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Gut Microbiome Research in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurosci Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan; Multiple Sclerosis Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent studies identified specific gut microbial species linked to various human diseases, and gut-brain axis is currently attracting much attention in the field of microbiome science clinically and biologically. Research on multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is one of the most active research subjects. Notably, recent achievements established the bidirectional causality between MS and gut microbiome. Read More

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Cutaneous Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as Presenting Sign of Systemic B-Cell Lymphoma.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Dermatology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV; Department of Pathology, Penrose-St. Francis Health Services, Colorado Springs, CO; and Department of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente Washington, Seattle, WA.

Abstract: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal proliferative disorder most commonly involving the bone and skin; however, it can arise in many other locations. It is predominantly a pediatric disease, but adult cases occur. Here, we present a case of adult-onset cutaneous LCH with systemic symptoms, believed to represent disseminated LCH. Read More

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A Comparison of Anesthetic Quality Between Interscalene Block and Superior Trunk Block for Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):235-242

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul.

Background: Interscalene block is the most commonly used nerve block for shoulder surgery, and superior trunk block has been investigated as a phrenic-sparing alternative. This randomized controlled trial compared ultrasound-guided interscalene block and superior trunk block as anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

Objectives: Our aims were to determine the superiority of anesthesia quality and compare the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis between these 2 blocks. Read More

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Retronasal olfactory testing in early diagnosed and suspected COVID-19 patients: a 7-week follow-up study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) constitutes a major symptom in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Yet, most data on smell loss rely on the evaluation of orthonasal olfactory performance. Therefore, we aimed to assess retronasal olfactory function (ROF) over a period of several weeks in proven and suspected COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Oculomotor synkinesis: an uncommon sequela of paediatric cavernous sinus thrombosis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 13;14(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Paediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus and Neuro-ophthalmology, Jasti V Ramanamma Children's Eye care Center, Child Sight Institute, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

We report an unusual case of acquired oculomotor synkinesis as a sequela of cavernous sinus thrombosis in a child. A 4-year-old male child presented to our emergency services with sudden onset periorbital swelling with complete ptosis of the left upper eyelid. This was preceded by a febrile episode and a furuncle at the tip of the nose. Read More

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Late-Onset Encephalopathy Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

J Neurol Res 2020 Dec 9;10(6):237-239. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Several typical and atypical neurological manifestations of viral pandemics have been reported. Neurological manifestations of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have recently been reported. In this case report, we present a patient with encephalopathy as a late neurologic manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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December 2020

A case report of sudden-onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder associated with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (riboflavin transporter deficiency).

Int J Audiol 2021 May 13:1-7. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, Division of Child Neurology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe a child with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) associated with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome, which is a rare, inherited, neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by defects in riboflavin transporter genes.

Design: We report the audiological and clinical profile of a child who presented with a complaint of sudden loss of speech understanding associated with an atypical form of ANSD. He was later diagnosed with BVVL. Read More

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Cohort study protocol to characterize the incidence and severity of neuropathic pain in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.

Pain Rep 2021 20;6(1):e925. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Introduction And Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in patients experiencing symptoms that include neurological dysfunction. As many viral infections are associated with neuropathy, the aim of the study is to characterize the incidence and severity of neuropathic pain in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: A cohort study will be conducted in adult (≥18 years) patients who were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at Washington University/Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Read More

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Clinicopathological Analysis of 34 Cases of Primary Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis in Chinese Children.

Front Pediatr 2021 26;9:656307. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Rheumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

This study aimed to summarize the clinicopathological features and prognostic risk factors of primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) in children. Clinical and prognostic data for children admitted to our center with AAV between September 2003 and September 2020 were studied retrospectively. The incidence and risk factors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated and analyzed. Read More

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Critical diagnostic delay associated with unusual presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with orbital metastases: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Orbital metastases are an extremely rare finding in patients with hepatocarcinoma (HCC), especially as its first presentation. Therefore, the risk of misdiagnosis is high, as well as that of drastic delays of the therapeutic algorithm. Here we report a 71-year-old man presenting with orbital metastases as the initial sign of HCC, whose initial misdiagnosis led to the impossibility to start life-saving cancer treatment. Read More

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Brief hypoxia in late gestation sheep causes prolonged disruption of fetal electrographic, breathing behaviours and can result in early labour.

J Physiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Key Points: Brief episodes of severe fetal hypoxia can arise in late gestation due to interruption of normal umbilical blood flow Systemic parameters and blood chemistry indicate complete recovery within 1-2 hours, but the long-term effects on fetal brain functions are unknown Fetal sheep were subjected to umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) for 10 mins at 131 days gestation, and then monitored intensively until onset of labour or delivery (<145 days gestation) Normal patterns of fetal behaviour, including breathing movements, episodes of high and low voltage electorcortical activity, eye movements, and postural (neck) muscle activity were disrupted for 3-10 days after the UCO Preterm labour and delivery occurred in a significant number of the pregnancies after UCO, compared to the control (sham-UCO) cohort.

