3,847 results match your criteria opium

Prevalence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in Buprenorphine and Methadone-Maintained Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:641430. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Inserm, Neuro-Dol, Service de Pharmacologie médicale, Centres Addictovigilance et Pharmacovigilance, Centre Evaluation et Traitement de la Douleur, Service Psychiatrie-Addictologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Indeed, chronic pain is highly prevalent, affecting 23-68% of patients receiving opioid agonist treatments (OAT) worldwide. The majority of available estimates come from American studies, but data are still lacking in Europe. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Association between Substance Use Disorders and Long-Term Outcome of Stroke: Results from a Population-Based Study of Stroke among 450,229 Urban Citizens.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, St Joseph's Health Care London, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Little is known regarding long-term stroke outcomes in patients with substance use disorder (SUD). Based on anecdotal data, some individuals use illicit drugs, particularly opioids, in an attempt to reduce stroke mortality, disability, or recurrence. This study is aimed to assess the effect of SUD on stroke outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adverse reactions to illicit drugs (marijuana, opioids, cocaine) and alcohol.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southdale Allergy and Asthma Clinic, LLC, Minneapolis, MN USA. Electronic address:

Drug allergy has been a research topic within the allergy field for decades. However, many drug reactions presumed to be of allergic nature, are not and originate from different mechanisms. Drug-induced reactions can affect numerous organ systems, present with a variety of symptoms, and have more than one mechanism of action. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A morphometric approach to track opium poppy domestication.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9778. Epub 2021 May 7.

ISEM, University of Montpellier, CNRS-IRD-EPHE, Montpellier, France.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. subsp. somniferum) was likely domesticated in the Western Mediterranean, where its putative wild ancestor is indigenous, and then spread to central and northern Europe. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Public Stigma Toward Female and Male Opium and Heroin Users. An Experimental Test of Attribution Theory and the Familiarity Hypothesis.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:652876. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Drug abuse and addiction exist around the world. People addicted to drugs such as opium or heroin often encounter dehumanizing discriminatory behaviors and health-care systems that are reluctant to provide services. Experiencing discrimination often serves as a barrier to receiving help or finding a home or work. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synthesis of Morphinans through Anodic Aryl-Aryl Coupling.

Chem Rec 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

The morphinans are an important class of structurally fascinating and physiologically important natural products as exemplified by the famous opium alkaloids of the morphine family. Although this class of secondary metabolites from the juice of the opium poppy capsule was already used for medicinal purposes thousands of years ago, chemical modifications are still being applied to the core structure today in order to achieve the most specific effect on the various receptor subtypes possible with the fewest possible side effects. The unusual architecture of the morphinan core has also proven to be a highly challenging target for total synthesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Predictive quality control for compound liquorice tablets by the intelligent mergence fingerprint method combined with the systematic quantitative fingerprint method.

Phytochem Anal 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.

Introduction: Compound liquorice tablet (CLT) is a herbal compound preparation and is used as a classic antitussive and expectorant in China. It is composed of liquorice extract powder, opioid powder, star anise oil, camphor, and sodium benzoate. The complexity of herbal materials brings a huge challenge in producing compound preparations with stable and uniform quality consistency. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cohort-based analysis of paternal opioid use in relation to offspring's BMI and plasma lipid profile.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9462. Epub 2021 May 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

A growing body of evidence suggests that opioid use may affect consumer's offspring by second-hand passive smoke exposure, as well as by transgenerational impacts mediated by genetic and epigenetic alterations of paternal gametes. In human studies, these effects are limited to investigating the neural, behavioral and cognitive characteristics of offspring. Only animal studies have investigated the metabolic parameters influenced by passive opium smoke exposure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Common Opioids Involved in Drug Poisoning Presenting to the Emergency Department: A Cross-sectional Study.

J Res Pharm Pract 2020 Oct-Dec;9(4):202-207. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Opioids poisoning is of the most important cause of mortality. The objective of the study was to compare the demographic factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of the most common opioids involved in drug overdose presenting to the Emergency Department.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2016 to March 2017 in the Clinical Toxicology Department of the main referral center of the university. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The Iranian Study of Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN): Rationale, Design, and Initial Findings.

Arch Iran Med 2021 Mar 1;24(3):167-176. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biology, School of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified opium use as a Group 1 carcinogen. However, much remains to be studied on the relation between opium and cancer. We designed the Iranian Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN) study to further investigate the association of opium use and cancers of the head and neck, bladder, lung, and colon and rectum. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Theophrastus Bombastus Von Hohenheim: Theological Reformer, Philosopher and Physician.

