and disease characteristics in HCV patients diagnosed between January 2004 and December 2015. Read More

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Association of socioeconomic status with consumption of cigarettes, illicit drugs, and alcohol.

J Ethn Subst Abuse 2019 Apr-Jun;18(2):309-318. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

b Iranian National Centerfor Addiction Studies (INCAS) , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Socioeconomic Status (SES) is considered as one of the important factors associated with use of various drugs. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SES on cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and passive exposure to opium and cigarette smoke. In this study, which is part of a multicenter case-control study, the research hypothesis was checked among controls who had referred to hospitals. Read More

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Clinical Aspects of Opium Adulterated with Lead in Iran: A Review.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Jan 18;122(1):56-64. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. Read More

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January 2018