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Assessing the differential sensitivities of wave-CAIPI ViSTa myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer saturation for efficiently quantifying tissue damage in MS.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Oct 4;56:103309. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Wave-CAIPI Visualization of Short Transverse relaxation time component (ViSTa) is a recently developed, short-T-sensitized MRI method for fast quantification of myelin water fraction (MWF) in the human brain. It represents a promising technique for the evaluation of subtle, early signals of demyelination in the cerebral white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Currently however, few studies exist that robustly assess the utility of ViSTa MWF measures of myelin compared to more conventional MRI measures of myelin in the brain of MS patients. Read More

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October 2021

Volumetric Capnography at 36 weeks post-menstrual age and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Preterm Infants.

J Pediatr 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel UKBB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Objectives: To assess the feasibility of volumetric capnography in spontaneously breathing very preterm infants at 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) and its association with clinical markers of lung disease including the duration of respiratory support and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Study Design: We obtained mainstream volumetric capnography measurements in 143 very preterm infants at 36 weeks PMA. BPD was categorized into no, mild, moderate, and severe according to the 2001 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute workshop report. Read More

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October 2021

Constructed measures and causal inference: towards a new model of measurement for psychosocial constructs.

Epidemiology 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Psychosocial constructs can only be assessed indirectly, and measures are typically formed by a combination of indicators that are thought to relate to the construct. Reflective and formative measurement models offer different conceptualizations of the relation between the indicators and what is sometimes conceived of as a univariate latent variable supposed to correspond in some way to the construct. I argue that the empirical implications of reflective and formative models will often be violated by data since the causally relevant constituents will generally be multivariate, not univariate. Read More

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October 2021

Impact of Sickle Cell Trait Hemoglobin on the Intraerythrocytic Transcriptional Program of Plasmodium falciparum.

mSphere 2021 Oct 20:e0075521. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke Universitygrid.26009.3d School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Sickle-trait hemoglobin (HbAS) confers nearly complete protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children. Despite this clear protection, the molecular mechanisms by which HbAS confers these protective phenotypes remain incompletely understood. As a forward genetic screen for aberrant parasite transcriptional responses associated with parasite neutralization in HbAS red blood cells (RBCs), we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of Plasmodium falciparum in normal (HbAA) and HbAS erythrocytes during both cultivation of reference parasite strains and naturally occurring P. Read More

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October 2021

Ageing men with insufficient vitamin D have a higher mortality risk: no added value of its free fractions or active form.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, KU Leuven, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Leuven, Belgium.

Context: Low total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with mortality. Whether vitamin D in its free form or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D), provide any additional information is unclear.

Objective: To determine what level of 25(OH)D is predictive for mortality and if free 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations have any added value. Read More

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October 2021

Modular Evolution of the Drosophila Metabolome.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Lab Medicine & Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 357705, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.

Comparative phylogenetic studies offer a powerful approach to study the evolution of complex traits. While much effort has been devoted to the evolution of the genome and to organismal phenotypes, until now relatively little work has been done on the evolution of the metabolome, despite the fact that it is composed of the basic structural and functional building blocks of all organisms. Here we explore variation in metabolite levels across 50 million years of evolution in the genus Drosophila, employing a common garden design to measure the metabolome within and among 11 species of Drosophila. Read More

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October 2021

Pharmacokinetics and Perceptions of Children and Young Adults Using Cannabis for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Proof-of-Concept Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Oct 18;10(10):e31281. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Background: Despite the lack of evidence on the use of cannabis for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the growing perception that cannabis is safe has led more patients and caregivers to self-medicate. Some psychiatrists now authorize medicinal cannabis for patients with ADHD with features of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) to curtail the unregulated (ie, self-medicated) use of recreational cannabis or to offer a therapeutic option to those who continue to experience symptoms after exhausting all other treatment options.

Objective: This protocol aims to explore the perceived effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of cannabis in youth and young adults, who are currently taking it as part of their treatment plan for ADHD with features of ODD, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy of Sacubitril/Valsartan in the Setting of Acute Heart Failure: A Systematic Review.

Cureus 2021 Oct 13;13(10):e18740. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Internal Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is one of the conditions associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, in addition to its economic burden. Sacubitril/valsartan, the emerging drug in the field of heart failure, has been showing favorable outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, its efficacy in patients with acute decompensated heart failure remains obscure. Read More

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October 2021

Evaluating the Impact of a Targeted Approach Designed to Build Executive Function Skills: A Randomized Trial of Brain Games.

Front Psychol 2021 1;12:655246. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA, United States.

This paper reports results from an impact study of Brain Games (BGs), a classroom-based intervention designed to build preschool and school-aged children's executive functions (EFs) and related self-regulation skills. The study employed a classroom-randomized, experimental design with 626 students in 36 pre-K through fourth grade classrooms in charter schools in a mid-sized urban district. In one set of models with child covariates, children in intervention classrooms showed marginal positive impacts on regulation-related behaviors, attention control and impulsivity, and negative effects on global EF and marginal increases in discipline problems. Read More

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October 2021

Test-Retest Reliability of Home-Based Fitness Assessments Using a Mobile Application (R Plus Health) in Healthy Adults: A Prospective Quantitative Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Physical Therapy & Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University., Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No.259, Wenhua 1st Rd, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan, TW.

Background: Poor physical fitness has a negative impact on overall health status. More and more health-related mobile applications (apps) have emerged to reduce the burden of medical care and the inconvenience of long-distance travel. However, there are not many studies about home-based fitness tests using an app. Read More

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October 2021

Analgesic effect of oral ibuprofen 400, 600, and 800 mg; paracetamol 500 and 1000 mg; and paracetamol 1000 mg plus 60 mg codeine in acute postoperative pain: a single-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind study.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Section of Dental Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Blindern, P. O. Box 1119, N-0317, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Effect size estimates of analgesic drugs can be misleading. Ibuprofen (400 mg, 600 mg, 800 mg), paracetamol (1000 mg, 500 mg), paracetamol 1000 mg/codeine 60 mg, and placebo were investigated to establish the multidimensional pharmacodynamic profiles of each drug on acute pain with calculated effect size estimates.

Methods: A randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-centre, outpatient, and single-dose study used 350 patients (mean age 25 year, range 18 to 30 years) of homogenous ethnicity after third molar surgery. Read More

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October 2021

Adoption of Machine Learning Systems for Medical Diagnostics in Clinics: Qualitative Interview Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Oct 15;23(10):e29301. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Software & Digital Business Group, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.

Background: Recently, machine learning (ML) has been transforming our daily lives by enabling intelligent voice assistants, personalized support for purchase decisions, and efficient credit card fraud detection. In addition to its everyday applications, ML holds the potential to improve medicine as well, especially with regard to diagnostics in clinics. In a world characterized by population growth, demographic change, and the global COVID-19 pandemic, ML systems offer the opportunity to make diagnostics more effective and efficient, leading to a high interest of clinics in such systems. Read More

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October 2021

Rapid and sensitive detection of L-FABP for prediction and diagnosis of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients by chemiluminescent immunoassay.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Oct 15:e24051. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a common clinical complication among critically ill patients in Intensive Care Unit with high morbidity and mortality. Human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) as a renal tubular injury biomarker was considered a predictor of AKI; however, high-throughput and sensitive detection methods were still urgently needed. We constructed a sensitive and rapid detection method for detecting L-FABP and for exploring the clinical application of L-FABP as a predictor for AKI. Read More

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October 2021

Assessing Potential Circadian, Diurnal, and Ultradian Variations in Skin Biophysical Properties.

Cureus 2021 Sep 2;13(9):e17665. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Osteopathic Medicine, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

A variety of skin measurements are routinely made in various clinical and research settings to evaluate the skin's biophysical properties for diagnostic and research purposes. Such measurements include transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin pH, sebum, skin blood flow (SBF), and tissue dielectric constant (TDC) as a measure of skin water. Given the various reported circadian, diurnal, and possible ultradian and other temporal variations in skin physiological processes, it is of value to have clarity as to possible temporal variations in skin's biophysical properties associated with such processes. Read More

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September 2021

Towards Deciphering the Fetal Foundation of Normal Cognition and Cognitive Symptoms From Sulcation of the Cortex.

Front Neuroanat 2021 28;15:712862. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Université de Paris, IPNP, INSERM, Paris, France.

Growing evidence supports that prenatal processes play an important role for cognitive ability in normal and clinical conditions. In this context, several neuroimaging studies searched for features in postnatal life that could serve as a proxy for earlier developmental events. A very interesting candidate is the sulcal, or sulco-gyral, patterns, macroscopic features of the cortex anatomy related to the fold topology-e. Read More

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September 2021

Individual social contact data and population mobility data as early markers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics during the first wave in Germany-an analysis based on the COVIMOD study.

BMC Med 2021 10 14;19(1):271. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: The effect of contact reduction measures on infectious disease transmission can only be assessed indirectly and with considerable delay. However, individual social contact data and population mobility data can offer near real-time proxy information. The aim of this study is to compare social contact data and population mobility data with respect to their ability to reflect transmission dynamics during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Germany. Read More

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October 2021

Professional Differences: A Comparative Study of Visualization Task Performance and Spatial Ability Across Disciplines.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Oct 14;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Problem-driven visualization work is rooted in deeply understanding the data, actors, processes, and workflows of a target domain. However, an individual's personality traits and cognitive abilities may also influence visualization use. Diverse user needs and abilities raise natural questions for specificity in visualization design: Could individuals from different domains exhibit performance differences when using visualizations? Are any systematic variations related to their cognitive abilities? This study bridges domain-specific perspectives on visualization design with those provided by cognition and perception. Read More

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October 2021

Instruments measuring fatalism: A systematic review.

Psychol Assess 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Faculty of Human and Social Sciences.

This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing scales for fatalism, along with information regarding their methodological robustness. A systematic search was conducted in PsycINFO (PsycARTICLES and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences), PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. Articles were selected if they described a Self-Report questionnaire properly designated for assessing fatalism (both original developments and further validations), if they included a measure in which fatalism is the core construct rather than a subscale of a multidimensional scale, and if they were published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language. Read More

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October 2021

Perception of Parents Towards COVID-19 Vaccine for Children in Saudi Population.

Cureus 2021 Sep 28;13(9):e18342. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Medicine, Riyadh, SAU.

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease that is caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the rapid spread of this pandemic, vaccination has been a breakthrough solution. At the time of conducting the study, COVID-19 vaccines were only approved for adults 18 years and older. Read More

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September 2021

Intrinsic motivation for singing in songbirds is enhanced by temporary singing suppression and regulated by dopamine.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 13;11(1):20350. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Sensory and Motor Systems Research Group, Korea Brain Research Institute, 61, Cheomdan-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu, 41068, South Korea.

Behaviors driven by intrinsic motivation are critical for development and optimization of physical and brain functions, but their underlying mechanisms are not well studied due to the complexity and autonomy of the behavior. Songbirds, such as zebra finches, offer a unique opportunity to study neural substrates of intrinsic motivation because they spontaneously produce many renditions of songs with highly-quantifiable structure for vocal practice, even in the absence of apparent recipients ("undirected singing"). Neural substrates underlying intrinsic motivation for undirected singing are still poorly understood partly because singing motivation cannot be easily manipulated due to its autonomy. Read More

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October 2021

HDL and reverse cholesterol transport in humans and animals: Lessons from pre-clinical models and clinical studies.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Oct 9;1867(1):159065. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Division of Translational Medicine & Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3600 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The ability to accept cholesterol from cells and to promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) represents the best characterized antiatherogenic function of HDL. Studies carried out in animal models have unraveled the multiple mechanisms by which these lipoproteins drive cholesterol efflux from macrophages and cholesterol uptake to the liver. Moreover, the influence of HDL composition and the role of lipid transporters have been clarified by using suitable transgenic models or through experimental design employing pharmacological or nutritional interventions. Read More

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October 2021

A field study of mental workload: conventional bus drivers versus bus rapid transit drivers.

Ergonomics 2021 Oct 21:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

School of Psychology, Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Road traffic accidents are increasing worldwide and cause a high number of fatalities and injuries. Mental Work Load (MWL) is a contributing factor in road safety. The primary aim of this work was to study important MWL factors and then compare conventional and BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) drivers' MWL. Read More

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October 2021

Recruitment of Primary Afferents by Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation using the Injectrode.

