32,183 results match your criteria offset


Neural networks for parameter estimation in microstructural MRI: application to a diffusion-relaxation model of white matter.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 22:118601. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Radiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Specific features of white matter microstructure can be investigated by using biophysical models to interpret relaxation-diffusion MRI brain data. Although more intricate models have the potential to reveal more details of the tissue, they also incur time-consuming parameter estimation that may converge to inaccurate solutions due to a prevalence of local minima in a degenerate fitting landscape. Machine-learning fitting algorithms have been proposed to accelerate the parameter estimation and increase the robustness of the attained estimates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Topical Application of Vitamin D-Loaded Hybrid Nanosystem to Offset Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Sep 24;22(7):238. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (BITS, Pilani), Vidya Vihar Campus, Pilani, Rajasthan, 333 031, India.

Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles display several benefits over either lipid and/or polymer based systems with respect to enhanced drug loading, good colloidal stability, sustained release profile, and high cellular uptake. The present work rivets on development and evaluation of vitamin D-loaded monolithic lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (VD3/LPHNPs) for their in vivo anti-psoriatic efficacy. These LPHNPs were prepared using a hot homogenization method and exhibited spherical morphology with a lower particle size (123. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Heterothermy as a mechanism to offset energetic costs of environmental and homeostatic perturbations.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19038. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA.

Environmental and biotic pressures impose homeostatic costs on all organisms. The energetic costs of maintaining high body temperatures (T) render endotherms sensitive to pressures that increase foraging costs. In response, some mammals become more heterothermic to conserve energy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: a propensity score-matched analysis.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Sep 24;11(9):159. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

The present study evaluated outcomes and prognostic factors in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Among patients in first complete remission (CR1), outcomes of syngeneic HSCT (Syn) were compared with those of autologous HSCT (Auto), allogeneic HSCT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor (MSD), or allogeneic HSCT from HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD). Among 11,866 patients receiving first HSCT, 26 in the Syn group were analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Association between polygenetic risk scores related to sarcopenia risk and their interactions with regular exercise in a large cohort of Korean adults.

Authors:
Sunmin Park

Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 9;40(10):5355-5364. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Obesity/Diabetes Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Sarcopenia elevates metabolic disorders in the elderly, and genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of sarcopenia. The purpose of the study was to examine the hypothesis that polygenetic variants for sarcopenic risk had interactions with metabolic disorders and lifestyles associated with sarcopenia risk in adults >50 years in a large urban hospital cohort.

Methods: Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass/body weight (SMI) < 29. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Autophagy, TERT, and mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperoxia.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine, grid.30760.32Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

Ventilation with gases containing enhanced fractions of oxygen is the cornerstone of therapy for patients with hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Yet, hyperoxia treatment increases free reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung injury, which is reported to disrupt autophagy/mitophagy. Altered extranuclear activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, TERT, plays a protective role in ROS injury and autophagy in the systemic and coronary endothelium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Groove-Deepening Trochleoplasty Reduces Lateral Patellar Maltracking and Increases Patellofemoral Contact Pressures: Dynamic Simulation.

J Orthop Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA.

Groove-deepening trochleoplasty is performed to restore patellar stability by increasing the lateral constraint applied to the patella by the trochlear groove. Multibody dynamic simulation of knee function was used to characterize the influence of groove-deepening trochleoplasty on patellar tracking and patellofemoral contact pressures. Computational models were created to represent seven knees with trochlear dysplasia, indicated by a flat trochlear groove and supratrochlear spur. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Perioperative amino acid infusion reestablishes muscle net balance during total hip arthroplasty.

Physiol Rep 2021 Sep;9(18):e15055

Department of Geriatrics, Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Surgery and anesthesia induce a catabolic response that leads to skeletal muscle protein loss. Previous investigations have observed positive effects of perioperative nutrition. Furthermore, the benefits of exogenous amino acids on muscle protein kinetics are well established. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Supine versus lateral position for total hip replacement: accuracy of biomechanical reconstruction.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, 501 Smyth Road, CCW 1638, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6, Canada.

Background: Restoration of normal hip anatomy and biomechanics is a key surgical goal for success in total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence, if any, that patient positioning in the supine and lateral decubitus positions has in achieving this goal.

Materials And Methods: A single center multi-surgeon case-matched series from a tertiary level referral center of patients undergoing primary unilateral THA for osteoarthritis between April 2018 and December 2019 was retrospectively analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Restored relationship between ENSO and Indian summer monsoon rainfall around 1999/2000.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 May 2;2(2):100102. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was identified as the dominant predictor for the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) in the early 1900s. An apparent weakening of the ENSO-ISMR relationship has been observed since the 1970s. Here, we found a clear restoration of the ENSO-ISMR relationship since 1999/2000. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Saccharification Potential of Transgenic Greenhouse- and Field-Grown Aspen Engineered for Reduced Xylan Acetylation.

