25,828 results match your criteria offspring development

Racial/Ethnic Differences in 30-Year Trajectories of Cannabis Use among Males.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Given that cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, continuous research on patterns of cannabis use over the life course can help to ensure progress towards improving public health and reducing health inequalities across race/ethnicity. Thus, we examine racial/ethnic differences in cannabis use trajectories among males across two overlapping stages of the life course. We use data from two companion studies, the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS - a longitudinal cohort study that followed participants from adolescence into adulthood), and its intergenerational extension - the Rochester Intergenerational Study. Read More

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Placental adaptation to maternal malnutrition.

Reproduction 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

G Wu, Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, United States.

Maternal malnutrition gives rise to both short- and long-term consequences for the survival and health of the offspring. As the intermediary between mother and fetus, the placenta has the potential to interpret environmental signals, such as nutrient availability, and adapt to support fetal growth and development. While this potential is present, it is clear that at times, placental adaptation fails to occur resulting in poor pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Children's education and level of health care utilization among parents: a pooled cross-sectional study from national population-based survey in India.

Geroscience 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The study of upward spill over on parents of their offspring's education is vital for understanding the family dynamics and role of adult children in the decisions of parents. Such association has widespread implication and application on ageing policies. We use pooled data from population-based cross-sectional health consumption surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization in 2014 and 2018 (rounds 71 and 75, respectively) in this study. Read More

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Are you my mummy? Long-term olfactory memory of mother's body odour by offspring in the domestic cat.

Anim Cogn 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Longevity of odour memories, particularly those acquired during early development, has been documented in a wide range of taxa. Here, we report that kittens of the domestic cat retained a memory into adult life of their mother´s body odour experienced before weaning. Kittens from 15 litters were tested when permanently separated from their mother at weaning on postnatal week 8, and tested again when 4 and 6 months and over 1 year of age. Read More

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Maternal caregiving ameliorates the consequences of prenatal maternal psychological distress on child development.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA.

Children exposed to prenatal maternal psychological distress are at elevated risk for a range of adverse outcomes; however, it remains poorly understood whether postnatal influences can ameliorate impairments related to prenatal distress. The current study evaluated if sensitivematernal care during the first postnatal year could mitigate child cognitive and emotional impairments associated with prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal maternal psychological distress was assessed via self-reports of anxiety, depression, and perceived stress for 136 mothers at five prenatal and four postpartum time points. Read More

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Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure on the Developing Human Brain: A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging Studies.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Padova Neuroscience Center (PNC), University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy.

Methamphetamine (MA) can cross the placenta in pregnant women and cause placental abruption and developmental alterations in offspring. Previous studies have found prenatal MA exposure effects on the social and cognitive performance of children. Recent studies reported some alterations in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prenatal MA-exposed offspring. Read More

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Caste development and sex ratio of the Ryukyu drywood termite Neotermes sugioi and its potential mechanisms.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15037. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Field Science Education and Research Center, Hokkaido Forest Research Station, Kyoto University, 553 Tawa, Shibecha-cho, Kawakami-gun, Hokkaido, 088-2339, Japan.

Sex allocation is one of the most studied traits in evolutionary biology because its theoretical predictions match the empirical data. Here, using the Ryukyu dry-wood termite Neotermes sugioi, we investigated several factors that could bias the sex allocation in three populations (Okinawa, Ishigaki/Iriomote, and Yonaguni). Our survey showed that there were more queen-only colonies than king-only colonies in these populations, suggesting a longer lifespan of the queens than that of the kings. Read More

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Generation and first characterization of TRDC-knockout pigs lacking γδ T cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14965. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Immunology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, Insel Riems, 17493, Greifswald, Germany.

The TRDC-locus encodes the T cell receptor delta constant region, one component of the γδ T cell receptor which is essential for development of γδ T cells. In contrast to peptide recognition by αβ T cells, antigens activating γδ T cells are mostly MHC independent and not well characterized. Therefore, the function of γδ T cells and their contribution to protection against infections is still unclear. Read More

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Allergen shedding in human milk: could it be key for immune system education and allergy prevention?