J Relig Health 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of History of Medicine and Medical Ethics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Theophrastus Bombastus Von Hohenheim (1493-1541), known as Paracelsus, was a German-Swiss Renaissance man. His interests included alchemy and medicine. During the early 1500s, he worked as a physician, introducing mineral-based therapies to treat ailments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of buprenorphine vs methadone on sleep breathing disorders.

Adv Respir Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tracheal Disease Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Opioids are used widely as analgesics and can play an important role in agonist maintenance therapy for opium dependence. Despite their benefits, the negative effects on the respiratory system remain an important side effect to be considered. Ataxic breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, and most of all central sleep apnea are among these concerns. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of opium addiction on short-term postoperative outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A prospective observational cohort study.

Biomedicine (Taipei) 2020 1;10(4):23-28. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Nasibeh School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Introduction: Opium addiction has been recently suggested as a potential risk factor for the occurrence of perioperative complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether opium addiction can potentially affect patients' short-term postoperative outcomes after CABG surgery.

Material And Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, all consecutive patients who were scheduled for first-time isolated elective on pump CABG surgery were screened during the study period for opium addiction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Fatal Outcome in Acutely Poisoned Children With Hospitalization: A 10-Year Retrospective Study From Tehran, Iran.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the *Department of Pediatrics, Loghman Hakim Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran †King's College London, National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, United Kingdom ‡Kish Institute of Science and Technology §Social Determinants of Health Research Center ∥Department of Clinical Toxicology, Loghman Hakim Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Acute poisoning is a significant and preventable cause of mortality among children internationally. The aims of this study were to assess the case fatality rate of children admitted to an inner-city hospital for acute poisoning and to compare the demographics and source of poisoning of fatal cases.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of patient data recorded in the Hospital Information System for Loghman Hakim Hospital, that is, the central referral hospital for poisoning in Tehran, Iran. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Snapshot of narcotic drugs and psychoactive substances in Kuwait: analysis of illicit drugs use in Kuwait from 2015 to 2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 7;21(1):671. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Narcotic and Psychotropic Laboratory, General Department of Criminal Evidence, Ministry of Interior, Al-Dhajeej, Block 1, Al-Farwaniya City, Kuwait.

Background: The misuse of illicit substances is associated with increased morbidity and mortality; thus, substance abuse is a global health concern. The Arabian Gulf region is considered a crossing point and a consumer of illicit drugs. However, a lack of laboratory-based research has limited the scientific assessment of drug misuse in the Arabian Gulf region. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Opium Addiction and Correlation with Early and Six-month Outcomes of Presenting with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated Initially with Thrombolytic Therapy.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2021 15;11(1):115-123. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

University of Arizona Department of Medicine Tucson, AZ, USA.

Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide. The role of opium addiction in the outcome of myocardial infarction is not known with many unproven beliefs surrounding it. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of opium addiction on in-hospital and six-month outcomes of patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Progressive Education is the Opium of the Educators.

Eugene Matusov

Integr Psychol Behav Sci 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Education, University of Delaware, 16W Main Street, Newark, DE, 19716, USA.

Progressive Education, with its pedagogical desire to engage students in a taught curriculum in a meaningful way, is often viewed in opposition to Conventional Education. In this conceptual paper, I argue that despite and even because of this opposition, Progressive Education contributes to the stability of Conventional Education by making Conventional Education bearable for its teachers. I claim that despite its institutional rarity, Progressive Education remains hegemonic among educators because of its promise of meaningful learning for all their students that can be achieved in and out of the conventional school settings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Opium Usage and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Mar 1;22(3):661-670. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Introduction: Opium is among the most used substance of abuse worldwide. More than 50 million opium users are there worldwide, majority of whom are in Asia. Opium usage have been reported to be associated with cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differentiation of Mitragyna speciosa, a narcotic plant, from allied Mitragyna species using DNA barcoding-high-resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6738. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Research Unit of DNA Barcoding of Thai Medicinal Plants, Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. [MS], or "kratom" in Thai, is the only narcotic species among the four species of Mitragyna in Thailand, which also include Mitragyna diversifolia (Wall. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CDC's Efforts to Quantify Prescription Opioid Overdose Deaths Fall Short.

Pain Ther 2021 Jun 24;10(1):25-38. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Drug Watch International, Inc, Clifton, VA, USA.