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:704960. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

High acetylation of xylan in hardwoods decreases their value as biorefinery feedstocks. To counter this problem, we have constitutively suppressed genes encoding acetyl-CoA transporters using the promoter, or constitutively and wood-specifically (using the promoter) expressed fungal acetyl xylan esterases of families CE1 () and CE5 (), to reduce acetylation in hybrid aspen. All these transformations improved the saccharification of wood from greenhouse-grown trees. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Non-invasively measured brain activity and radiological progression in diffuse glioma.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18990. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, O|2 building 13W09, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Non-invasively measured brain activity is related to progression-free survival in glioma patients, suggesting its potential as a marker of glioma progression. We therefore assessed the relationship between brain activity and increasing tumor volumes on routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in glioma patients. Postoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded in 45 diffuse glioma patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Does pre-existing morbidity influences risks and benefits of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective study of 6682 patients from linked national datasets in England.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 23;11(9):e046712. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology, and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery for elderly people with multimorbidity increases the risk of serious health hazards including mortality. Whether such background morbidity reduces the clinical benefit is less clear.

Objective: To evaluate how pre-existing health status, using multiple approaches, influences risks of, and quality of life benefits from, THA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Intracranial Hemorrhage During Dual Antiplatelet Therapy: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(13):1372-1384

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; St Michael's Hospital, Unity Health Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with acetylsalicylic acid and a P2Y inhibitor is an established therapy for a broad spectrum of patients with cardiovascular disease. The ischemic benefit of DAPT is partially offset by its increased bleeding risk, with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) being the most serious complication. Although uncommon (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Direct solid sample analysis using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools for the geographical discrimination of coffee samples.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 7;371:131063. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Rio de Janeiro State University, Chemical Engineering Graduate Program, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013, RJ, Brazil.

This work aims the study chemometric methods for the classification of the origin of coffee samples. Samples of finely pulverized coffee grains were analyzed by synchronous molecular fluorescence spectroscopy to carry out the classification. The spectral data of the samples were obtained in triplicate in two offsets: 10 nm (with emission wavelengths from 240 nm to 600 nm) and 40 nm (from 240 nm to 560 nm), all with 1 nm resolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

miR-19b-3p relieves intervertebral disc degeneration through modulating PTEN/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Authors:
Yulin Zhao Aimin Li

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Sep 23;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, ShanDong University, Qingdao 266035, ShanDong, China.

Emerging studies have revealed that non-coding RNAs contribute to regulating intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Here, we intended to probe into the function of in IVDD evolvement. The level in the intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues of IVDD patients and IL-1β/TNF-α/hydrogen peroxide-treated human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs) was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Rapid Enrichment of Submicron Particles within a Spinning Droplet Driven by a Unidirectional Acoustic Transducer.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

Efficient and rapid particle enrichment at the submicron scale is essential for research in biomedicine and biochemistry. Here, we demonstrate an acoustofluidic method for submicron particle enrichment within a spinning droplet driven by a unidirectional transducer. The unidirectional transducer generates intense sound energy with relatively low attenuation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

High varus stem alignment in short-stem total hip arthroplasty: a risk for reconstruction of femoro-acetabular offset, leg length discrepancy and stem undersizing?

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department for Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kepler University Hospital GmbH, Krankenhausstrasse 9, 4020, Linz, Austria.

Purpose: Short stems are increasingly used in in total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of advantages in bone and soft tissue preservation and reconstruction of hip geometry. Short stems can be inserted in a more varus position compared to conventional straight stems. This poses the risk of final varus misplacement of the femoral component, which is not intended in all femoral short stems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Effect of Intraoperative Radiographs on Component Position and Leg Length during Routine Posterior Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Hip Pelvis 2021 Sep 6;33(3):128-139. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute, Alexandria, VA, USA.

Purpose: Accurate component placement and restoration of patient anatomy are critical in total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery. Although intraoperative radiographs are sometimes utilized, it is unclear whether this practice can improve accuracy.

Materials And Methods: This study evaluated acetabular cup abduction, anteversion, leg length, and offset among 100 posterior approach THAs performed without imaging (No X-ray group) and compared them to a subsequent series of 100 THAs where an intraoperative radiograph was taken with the trial components in place (X-ray group). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Weightbearing Computed Tomography for Assessment of Foot and Ankle Deformities: The Iowa Experience.

Iowa Orthop J 2021 ;41(1):111-119

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT) is a reliable and precise modality for the measurement and analysis of bone position in the foot and ankle, as well as associated deformities. WBCT to assess three dimensional relationships among bones allowed the development of new measurements, as the Foot and Ankle Offset (FAO), which has high inter and intra-rater reliability. This study reports the University of Iowa's experience utilizing WBCT for the care of foot and ankle patients by describing its utility across different orthopedic diseases in improving diagnostic assessment, aiding surgical planning, and expanding the use for objective clinical follow-up. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The importance of environmental microbes for Drosophila melanogaster during seasonal macronutrient variability.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 22;11(1):18850. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, 9220, Aalborg, Denmark.

Experiments manipulating the nutritional environment and the associated microbiome of animals have demonstrated their importance for key fitness components. However, there is little information on how macronutrient composition and bacterial communities in natural food sources vary across seasons in nature and on how these factors affect the fitness components of insects. In this study, diet samples from an orchard compost heap, which is a natural habitat for many Drosophila species and other arthropods, were collected over 9 months covering all seasons in a temperate climate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The effect of price on cigarette consumption, distribution, and sale in Tehran: a qualitative study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 22;21(1):1720. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Appropriate increases in tobacco taxes and prices are an essential component of comprehensive tobacco control strategies. This study investigates factors related to the use, sale, and distribution of cigarettes in Iran, focusing on the relationship between cigarette price and its consumption.

Methods: This interview-based qualitative study was conducted among 20 participants, including cigarette smokers, retail shop owners, large-scale distributors, and an expert in tobacco control research. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

External snapping hip syndrome is associated with an increased femoral offset.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Forchstrasse 340, 8008, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: External snapping hip syndrome (ESH) is postulated to be one of the causes of greater trochanteric pain syndrome, which also includes greater trochanteric bursitis and tendinopathy or tears of the hip abductor mechanism. However, it was not yet described what kind of bony morphology can cause the snapping and whether symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals have different imaging features.

Purpose: It was the purpose of this study to look for predisposing morphological factors for ESH and to differentiate between painful and asymptomatic snapping. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Ganglion cells in larval zebrafish retina integrate inputs from multiple cone types.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Unit on Neural Circuits, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Rockville, MD, United States.

We recently showed the presence of 7 physiological cone opsins - R1 (575nm), R2 (556nm), G1 (460nm), G3 (480nm), B1 (415nm), B2 (440nm), UV (358nm) - in ERG recordings of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina. Larval ganglion cells (GCs) are generally thought to integrate only 4 cone opsin signals (red, green blue and UV). We address the question as to whether they may integrate 7 cone spectral signals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

A machine learning interpretation of the contribution of foliar fungicides to soybean yield in the north-central United States.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18769. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Foliar fungicide usage in soybeans in the north-central United States increased steadily over the past two decades. An agronomically-interpretable machine learning framework was used to understand the importance of foliar fungicides relative to other factors associated with realized soybean yields, as reported by growers surveyed from 2014 to 2016. A database of 2738 spatially referenced fields (of which 30% had been sprayed with foliar fungicides) was fit to a random forest model explaining soybean yield. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Teaching strategies and outcomes in 3 different times of the COVID-19 pandemic through a dynamic assessment of medical skills and wellness of surgical trainees.

Surgery 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of General Surgery, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic had a substantial impact on surgical training programs. This study describes the teaching strategies and outcomes in 3 different times of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic through a dynamic assessment of medical skills and well-being of trainees.

Methods: Three surveys were administered during 2020 to general surgery residents and fellows in a university hospital in Argentina. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reducing stiffness of shock-absorbing pylon amplifies prosthesis energy loss and redistributes joint mechanical work during walking.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Sep 21;18(1):143. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA.

Background: A shock-absorbing pylon (SAP) is a modular prosthetic component designed to attenuate impact forces, which unlike traditional pylons that are rigid, can compress to absorb, return, or dissipate energy. Previous studies found that walking with a SAP improved lower-limb prosthesis users' comfort and residual limb pain. While longitudinal stiffness of a SAP has been shown to affect gait kinematics, kinetics, and work done by the entire lower limb, the energetic contributions from the prosthesis and the intact joints have not been examined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Core body temperature changes in school-age children with circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder.

Sleep Med 2021 Sep 3;87:97-104. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Division of Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan; Data Science Center for Medicine and Hospital Management, Toyama University Hospital, 2630, Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan; Division of Medical Law and Ethics, Department of Medical Systems, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan.

Objective/background: Core body temperature (CBT) is considered a valuable marker for circadian rhythm. This study aimed to investigate the changes in CBT that are associated with the symptoms of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWD) post-treatment in children.

Patients/methods: Twenty-eight school-age children [10 boys and 18 girls; mean age (±standard deviation), 13. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Alleviation of glucolipotoxicity-incurred cardiomyocyte dysfunction by Z-ligustilide involves in the suppression of oxidative insult, inflammation and fibrosis.

Chem Phys Lipids 2021 Sep 18:105138. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong, P.R. China; Department of Cardiovascular surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510280, Guangdong, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus ranks as a major risk cause for disability and death around the world due to its complications, especially diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Glucolipotoxicity is one of the critical causal factors of DCM. Recent finding confirms the beneficial roles of Z-ligustilide in diabetes mellitus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The number of response categories in ordered response models.

Int J Biostat 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Political Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

The choice of the number of response categories is a crucial issue in categorization of a continuous response. The paper exploits the Proportional Odds Models' property which allows to generate ordinal responses with a different number of categories from the same underlying variable. It investigates the asymptotic efficiency of the estimators of the regression coefficients and the accuracy of the derived inferential procedures when varies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021