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Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Failure, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Primary Care Research Network-based Study.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Aims: This study aims to assess the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and their combined presence in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in primary care for whom the 2019 ADA/EASD consensus update "Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes" recommends GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-I) as first-line medications after metformin.

Methods: Data were obtained in 2015 from Intego, a morbidity registration network of 111 general practitioners (GPs) working in 48 practices and including 123 261 registered patients.

Results: Of 123 261 patients, 9616 had T2D. Read More

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The effect of body fatness on regional brain imaging markers and cognitive function in healthy elderly mediated by impaired glucose metabolism.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 11;140:488-495. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea; Department of Public Health, Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Incheon, 21983, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Brain atrophy is related to vascular risk factors and can increase cognitive dysfunction risk. This community-based, cross-sectional study investigated whether glucose metabolic disorders due to body fatness are linked to regional changes in brain structure and a decline in neuropsychological function in cognitively healthy older adults. From 2016 to 2019, 429 participants underwent measurements for cortical thickness and subcortical volume using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and for cognitive function using the neuropsychological screening battery. Read More

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Reduced ambient PM better lung function, and decreased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 18;156:106706. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Shenzhen Research Institute of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Background: Several studies reported that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) was associated with an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It remains unclear whether reduced PM can decrease the risk of COPD development.

Objective: To investigate the associations of dynamic changes (including deterioration and improvement) in long-term exposure to ambient PM with changes in lung function and the incidence of COPD. Read More

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Exploring personal chemical exposures in China with wearable air pollutant monitors: A repeated-measure study in healthy older adults in Jinan, China.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 18;156:106709. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

The health impact of airborne contaminants has been challenging to assess due to current limitations in measurement technologies. The emergence of wearable passive samplers coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) chemical analysis has enabled comprehensive characterization of personal exposures. We conducted a repeated-measure study among 84 older adults in Jinan, China, as part of the Biomarkers for Air Pollutants Exposure (China BAPE) study. Read More

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Long-term care spending and hospital use among the older population in England.

J Health Econ 2021 Jun 4;78:102477. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute for Fiscal Studies, 7 Ridgmount Street, London WC1E 7AE, UK. Electronic address:

This paper examines the impact of changes in public long-term care spending on the use of public hospitals among the older population in England. Mean per-person long-term care spending fell by 31% between 2009/10 and 2017/18, but cuts varied considerably geographically. We instrument public long-term care spending with predicted spending based on historical national funding shares and national spending trends. Read More

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Age-related differences in the retrieval of phonologically similar words during sentence processing: Evidence from ERPs.

Brain Lang 2021 Jun 18;220:104982. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

We investigated how phonologically similar words are encoded and retrieved from memory during sentence processing across younger and older adults. Critical sentences included two phonologically similar or dissimilar noun phrases (henceforth NPs) followed by a pronoun. We examined brain activity time-locked to the onsets of the second NP, and the pronoun to investigate the encoding and retrieval of the NPs, respectively. Read More

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Drug repurposing: Iron in the fire for older drugs.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 18;141:111638. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Shri Sachhidanand Shikshan Santh's Taywade College of Pharmacy, Nagpur 441111, India. Electronic address:

Repositioning or "repurposing" of existing therapies for indications of alternative disease is an attractive approach that can generate lower costs and require a shorter approval time than developing a de novo drug. The development of experimental drugs is time-consuming, expensive, and limited to a fairly small number of targets. The incorporation of separate and complementary data should be used, as each type of data set exposes a specific feature of organism knowledge Drug repurposing opportunities are often focused on sporadic findings or on time-consuming pre-clinical drug tests which are often not guided by hypothesis. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Preterm Infants With Bilirubin Encephalopathy Beyond Three Years Corrected Age.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 May 28;121:56-58. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in preterm infants with bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) become less clear as the infants age. We assessed MRI findings in children with preterm BE older than 36 months corrected age (CA).

Methods: In a previous questionnaire survey, hospitals were asked to provide head MRI data of patients older than 36 months CA. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality among COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 11;14(8):994-1000. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Background: The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused more than 1.8 million deaths, with a fatality rate of 2.5% in more than 200 countries as of January 4, 2021. Read More

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How children and adults value different animal lives.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jun 18;210:105204. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YF, UK.

The current study modeled the attributions underlying moral concern for animals during childhood and adulthood with the aim of better understanding how concern for animals develops. In total, 241 children aged 6-10 years and 152 adults appraised a range of animals on seven appraisal dimensions and, subsequently rank-ordered which animals they would save in a medicine allocation task. Structural equation modeling revealed several developmental continuities and discontinuities in the dimensions children and adults used to evaluate animal lives. Read More

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Black-White racial health disparities in inflammation and physical health: Cumulative stress, social isolation, and health behaviors.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 May 8;131:105251. Epub 2021 May 8.

Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Black Americans have vastly increased odds and earlier onsets of stress- and age-related disease compared to White Americans. However, what contributes to these racial health disparities remains poorly understood. Using a sample of 1577 older adults (32. Read More

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Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Adherence to Mediterranean Diet with Physical Performance and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Jun 18:101395. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

National Institute of Gastroenterology "Saverio de Bellis", Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: The present study investigated the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and physical performance and cognitive function in older adults.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated older adults aged 60+ years and assessed adherence to MeDi diet using validated composite scores. Observational studies, including cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal cohort studies, if crude baseline data was available, which investigated as a primary or secondary outcome the association of MeDi diet adherence with physical performance and/or cognitive function in non-demented older adults were included in the cross-sectional analysis. Read More

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Deficits in geriatric assessment associate with disease activity and -burden in older patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: We aimed to perform geriatric assessment in older inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to evaluate which IBD characteristics associate with deficits in geriatric assessment and the impact of deficits on disease burden (health-related quality of life (HRQoL)).

Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study including 405 consecutive outpatient IBD patients aged ≥65 years. Somatic domain (comorbidity, polypharmacy, malnutrition), impairments in (instrumental) activities of daily living, physical capacity (handgrip strength, gait speed), mental (depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment), and social domain (life-partner) were assessed. Read More

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The association of epigenetic clocks in brain tissue with brain pathologies and common aging phenotypes.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jun 18:105428. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Chicago, IL, United States of America; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States of America.

Epigenetic clocks are calculated by combining DNA methylation states across select CpG sites to estimate biologic age, and have been noted as the most successful markers of biologic aging to date. Yet, limited research has considered epigenetic clocks calculated in brain tissue. We used DNA methylation states in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex specimens from 721 older participants of the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project, to calculate DNA methylation age using four established epigenetic clocks: Hannum, Horvath, PhenoAge, GrimAge, and a new Cortical clock. Read More

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Does it Matter Who Decides? Outcomes of Surrogate Decision-Making for Community-Dwelling, Cognitively Impaired Older Adults Near the End of Life.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Context: Cognitively impaired older adults frequently need surrogate decision-making near the end-of-life. It is unknown whether differences in the surrogate's relationship to the decedent are associated with different end-of-life treatment choices.

Objectives: To describe differences in end-of-life care for community dwelling, cognitively impaired older adults when children and spouses are involved in decision-making. Read More

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Noninvasive assessment of congestive hepatopathy in patients with constrictive pericardial physiology using MR relaxometry.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Dept of Imaging and Pathology, KU Leuven and Dept of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Constrictive pericarditis represents a treatable cause of mainly right heart failure (RHF), characterized by increased filling pressures and congestive hepatopathy. We hypothesized assessment of T1 and T2 liver relaxation times enables to depict liver congestion, and thus to diagnose RHF.

Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in 45 pericarditis patients i. Read More

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Postoperative continuous positive airway pressure to prevent pneumonia, re-intubation, and death after major abdominal surgery (PRISM): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

Authors:

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Background: Respiratory complications are an important cause of postoperative morbidity. We aimed to investigate whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) administered immediately after major abdominal surgery could prevent postoperative morbidity.

Methods: PRISM was an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 70 hospitals across six countries. Read More

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Erectile function in men with type 2 diabetes treated with dulaglutide: an exploratory analysis of the REWIND placebo-controlled randomised trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

St John's Medical College, St John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Background: Diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, however, the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on erectile dysfunction is unknown. We aimed to assess the incidence, prevalence, and progression of erectile dysfunction in men treated with dulaglutide compared with placebo, and to determine whether dulaglutide's effect on erectile dysfunction was consistent with its effect on other diabetes-related outcomes.

Methods: The Researching Cardiovascular Events with a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial of the effect of dulaglutide on cardiovascular outcomes. Read More

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Palliative Rehabilitation Improves Health Care Utilization and Function in Frail Older Adults With Chronic Lung Diseases.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

Objectives: The Integrated Care for Advanced REspiratory Disorders (ICARE) service is a stay-in, post-acute care program for hospitalized patients with chronic, nonmalignant lung diseases. It provides palliative rehabilitation-a novel model integrating functional rehabilitation with early palliative care. We compare reduction of health care utilization among ICARE participants vs matched controls receiving usual care. Read More

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Neonatal presentation of genetic epilepsies: Early differentiation from acute provoked seizures.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Saint-Luc University Hospital, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: Although most seizures in neonates are due to acute brain injury, some represent the first sign of neonatal onset genetic epilepsies. Delay in recognition and lack of expert assessment of neonates with epilepsy may result in worse developmental outcomes. As in older children and adults, seizure semiology in neonates is an essential determinant in diagnosis. Read More

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Using a daily diary approach to examine the early effects of COVID-19 on daily physical activity bouts and contexts among residents of Colorado and California.