Abstract: Complications arising from antepartum events such as impaired umbilical blood flow can cause significant fetal hypoxia. These complications can be unpredictable, difficult to detect, and thus we lack a detailed understanding of the (patho)physiological changes that occur between the antenatal in utero event and birth. Read More

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Hippocampal atrophy is associated with psychotic symptom severity following traumatic brain injury.

Brain Commun 2021 9;3(2):fcab026. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.

Psychosis is a rare, but particularly serious sequela of traumatic brain injury. However, little is known as to the neurobiological processes that may contribute to its onset. Early evidence suggests that psychotic symptom development after traumatic brain injury may co-occur with hippocampal degeneration, invoking the possibility of a relationship. Read More

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Chronic Nonbacterial Osteomyelitis of the Sternocostoclavicular Region in Adults: A Single-Center Dutch Cohort Study.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 10;5(5):e10490. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Centre for Bone Quality, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology Leiden University Medical Center Leiden The Netherlands.

Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is a rare autoinflammatory bone disorder caused by chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), which is associated with sclerosis and hyperostosis primarily affecting the sternum, the medial end of the clavicles, and the first ribs. Other areas of the axial skeleton may also be affected. The more severe synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is additionally associated with dermatoses and joint manifestations. Read More

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Protracted Hiccups Induced by Aripiprazole and Regressed after Administration of Gabapentin.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 22;2021:5567152. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 57, 56100 Pisa, Italy.

Hiccups are sudden, repeated, and involuntary contractions of the diaphragm muscle (myoclonic contraction). It involves a reflex arc that, once activated, causes a strong contraction of the diaphragm immediately followed by the closure of the glottis translating into the classic "hic" sound. Hiccups can be short, persistent, and intractable depending on the duration. Read More

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Delayed-Onset ADA1 (ADA) Deficiency Not Detected by TREC Screen.

Pediatrics 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; and.

A 9-month-old boy presented to a community pediatrician with a recent history of failure to thrive. Workup revealed neutropenia and lymphopenia. Subsequent admission for fever and pneumonia revealed an absolute neutrophil count of 860 and absolute lymphocyte count of 214. Read More

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Altered alcohol consumption during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.

Nutr J 2021 05 11;20(1):44. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine I, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, University Hospital, Ziemssenstrasse 1, 80336, Munich, Germany.

Background: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019, many countries around the world have imposed lockdown measures in order to reduce virus spread. Social isolation is known to have a significant psychological impact, potentially triggering alcohol misuse in adults. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown measures on alcohol consumption in adults in Bavaria. Read More

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Ingestion of food grade hydrogen peroxide with resultant gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy: case report and review with emphasis on the therapeutic value of HBO2 in vascular gas embolism.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):177-186

Department of Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio U.S.

A 52-year-old male accidentally ingested approximately 100 mL of 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), resulting in the sudden onset of gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms. Non-contrast abdominal CT revealed extensive portal venous gas and gastric pneumatosis. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy which resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Read More

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Maximum Nidus Depth as a Risk Factor of Surgical Morbidity in Eloquent Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;132:91-100

Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Eloquent location of a brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is known to increase the surgical risk. Surgical removal of such BAVMs is challenging. Useful indicators for the safe removal of eloquent BAVMs are needed. Read More

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January 2021

Microneurosurgery for Paraclinoid Aneurysms in the Context of Flow Diverters.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;132:47-53

Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

The advent of flow diverter (FD) stents has apparently reduced the role of microneurosurgery for paraclinoid aneurysms despite sparse high-quality evidence about their long-term effects.The present study critically reviews the overall results of a microneurosurgical series of 57 paraclinoid aneurysms.Of these aneurysms, 47. Read More

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January 2021

Phenotypic implications of pathogenic variant types in Pompe disease.

J Hum Genet 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Newborn screening and therapies for Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II, acid maltase deficiency) will continue to expand in the future. It is thus important to determine whether enzyme activity or type of pathogenic genetic variant in GAA can best predict phenotypic severity, particularly the presence of infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) versus late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 participants with genetically-confirmed cases of Pompe disease. Read More

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Telemedicine for management of patients with lung cancer during COVID-19 in an Italian cancer institute: SmartDoc Project.

Tumori 2021 May 10:3008916211012760. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: Telemedicine, and particularly video-consulting, has rapidly accelerated since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. The role of e-healthcare for the management of patients with lung diseases is evolving. We report the results of the initial experience of the SmartDoc Project, a telemedicine program activated in a cancer center (Istituto Nazionale Tumori) at the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic onset in Italy. Read More

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Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor-associated euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis that prompted the diagnosis of fulminant type-1 diabetes: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(13):3163-3169

Department of Diabetes, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu 514-8507, Japan.