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia; In Vivo Planetary Health. Electronic address:

In addition of being a source of nutrients for the developing newborn, human milk contains thousands of bioactive compounds, which influence infant health in the short-term as exemplified by its major benefits on infectious disease prevention. Many of the human milk compounds also have the required characteristics to instruct immune development and guide long-term health. Prebiotics, probiotics, varied antimicrobial molecules, all have the potential to shape the composition and function of the establishing gut microbiota, which is known to be a major determinant of immune function. Read More

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[Growth in children and in the offspring whose mothers adhere to vegetarian diets: Literature review].


Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 Aug;119(4):S77-S106

The prevalence of vegetarianism is rising worldwide and there is no consensus about whether it is adequate during the growth period. The objective of this descriptive review is to find out if vegetarian children and children born from mothers who follow vegetarian diets, grow different from those who follow omnivorous diets. Results. Read More

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Podocyte endowment and the impact of adult body size on kidney health.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 07 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Stem Cells and Development Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Low birth weight is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), while adult podocyte depletion is a key event in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. However, whether low birth weight due to poor maternal nutrition is associated with low podocyte endowment and glomerulosclerosis in later life is not known. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (NPD, 20%) or low (LPD, 8%) protein diet from 3 weeks before mating until postnatal day 21 (PN21), when kidneys from some male offspring were taken for quantitation of podocyte number and density in whole glomeruli using immunolabeling, tissue clearing and confocal microscopy. Read More

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Early life exposures and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 15;36:100884. Epub 2021 May 15.

The Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Early life exposures impact immune system development and therefore the risk of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We systematically reviewed the impact of pre-, peri‑, and postnatal exposures up to the age of five years on subsequent IBD diagnosis.

Methods: We identified case-control and cohort studies reporting on the association between early life environmental factors and Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), or IBD overall. Read More

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Maternal High-Fat Diet Exposure During Gestation and Lactation Affects Intestinal Development in Suckling Rats.

Front Physiol 2021 8;12:693150. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Animal Physiology, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna, Poland.

Maternal health and diet influence metabolic status and play a crucial role in the development of metabolic function in offspring and their susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adulthood. The pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders is often associated with impairment in intestinal structure and function. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the effects of maternal exposure to a high fat diet (HFD), during gestation and lactation, on small intestinal growth and maturation in rat pups at 21 days old. Read More

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Maternally derived low glucocorticoid mediates adrenal developmental programming alteration in offspring induced by dexamethasone.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;797:149084. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

Adverse environments during pregnancy can increase susceptibility to chronic diseases in adult offspring. The occurrence and development of fetal-originated diseases were associated with adrenal developmental programming and homeostasis alteration in offspring. Dexamethasone is widely used for preterm delivery-related pregnancy diseases, but the intrauterine programming alteration and its occurrence mechanism of prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) on adrenal development in offspring have not been clarified. Read More

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Effect of RNAi targeting CYP6CY3 on the growth, development and insecticide susceptibility of Aphis gossypii by using nanocarrier-based transdermal dsRNA delivery system.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Aug 24;177:104878. Epub 2021 May 24.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang, China. Electronic address:

RNA interference (RNAi) has been proved to be a viable method for agricultural pest control. Due to the limited uptake of dsRNA in hemiptera insects, this study used nanocarrier SPc (star polycation) transdermal delivery systems to deliver two truncated fragments (P1/P2) dsRNA of the CYP6CY3 for silencing this target gene in Aphis gossypii. After the cotton aphid was sprayed with the SPc + dsP1/P2 mixture, the expression level of target gene in SPc + dsP1 treatment group was not different from that in dsP1 group at 24 h, 48 h, and significantly lower than that in dsP1 group at 60 h, 72 h, respectively; and the expression level of target gene in SPc + dsP2 treatment group was not different from that in dsP2 group at 24 h, and significantly lower than that in dsP2 group from 48 h, 60 h, 72 h, respectively. Read More

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A Novel Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Inhibitor Potently Prevents Transmission to Foetuses in Mouse.