Int IEEE EMBS Conf Neural Eng 2021 May 2;2021:609-612. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Chronic pain affects millions of people in the United States and pharmacological treatments have been ineffective. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation is a neuromodulation method that delivers electrical stimulation to the DRG to relieve pain. DRG electrodes are rigid and cylindrical. Read More

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The impact of exogenous shocks on national wellbeing. New Zealanders' reaction to COVID-19.

Appl Res Qual Life 2021 Oct 6:1-26. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

School of Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

In this paper, we explore the response of an aggregate measure of subjective wellbeing to the arrival and passage of the COVID-19 pandemic in a small, geographically separate economy in the South Pacific. Studies of national wellbeing and emotional responses to infection rates during a pandemic have been rare thus far. While several disciplines offer theoretical priors in the case of individuals, far less attention has been paid to the wellbeing and emotional response at a national level. Read More

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October 2021

COVID-19 and the Nordic Paradox: a call to measure the inequality reducing benefits of welfare systems in the wake of the pandemic.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Oct 4;289:114455. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Centre for Global Health Inequalities Research (CHAIN), Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

The Nordic Paradox of inequality describes how the Nordic countries have puzzlingly high levels of relative health inequalities compared to other nations, despite extensive universal welfare systems and progressive tax regimes that redistribute income. However, the veracity and origins of this paradox have been contested across decades of literature, as many scholars argue it relates to measurement issues or historical coincidences. Disentangling between potential explanations is crucial to determine if widespread adoption of the Nordic model could represent a sufficient panacea for lowering health inequalities, or if new approaches must be pioneered. Read More

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October 2021

Modular fluorescent nanoparticle DNA probes for detection of peptides and proteins.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 7;11(1):19921. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Nautilus Biotechnology, 201 Industrial Rd #310, San Carlos, CA, 94070, USA.

Fluorescently labeled antibody and aptamer probes are used in biological studies to characterize binding interactions, measure concentrations of analytes, and sort cells. Fluorescent nanoparticle labels offer an excellent alternative to standard fluorescent labeling strategies due to their enhanced brightness, stability and multivalency; however, challenges in functionalization and characterization have impeded their use. This work introduces a straightforward approach for preparation of fluorescent nanoparticle probes using commercially available reagents and common laboratory equipment. Read More

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October 2021

High-resolution positron emission microscopy of patient-derived tumor organoids.

Nat Commun 2021 10 7;12(1):5883. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA.

Tumor organoids offer new opportunities for translational cancer research, but unlike animal models, their broader use is hindered by the lack of clinically relevant imaging endpoints. Here, we present a positron-emission microscopy method for imaging clinical radiotracers in patient-derived tumor organoids with spatial resolution 100-fold better than clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Using this method, we quantify F-fluorodeoxyglucose influx to show that patient-derived tumor organoids recapitulate the glycolytic activity of the tumor of origin, and thus, could be used to predict therapeutic response in vitro. Read More

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October 2021

Blockchain-Secured Recommender System for Special Need Patients Using Deep Learning.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:737269. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Electronic and Computer Engineering, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom.

Recommender systems offer several advantages to hospital data management units and patients with special needs. These systems are more dependent on the extreme subtle hospital-patient data. Thus, disregarding the confidentiality of patients with special needs is not an option. Read More

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September 2021

Squats in Surveys: Investigating the Feasibility of, Compliance With, and Respondents' Performance on Fitness Tasks in Self-Administered Smartphone Surveys Using Acceleration Data.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:627509. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Collaborative Research Center 884 "Political Economy of Reforms", University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

Digital health data that accompany data from traditional surveys are becoming increasingly important in health-related research. For instance, smartphones have many built-in sensors, such as accelerometers that measure acceleration so that they offer many new research possibilities. Such acceleration data can be used as a more objective supplement to health and physical fitness measures (or survey questions). Read More

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September 2021

A High-Sensitivity International Knee Documentation Committee Survey Index From the PROMIS System: The Next-Generation Patient-Reported Outcome for a Knee Injury Population.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Oct 6:3635465211041593. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Maryland, USA.

Background: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure progression and quality of care. While legacy PROs such as the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) survey are well-validated, a lengthy PRO creates a time burden on patients, decreasing adherence. In recent years, PROs such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function and Pain Interference surveys were developed as computer adaptive tests, reducing time to completion. Read More

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October 2021