Background: Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) is a subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus characterized by an abrupt onset and a rapid and complete functional loss of islet β cells. It is a very rare disease generally associated with ketoacidosis and the absence of circulating pancreatic islet-related autoantibodies. Diabetic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose levels has been reported during sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor therapy. Read More

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Prolonged Ventilatory Support for Patients Recovering From Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Feb;11(1):18-24

Lane Fox Respiratory Service (MCFC, NH, MRBE, JES, RSH), St. Thomas' Hospital, Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS (Foundation) Trust; Lane Fox Clinical Respiratory Physiology Research Centre (MCFC, PBM, NH), St. Thomas' Hospital, Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS (Foundation) Trust; Department of Neurology (MRBE, JES), St. Thomas' Hospital, Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS (Foundation) Trust, London, United Kingdom; and Central Clinical School (MCFC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Australia.

Background: Recovery from Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may be protracted, and patients may need prolonged ventilatory support. We present clinical data from a tertiary referral weaning center managing patients with GBS requiring prolonged ventilatory support.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients managed in a 34-bed specialist ventilator weaning facility in London, United Kingdom, between 2006 and 2017. Read More

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February 2021

Presumed septic sacroiliitis in a puppy with unilateral hind limb lameness and sciatic nerve neuropathy.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Peninsula Emergency and Referral Hospital, Mornington, Vic., Australia.

A 5-month-old female entire Dachshund presented with an acute onset of left hind limb lameness following intense play. There were concurrent intermittent neurological deficits in the left hind limb, and pain in the lumbosacral region and on dorsal flexion of the tail. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed an asymmetric widening of the left sacroiliac joint with loss of cortical margins, accompanied by mild osteolytic changes of the adjacent ilium and sacrum highly suggestive of septic sacroiliitis. Read More

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Predictors of mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia - a retrospective study.

Adv Respir Med 2021 ;89(2):135-144

Department of Respiratory Medicine, JSS Medical College, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: The novel coronavirus pandemic has caused significant mortality throughout the world. This study was done as there is scarce data on mortality predictors in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients admitted to ICU in the Indian population.

Material And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on COVID-19 pneumonia patients admitted to tertiary care center during June-October 2020. Read More

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January 2021

Self-reported smell and taste recovery in coronavirus disease 2019 patients: a one-year prospective study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to estimate the 1 year prevalence and recovery rate of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction in a series of subjects with previous mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19.

Methods: Prospective study based on the SNOT-22, item "sense of smell or taste" and additional outcomes.

Results: 268/315 patients (85. Read More

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Fatal arterial hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy: How do we simultaneously accomplish complete hemostasis and hepatic arterial flow?

World J Hepatol 2021 Apr;13(4):483-503

Department of Surgery, Shiga General Hospital, Moriyama 524-8524, Shiga, Japan.

Background: Although arterial hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is not frequent, it is fatal. Arterial hemorrhage is caused by pseudoaneurysm rupture, and the gastroduodenal artery stump and hepatic artery (HA) are frequent culprit vessels. Diagnostic procedures and imaging modalities are associated with certain difficulties. Read More

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Unraveling the Complex Interplay Between Transcription Factors and Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Differentiation and Function, From Embryos to Adults.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:654569. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.

Thyroid differentiation of progenitor cells occurs during embryonic development and in the adult thyroid gland, and the molecular bases of these complex and finely regulated processes are becoming ever more clear. In this , we describe the most recent advances in the study of transcription factors, signaling molecules and regulatory pathways controlling thyroid differentiation and development in the mammalian embryo. We also discuss the maintenance of the adult differentiated phenotype to ensure the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. Read More

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Heschl's Gyrus Duplication Pattern in Individuals at Risk of Developing Psychosis and Patients With Schizophrenia.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 20;15:647069. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

An increased prevalence of duplicated Heschl's gyrus (HG), which may reflect an early neurodevelopmental pathology, has been reported in schizophrenia (Sz). However, it currently remains unclear whether individuals at risk of psychosis exhibit similar brain morphological characteristics. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the distribution of HG gyrification patterns [i. Read More

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Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery May Serve As a Tissue Clock in Patients Treated With Endovascular Thrombectomy.

Stroke 2021 May 7:STROKEAHA120033374. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurology, Nippon Medical School Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Background And Purpose: We investigated whether the signal change on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) can serve as a tissue clock that predicts the clinical outcome after endovascular thrombectomy (EVT), independently of the onset-to-admission time.

Methods: Consecutive patients with acute stroke treated with EVT between September 2014 and December 2018 were enrolled. Based on the parenchymal signal change on FLAIR, patients were classified into FLAIR-negative and FLAIR-positive groups. Read More

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