Molecules 2021 Jul 10;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Infectiologie et Santé Publique, National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment, Université de Tours, 37000 Tours, France.

Treatments currently used to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis are non-specific of and have grievous side effects. To develop a more specific and less toxic drug, we have designed SP230, an imidazo[1,2-]pyridazine salt targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) and active against acute toxoplasmosis in mice. Efficiency of SP230 to inhibit foetal transmission of the parasite was evaluated in a mouse model of congenital toxoplasmosis. Read More

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Combined Exposure to Diazinon and Nicotine Exerts a Synergistic Adverse Effect In Vitro and Disrupts Brain Development and Behaviors In Vivo.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

A real-life environment during pregnancy involves multiple and simultaneous exposures to toxic chemicals. Perinatal exposures to toxic chemicals have been reported to exert an inhibitory effect on mouse neural development and behaviors. However, the effect of combined exposures of organophosphate and nicotine has not been previously reported. Read More

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Epigenetic Changes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 17;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

II Chair and Department of Gynecology, Medical University of Lublin, Street: Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin, Poland.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that appears or is for the first time diagnosed during pregnancy. It can lead to many complications in the mother and in the offspring, so diagnostics and management of GDM are important to avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes. Epigenetic studies revealed the different methylation status of genes in pregnancies with GDM compared to pregnancies without GDM. Read More

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Perinatal High-Fat Diet Influences Ozone-Induced Responses on Pulmonary Oxidant Status and the Molecular Control of Mitophagy in Female Rat Offspring.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, 6200 Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Previous research has shown that a perinatal obesogenic, high-fat diet (HFD) is able to exacerbate ozone-induced adverse effects on lung function, injury, and inflammation in offspring, and it has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated herein. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a perinatal obesogenic HFD affects ozone-induced changes in offspring pulmonary oxidant status and the molecular control of mitochondrial function. For this purpose, female Long-Evans rats were fed a control diet or HFD before and during gestation, and during lactation, after which the offspring were acutely exposed to filtered air or ozone at a young-adult age (forty days). Read More

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Paeoniflorin ameliorates oxidase stress in Glutamate-stimulated SY5Y and prenatally stressed female offspring through Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 17;294:189-199. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Biomedicine Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province, school of pharmacy, Northwest University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Northwest University), Ministry of Education, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Background: Prenatal stress (PS) can cause brain retardation, reduce the learning and memory ability of the offspring and significantly increase the incidence of depression in offspring. Paeoniflorin (PF), a kind of monoterpenoid glycoside, is one of the main active ingredients of Chinese Medicine Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has anti-inflammation and potential neuroprotective effects. However, few reports have shown that the neuroprotective effects of PF are exerted through ameliorating Glutamate toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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No impact of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy complications in women with PCOS, regardless of GDM criteria used.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(7):e0254895. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Endocrinology, Clinic of Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, and women with PCOS have high prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM). Both conditions have been associated with increased risk for pregnancy complications such as preterm birth, preeclampsia and increased offspring birth weight. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of GDM in women with PCOS using both previous and new diagnostic criteria, and to analyse whether the risk of pregnancy complications increased with the presence of GDM. Read More

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Chronic stress and poor sleeping habits are associated with self-reported IBS and poor psychological well-being in the general population.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Jul 22;14(1):280. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Jan Waldenström Street 15, Floor 5, 20502, Malmö, Sweden.

Objective: The present population-based study aimed to examine the association of chronic stress and sleeping difficulties with self-reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms past 2 weeks, and psychological well-being.