In a 2018 report titled, Quantifying the Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Overdose Deaths, four senior analysts of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), including the head of the Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, acknowledged for the first time that the number of prescription opioid overdose deaths reported by the CDC in 2016 was erroneous. The error, they said, was caused by miscoding deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) as deaths involving prescribed fentanyl. To understand what caused this error, the authors examined the CDC's methodology for compiling drug-related mortality data, beginning with the source data obtained from approximately 2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Return of the Quaaludes? Prolonged agitated delirium after intentional ingestion of the methaqualone analog SL-164 - a case report.

Subst Abus 2021 Mar 24:1-3. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Clinical Toxicology and Poison Control Centre Munich, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

: A 22-year-old male with a known history of drug abuse presented to our department with prolonged agitated delirium, myocloni, tachycardia and subfebrile temperature after the deliberate ingestion of opium poppy tea ( L.) together with the methaqualone analog SL-164 (5-chloro-3-(4-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-2-methyl-4()-quinazolinone) which is sold online as a designer drug. : SL-164 and its hydroxy metabolites were detected in serum and urine via liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Opium as a carcinogen: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Mar 24;33:100768. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Opium and its pyrolysates have been investigated as potential carcinogenic material through several studies in different body systems; however, the results were controversial and no consensus was achieved with this regard. Thus, we aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze all existed evidence regarding association between opium consumption and cancer.

Methods: Four major electronic databases including ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase along with Magiran and SID were searched thoroughly for all published articles from inception up to September 25, 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cigarette Smoking Behavior a Gateway to Opium Use Disorder: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

Behav Genet 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Hemmat Highway, Tehran, Iran.

Gateway hypothesis presumes that using a psychotropic drug can increase the probability of using another drug. The study was to assess whether cigarette smoking is a gateway drug for subsequent opium use. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was applied to test and estimate the size of causal effect of cigarette smoking on opium use. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Injection and non-injection drug use among female sex workers in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 04 26;221:108655. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Illicit drug use is a prevalent risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) as it increases the vulnerability of this marginalized population to negative health outcomes, including HIV infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of injection and non-injection drug use among FSWs in Iran.

Methods: Systematic searches of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO (for English records), along with Iranian databases including IranMedex, Iran Psych Magiran, Scientific Information Database, and Irandoc (for Farsi records) were conducted for studies published from inception through to July 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of liver function tests after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 ;12(1):45-52

Department of Internal Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) may have systemic effects on the body organs as liver. The purpose of present study was to evaluate changes in liver function tests(LFT) after on-pump CABG surgery and risk factors associated with LFT changes.Also, the incidence of acute liver injury after on-pump CABG is determined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

: Interdisciplinary Strategies and Avenues for Medical and Commercial Progression Outside of CBD and THC.

Biomedicines 2021 Feb 26;9(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Centre for Plant Science, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

() is one of the world's most well-known, yet maligned plant species. However, significant recent research is starting to unveil the potential of to produce secondary compounds that may offer a suite of medical benefits, elevating this unique plant species from its illicit narcotic status into a genuine biopharmaceutical. This review summarises the lengthy history of and details the molecular pathways that underpin the production of key secondary metabolites that may confer medical efficacy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

[Opioid Substitution Treatment in Germany: Physicians' View on the Effects of the 3rd Revision of the Narcotic Drugs Prescription Ordinance].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Suchtforschung der Universität Hamburg (ZIS), Hamburg, Deutschland.

Study Aim: Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is the most effective drug treatment for opioid dependence worldwide. This form of therapy is also well established in Germany. Nevertheless, there are gaps in the provision of care, especially in rural areas and some states, due to a decreasing number of physicians involved in implementing the substitution programs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) for evaluating and appraising government policy responses to non medical heroin use.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Feb 25:103180. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Globally, non-medical heroin use is generating significant public health and social harms, and drug policy about heroin is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policy responses to illegal heroin markets have varied from militarized eradication of the opium poppy and harsh punishment of users, to more tolerant harm reduction approaches with decriminalized possession and use.

Methods: This paper reports the outcomes of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) on four generic regulatory regimes of heroin: prohibition, decriminalisation, state control and free market. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Long-term opiate use and risk of cardiovascular mortality: results from the Golestan Cohort Study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Mar;28(1):98-106

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Shariati Hospital, North Kargar Avenue, Tehran 14117-13135, Iran.

Aims: Tens of millions of people worldwide use opiates but little is known about their potential role in causing cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the association of long-term opiate use with cardiovascular mortality and whether this association is independent of the known risk factors.

Methods And Results: In the population-based Golestan Cohort Study-50 045 Iranian participants, 40-75 years, 58% women-we used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95% CIs) for the association of opiate use (at least once a week for a period of 6 months) with cardiovascular mortality, adjusting for potential confounders-i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF