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Postpartum Depression and Psychosis and Subsequent Severe Mental Illnesses in Mothers and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children: A Nationwide Study.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Jul 27;82(4). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

The association between postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis and subsequent maternal and offspring mental disorders in Western countries has been established; however, whether the relationship can be generalized to the Asian population is unknown.

Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, this study enrolled 933,745 mother-infant pairs who delivered their first child and had no history of severe mental illness before childbirth from 2001 to 2010. Postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis were assessed in 3 periods between childbirth and 3, 6, or 12 months after childbirth. Read More

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The asthma predictive index as a surrogate diagnostic tool in preschoolers: Analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Diagnosing asthma in preschool children remains an unsolved challenge, at a time when early identification would allow for better education and treatment to prevent morbidity and lung function deterioration.

Objective: To evaluate if the asthma predictive index (API) can be used as surrogate for asthma diagnosis in preschoolers.

Methods: Birth cohort of 339 pregnant women enrolled at delivery and their offspring, who were followed for atopy, wheezing, and other respiratory illnesses through 30 months of age. Read More

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The last will: Estate divisions as a testament of to whom altruism is directed.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0254492. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

We use data on estate divisions to study to whom altruistic preferences are directed. Insofar bequests are given without the prospect of future personal benefits in mind, they are presumably intrinsically motivated. Hence, estate divisions provide a rare opportunity to study intrinsically motivated prosocial behavior in the field. Read More

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Flower orientation influences floral temperature, pollinator visits, and plant fitness.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Plant Biology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Effective insect pollination requires appropriate responses to internal and external environmental cues in both the plant and the pollinator. Helianthus annuus, a highly outcrossing species, is remarkable for its uniform eastward orientation of mature pseudanthia, or capitula. Here we investigate how this orientation affects floral microclimate and the consequent effects on plant and pollinator interactions and reproductive fitness. Read More

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Correlation between antibody response against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in sows and their offspring under field conditions.

Vet World 2021 Jun 29;14(6):1689-1694. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Farm Resources and Production Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Background And Aim: Thai pig farmers have suffered huge financial losses from porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) since 2007. PED, caused by the PED virus (PEDV), leads to severe diarrhea, vomiting, and subsequent dehydration in suckling piglets. Lactogenic immunity derived from colostrum and milk is very important because immunoglobulins (Ig) cannot cross the placenta in pregnant sows. Read More

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Exome sequencing of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia supports a causal role for NR2F2, PTPN11, and WT1 variants.

Am J Surg 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Center for Maternal-Fetal Precision Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: To identify genes associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) to help understand the etiology and inform prognosis.

Methods: We performed exome sequencing on fetuses with CDH and their parents to identify rare genetic variants likely to mediate risk. We reviewed prenatal characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Read More

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Racial/Ethnic Differences in 30-Year Trajectories of Cannabis Use among Males.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Given that cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, continuous research on patterns of cannabis use over the life course can help to ensure progress towards improving public health and reducing health inequalities across race/ethnicity. Thus, we examine racial/ethnic differences in cannabis use trajectories among males across two overlapping stages of the life course. We use data from two companion studies, the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS - a longitudinal cohort study that followed participants from adolescence into adulthood), and its intergenerational extension - the Rochester Intergenerational Study. Read More

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Could Vitamin C Protect Against Mercuric Chloride Induced Lung Toxicity In The Offspring Rat: A Histological And Immunohistochemical Study.

Ultrastruct Pathol 2021 Jul 27:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez University, Suez, Egypt.

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Male age alone predicts paternity success under sperm competition when effects of age and past mating effort are experimentally separated.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jul 28;288(1955):20210979. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.

Older males often perform poorly under post-copulatory sexual selection. It is unclear, however, whether reproductive senescence is because of male age itself or the accumulated costs of the higher lifetime mating effort that is usually associated with male age. To date, very few studies have accounted for mating history and sperm storage when testing the effect of male age on sperm traits, and none test how age and past mating history influence paternity success under sperm competition. Read More

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The association between personalities, alternative breeding strategies, and reproductive success in dunnocks.

J Evol Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King Street, Dunedin, 9016, New Zealand.

Although consistent between-individual differences in behaviour (i.e. animal personality) are ubiquitous in natural populations, relatively few studies have examined how personalities influence the formation of social relationships. Read More

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Placental adaptation to maternal malnutrition.

Reproduction 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

G Wu, Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, United States.

Maternal malnutrition gives rise to both short- and long-term consequences for the survival and health of the offspring. As the intermediary between mother and fetus, the placenta has the potential to interpret environmental signals, such as nutrient availability, and adapt to support fetal growth and development. While this potential is present, it is clear that at times, placental adaptation fails to occur resulting in poor pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Children's education and level of health care utilization among parents: a pooled cross-sectional study from national population-based survey in India.

Geroscience 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The study of upward spill over on parents of their offspring's education is vital for understanding the family dynamics and role of adult children in the decisions of parents. Such association has widespread implication and application on ageing policies. We use pooled data from population-based cross-sectional health consumption surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization in 2014 and 2018 (rounds 71 and 75, respectively) in this study. Read More

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Weight Loss Prior to Pregnancy and Early Gestational Glycemia: Prepare, a Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Kaiser Permanente, Center for Health Research, 3800 N. Interstate Ave, Portland, OR.

Purpose: To determine whether pre-pregnancy weight loss improved the early metabolic environment as measured by early gestational diabetes diagnosis.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a pragmatic randomized clinical trial conducted between May 2015 and October 2019 in an integrated health system that encouraged first trimester gestational diabetes screening for high-risk women, including those with obesity. Women aged 18-40 years with BMI ≥27 kg/m 2 who were planning pregnancy were randomized to a behavioral weight loss intervention or usual care. Read More

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[Quantification, dietary intake adequacy, and food sources of nutrients involved in the methionine-methylation cycle (choline, betaine, folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12) in pregnant women in Spain].

Nutr Hosp 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad San Pablo-CEU.

Objective: a quantification of dietary intakes of the micronutrients involved in the methylation-methionine cycle (choline, betaine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12) in a representative sample of pregnant women in Spain; assessment of intake adequacy to available official recommendations; and analysis of their main food sources.

Material And Methods: the median intake of each micronutrient was established using food consumption data reported in the National Dietary Survey of adults, the elderly, and pregnant women (ENALIA-2) (n = 133). For folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, nutritional composition data from the Spanish Food Composition Tables were used, whereas for choline and betaine, which are not included in European food composition databases, the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was considered. Read More

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Are you my mummy? Long-term olfactory memory of mother's body odour by offspring in the domestic cat.

Anim Cogn 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Longevity of odour memories, particularly those acquired during early development, has been documented in a wide range of taxa. Here, we report that kittens of the domestic cat retained a memory into adult life of their mother´s body odour experienced before weaning. Kittens from 15 litters were tested when permanently separated from their mother at weaning on postnatal week 8, and tested again when 4 and 6 months and over 1 year of age. Read More

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Maternal Oxycodone Treatment Results in Neurobehavioral Disruptions in Mice Offspring.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Christopher S Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 USA

Opioid drugs are increasingly being prescribed to pregnant women. Such compounds can also bind and activate opioid receptors in the fetal brain, which could lead to long term brain and behavioral disruptions. We hypothesized that maternal treatment with oxycodone (OXY), the primary opioid at the center of the current crisis, leads to later neurobehavioral disorders and gene expression changes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of resulting offspring. Read More

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Maternal caregiving ameliorates the consequences of prenatal maternal psychological distress on child development.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA.

Children exposed to prenatal maternal psychological distress are at elevated risk for a range of adverse outcomes; however, it remains poorly understood whether postnatal influences can ameliorate impairments related to prenatal distress. The current study evaluated if sensitivematernal care during the first postnatal year could mitigate child cognitive and emotional impairments associated with prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal maternal psychological distress was assessed via self-reports of anxiety, depression, and perceived stress for 136 mothers at five prenatal and four postpartum time points. Read More

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Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure on the Developing Human Brain: A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging Studies.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Padova Neuroscience Center (PNC), University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy.

Methamphetamine (MA) can cross the placenta in pregnant women and cause placental abruption and developmental alterations in offspring. Previous studies have found prenatal MA exposure effects on the social and cognitive performance of children. Recent studies reported some alterations in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prenatal MA-exposed offspring. Read More

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Discovery of genomic variation across a generation.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

The Centre for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada.

Over the past thirty years (the timespan of a generation), advances in genomics technologies have revealed tremendous and unexpected variation in the human genome and have provided increasingly accurate answers to long-standing questions of how much genetic variation exists in human populations and to what degree the DNA complement changes between parents and offspring. Tracking the characteristics of these inherited and spontaneous (or de novo) variations has been the basis of the study of human genetic disease. From genome-wide microarray and next-generation sequencing scans, we now know that each human genome contains over 3 million single nucleotide variants when compared to the ~ 3 billion base pairs in the human reference genome, along with roughly an order of magnitude more DNA-approximately 30 megabase pairs (Mb)-being 'structurally variable', mostly in the form of indels and copy number changes. Read More

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Caste development and sex ratio of the Ryukyu drywood termite Neotermes sugioi and its potential mechanisms.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15037. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Field Science Education and Research Center, Hokkaido Forest Research Station, Kyoto University, 553 Tawa, Shibecha-cho, Kawakami-gun, Hokkaido, 088-2339, Japan.

Sex allocation is one of the most studied traits in evolutionary biology because its theoretical predictions match the empirical data. Here, using the Ryukyu dry-wood termite Neotermes sugioi, we investigated several factors that could bias the sex allocation in three populations (Okinawa, Ishigaki/Iriomote, and Yonaguni). Our survey showed that there were more queen-only colonies than king-only colonies in these populations, suggesting a longer lifespan of the queens than that of the kings. Read More

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Generation and first characterization of TRDC-knockout pigs lacking γδ T cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14965. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Immunology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, Insel Riems, 17493, Greifswald, Germany.

The TRDC-locus encodes the T cell receptor delta constant region, one component of the γδ T cell receptor which is essential for development of γδ T cells. In contrast to peptide recognition by αβ T cells, antigens activating γδ T cells are mostly MHC independent and not well characterized. Therefore, the function of γδ T cells and their contribution to protection against infections is still unclear. Read More

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Allergen shedding in human milk: could it be key for immune system education and allergy prevention?

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia; In Vivo Planetary Health. Electronic address:

In addition of being a source of nutrients for the developing newborn, human milk contains thousands of bioactive compounds, which influence infant health in the short-term as exemplified by its major benefits on infectious disease prevention. Many of the human milk compounds also have the required characteristics to instruct immune development and guide long-term health. Prebiotics, probiotics, varied antimicrobial molecules, all have the potential to shape the composition and function of the establishing gut microbiota, which is known to be a major determinant of immune function. Read More

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The maternal gut microbiome during pregnancy and offspring allergy and asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institute for Physical and Mental Health and Clinical Transformation, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Child Health Research Unit, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia. Electronic address:

Environmental exposures during pregnancy that alter both the maternal gut microbiome and the infant's risk of allergic disease and asthma include a traditional farm environment and consumption of unpasteurized cow's milk, antibiotic use, dietary fiber and psychosocial stress. Multiple mechanisms acting in concert may underpin these associations and prime the infant to acquire immune competence and homeostasis following exposure to the extrauterine environment. Cellular and metabolic products of the maternal gut microbiome can promote the expression of microbial pattern recognition receptors, as well as thymic and bone marrow hematopoiesis relevant to regulatory immunity. Read More

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Atopic dermatitis trajectories to age 8 years in the GUSTO cohort.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.

Background: The heterogeneity of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) underscores the need to understand latent phenotypes that may inform risk stratification and disease prognostication.

Objective: To identify AD trajectories across the first 8 years of life, investigate risk factors associated with each trajectory and their relationships with other comorbidities.

Methods: Data were collected prospectively from 1152 mother-offspring dyads in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort from ages 3 months to 8 years. Read More

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[Growth in children and in the offspring whose mothers adhere to vegetarian diets: Literature review].

Authors:

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 Aug;119(4):S77-S106

The prevalence of vegetarianism is rising worldwide and there is no consensus about whether it is adequate during the growth period. The objective of this descriptive review is to find out if vegetarian children and children born from mothers who follow vegetarian diets, grow different from those who follow omnivorous diets. Results. Read More

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Genetic counseling and screening of consanguineous couples and their offspring practice resource: Focused Revision.

J Genet Couns 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Genetics, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

There are no evidence-based guidelines to inform genetic counseling for consanguineous couples and their offspring. This focused revision builds on the expert opinions from the original publication of "Genetic Counseling and Screening of Consanguineous Couples and Their Offspring," based on a review of literature published since 2002. Read More

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Placental insufficiency induces a sexually dimorphic response in the expression of cardiac growth and metabolic signalling molecules upon exposure to a postnatal western diet in guinea pigs.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Jul 26:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Early Origins of Adult Health Research Group, Health and Biomedical Innovation, UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

There is a strong relationship between low birth weight (LBW) and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In postnatal life, LBW offspring are becoming more commonly exposed to the additional independent CVD risk factors, such as an obesogenic diet. However, how an already detrimentally programmed LBW myocardium responds to a secondary insult, such as an obesogenic diet (western diet; WD), during postnatal life is ill defined. Read More

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Podocyte endowment and the impact of adult body size on kidney health.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 07 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Stem Cells and Development Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Low birth weight is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), while adult podocyte depletion is a key event in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. However, whether low birth weight due to poor maternal nutrition is associated with low podocyte endowment and glomerulosclerosis in later life is not known. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (NPD, 20%) or low (LPD, 8%) protein diet from 3 weeks before mating until postnatal day 21 (PN21), when kidneys from some male offspring were taken for quantitation of podocyte number and density in whole glomeruli using immunolabeling, tissue clearing and confocal microscopy. Read More

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Maternal immune activation as a risk factor for psychiatric illness in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Authors:
Brittney Lins

Brain Behav Immun Health 2021 Oct 15;16:100297. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia.

Inflammation, due to infectious pathogens or other non-infectious stimuli, during pregnancy is associated with elevated risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Although historically identified through retrospective epidemiologic studies, the relationship between maternal immune activation and offspring neurodevelopmental disease risk is now well established because of clinical studies which utilized prospective birth cohorts, serologically confirmed infection records, and subsequent long-term offspring follow-up. These efforts have been corroborated by preclinical research which demonstrates anatomical, biochemical, and behavioural alterations that resemble the clinical features of psychiatric illnesses. Read More

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October 2021

Enduring problems in the offspring of depressed parents followed up to 38 years.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 13;38:101000. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Background: while the increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in offspring of depressed parents is one of the best-replicated findings in psychiatry, their long-term outcomes are less well known. The clinical outcomes of biological offspring of depressed (high-risk) and not depressed (low-risk) parents who have been directly interviewed over the years are presented.

Methods: longitudinal retrospective cohort study began in 1982, and 276 biological offspring of moderately-to-severely depressed or non-depressed parents from the same community were followed up to 38 years. Read More

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