Results: The Malmö Offspring Study included subjects from the general population to complete a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and medical health. Experience of chronic stress during the past or past 5 years was reported. Read More

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Genetic mapping of novel modifiers for Apc induced intestinal polyps' development using the genetic architecture power of the collaborative cross mice.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 22;22(1):566. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Microbiology & Immunology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Ramat Aviv, 69978, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited genetic disease, characterized by colorectal polyps. It is caused by inactivating mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. Mice carrying a nonsense mutation in the Apc gene at R850, which is designated Apc (Multiple intestinal neoplasia), develop intestinal adenomas. Read More

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Salivary parameters alterations after early exposure to environmental methylmercury: A preclinical study in offspring rats.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 16;68:126820. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Laboratory of Functional and Structural Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, Belém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) is still considered a global pollutant of major concern; thus, it becomes relevant to investigate and validate alternative diagnostic methods to track early-life human exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary parameters and to characterize potential mechanisms of oxidative damage on the salivary glands (SG) of offspring rats after pre- and postnatal environmental-experimental MeHg exposure.

Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were daily exposed to 40 μg/kg MeHg during both gestational and lactation periods. Read More

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Maternal urinary cadmium concentrations in early pregnancy in relation to prenatal and postpartum size of offspring.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 16;68:126823. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The impacts of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on birth size parameters including weight, length and head circumference (HC) have been reported in multiple studies. However, little remains known of the impacts of maternal Cd exposure during pregnancy on size during in utero development and during early childhood. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate impacts of maternal Cd exposure during pregnancy on the size of offspring in utero (from 24 weeks pregnancy) until six months of age. Read More

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Male microchimerism in females: a quantitative study of twin pedigrees to investigate mechanisms.

Hum Reprod 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Amsterdam Reproduction and Development (AR&D) Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Study Question: Does having a male co-twin, older brothers, or sons lead to an increased probability of persistent male microchimerism in female members of twin pedigrees?

Summary Answer: The presence of a male co-twin did not increase risk of male microchimerism and the prevalence of male microchimerism was not explained by having male offspring or by having an older brother.

What Is Known Already: Microchimerism describes the presence of cells within an organism that originate from another zygote and is commonly described as resulting from pregnancy in placental mammals. It is associated with diseases with a female predilection including autoimmune diseases and pregnancy-related complications. Read More

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Maternal and neonatal canine cortisol measurement in multiple matrices during the perinatal period: A pilot study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254842. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Stress exposure during perinatal period may lead to maternal cortisol increase that negatively affects the offspring development. In recent years, the interest on non-invasive sampling methods to measure cortisol as a marker of stress is increasing in both humans and animals. Indeed, discomfort due to blood collection may compromise the diagnostic outcome, mainly in uncooperative patients. Read More

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Maternal obesity increases the risk and severity of NAFLD in offspring.

J Hepatol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden; Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK; Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Background And Aims: Maternal obesity has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring, but its relationship to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear.

Methods: Through the nationwide ESPRESSO cohort study we identified all individuals in Sweden with biopsy-verified NAFLD ≤25 years of age diagnosed between 1992 and 2016 (n=165). These were matched on age, sex, and calendar year with up to 5 controls (n=717). Read More

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Maternal genotypes of folate/one-carbon metabolism gene variants and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate risk in Chile.

Eur J Oral Sci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a case-control design, the association between maternal genotypes for variants in 23 genes involved in folate/one-carbon metabolism and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) in a Chilean population. After applying several filters to an Illumina array, we extracted 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 150 mothers of NSCL/P cases and 150 control women. Association was evaluated using computed odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) in additive, recessive, and dominant models. Read More

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The effect of temperature on host patch exploitation by an egg parasitoid.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254750. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Département de sciences biologiques, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

The effect of temperature during host patch exploitation by parasitoids remains poorly understood, despite its importance on female reproductive success. Under laboratory conditions, we explored the behaviour of Anaphes listronoti, an egg parasitoid of the carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis, when foraging on a host patch at five temperatures. Temperature had a strong effect on the female tendency to exploit the patch: A. Read More

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