Transl Behav Med 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

COVID-19 restrictions may prevent adults from achieving sufficient physical activity (PA) and may affect PA context. This study examined the early effects of COVID-19 on daily PA bouts and contexts during April-June 2020 using a daily diary approach. Adults (N = 390) completed daily diary surveys for 28 days assessing number of PA bouts and social (e. Read More

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Fitness vs. fatness as determinants of survival in non-institutionalized older adults: The EXERNET multi-center study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Background: Physical fitness and body composition are important health indicators, nevertheless their combined pattern inter-relationships and their association with mortality are poorly investigated.

Methods: This longitudinal study is part of the Spanish EXERNET-Elder project. Person-months follow-up were calculated from the interview date, performed between June 2008 and November 2009, until date of death or censoring on March 2018 (whichever came first). Read More

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Cognitive Reserve Moderates Associations Between Walking Performance Under Single and Dual-Task Conditions and Incident Mobility Impairment in Older Adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York, USA.

Background: Among older adults, walking performance is a reliable indicator of adverse health outcomes including incident mobility impairment. Whereas, attention and executive functions have been implicated in cognitive control of locomotion, much less is known about the role of Cognitive Reserve (CR) in predicting mobility impairments among older adults. Specifically, whether CR moderates the relationship between gait performance and incident mobility impairment, has not been reported. Read More

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Effectiveness of the Wearable Sensor based Ambient Intelligent Geriatric Management System (AmbIGeM) in Preventing Falls in Older People in Hospitals.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, WA,  Australia.

Background: The AmbIGeM system augments best practice and involves a novel wearable sensor (accelerometer and gyroscope) worn by patients where the data captured by the sensor is interpreted by algorithms to trigger alerts on clinician handheld mobile devices when risk movements are detected.

Methods: A 3-cluster stepped wedge pragmatic trial investigating the effect on the primary outcome of falls rate and secondary outcome of injurious fall and proportion of fallers. Three wards across two states were included. Read More

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Mid-Life Vision Impairment and Cognitive Function in Later Life: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Cohort.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: In older adults, vision impairment (VI) is associated with worse cognitive function. However, the relationship between mid-life vision and future cognitive function remains unknown.

Methods: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), Michigan site, is a longitudinal cohort of mid-life women age 42-52 years at baseline. Read More

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Blood coagulation parameter abnormalities in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(6):e0252939. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Coagulopathy and thromboembolic events are among the complications of Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Abnormal coagulation parameters in COVID-19 patients are important prognostic factors of disease severity. The aim of this study was to analyze coagulation profiles of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Read More

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Heat health risk assessment analysing heatstroke patients in Fukuoka City, Japan.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(6):e0253011. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Kyushu Environmental Evaluation Association, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: Climate change, as a defining issue of the current time, is causing severe heat-related illness in the context of extremely hot weather conditions. In Japan, the remarkable temperature increase in summer caused by an urban heat island and climate change has become a threat to public health in recent years.

Methods: This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors for heatstroke by analysing data extracted from the records of emergency transport to the hospital due to heatstroke in Fukuoka City, Japan. Read More

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Stunting in pre-school and school-age children in the Peruvian highlands and its association with Fasciola infection and demographic factors.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 21;15(6):e0009519. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic trematode infection that is endemic in the highlands of Peru. Chronic fascioliasis can be asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed for years. Chronic malnutrition in children, as manifested by stunting, leads to delayed cognitive development and lost productivity. Read More

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Iris Melanocytoma in a Child: Clinical and Histopathological Findings.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 21;22:e931385. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Melanocytoma is rare and can affect any part of the uveal tract. In rare cases, iris melanocytoma shows signs of growth, with extrascleral extension that mimics melanoma. This phenomenon makes clinical differentiation between the 2 pathologies particularly challenging. Read More

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Cerebrovascular Disease Correlates With Longitudinal Brain Atrophy in Virally Suppressed Older People Living With HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Aug;87(4):1079-1085

Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California San Francisco, CA.

Background: Mild cognitive difficulties and progressive brain atrophy are observed in older people living with HIV (PLWH) despite persistent viral suppression. Whether cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume correspond to the observed progressive brain atrophy is not well understood.

Methods: Longitudinal structural brain atrophy rates and WMH volume were examined among 57 HIV-infected participants and 40 demographically similar HIV-uninfected controls over an average (SD) of 3. Read More

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