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Risk factors for COVID-19 among healthcare workers. A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250958. Epub 2021 May 4.

ICAP at Columbia University, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Evidence on the spectrum of risk factors for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among front-line healthcare workers (HCWs) has not been well-described. While several studies evaluating the risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among patient-facing and non-patient-facing front-line HCWs have been reported since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), and several more are still underway. There is, therefore, an immediate need for an ongoing, rigorous systematic review that continuously assesses the risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection among front-line HCWs. Read More

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Reaching underserved South Africans with integrated chronic disease screening and mobile HIV counselling and testing: A retrospective, longitudinal study conducted in Cape Town.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0249600. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Health Sciences, The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Community-based, mobile HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and screening for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) may improve early diagnosis and referral for care in underserved populations. We evaluated HCT/NCD data and described population characteristics of those visiting a mobile clinic in high HIV disease burden settings in Cape Town, South Africa, between 2008 and 2016.

Methods: Trained counsellors registered patients ≥12 years old at a mobile clinic, which offered HCT and blood pressure, diabetes (glucose testing) and obesity (body mass index) screening. Read More

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The role of organizational supports in mitigating mental ill health in firefighters: A cohort study in Alberta, Canada.

Am J Ind Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Little is known about the effectiveness of ongoing mental health support in reducing the mental health impacts of a traumatic deployment.

Methods: A cohort of firefighters was established among those deployed to a devastating wildfire in Alberta, Canada in May 2016. Firefighters completed three questionnaires: at recruitment giving details of exposures, a first follow-up reporting mental health supports before, during, and after the fire and a second follow-up, at least 30 months after the fire, with screening questionnaires for anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Read More

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Impact of coronary stenting on top of medical therapy and of inclusion of periprocedural infarctions on hard composite endpoints in patients with chronic coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Italian IRCCS Cardiovascular Network, Genoa, Italy -

Background: Composite endpoints are pivotal when assessing rare outcomes over relatively short follow-ups. Most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation to optimal medical therapy (OMT) in chronic coronary syndromes (CCS) patients included both hard and soft outcomes in their primary endpoint, with periprocedural myocardial infarctions (MIs) systematically allocated to the PCI arm. We metaanalysed the above RCTs for composite hard endpoints, with and without periprocedural MIs. Read More

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The association between bullying and eating disorders: A case-control study.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Regional Department for Eating Disorders, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Childhood bullying is associated with a range of adverse mental health outcomes, and here we investigated the association between bullying exposure and eating disorders (EDs).

Method: In this case-control study, we compared bullying history in individuals with EDs with community controls. Participants (n = 890, mean age = 29. Read More

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Spectrum and Antifungal Resistance of Candidemia in Neonates With Early- and Late-Onset Sepsis in Pakistan.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

From the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Neonatal candidemia leads to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We studied the trends, spectrum and antifungal resistance in neonatal candidemia isolates from the year 2014 to 2019.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Read More

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The utility of self-rated health in population surveys: the role of bodyweight.

Authors:
Robert Bozick

Popul Health Metr 2021 May 3;19(1):23. Epub 2021 May 3.

Kinder Institute for Urban Research, Rice University, Kraft Hall, 6100 Main Street, Suite 305, Houston, TX, 77005-1892, USA.

Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is one of the most commonly used summary measures of overall health and well-being available to population scientists due to its ease of administration in large-scale surveys and to its efficacy in predicting mortality. This paper assesses the extent to which SRH is affected by its placement before or after questions about bodyweight on a survey, and whether differences in placement on the questionnaire affects SRH's predictive validity.

Methods: I assessed the validity of SRH in predicting the risk of mortality by comparing outcomes of sample members who were asked to rate their health before reporting on their bodyweight (the control group) and sample members who were asked to rate their health after reporting on their bodyweight (the treatment group). Read More

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The clinical utility of intrapartum screening urinalysis for the prevention of postpartum pyelonephritis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 24;261:154-159. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection to complicate pregnancy. Medical authorities recommend screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy; albeit there is no consensus on ideal timing and frequency for testing. Due to the persistent physiologic changes of pregnancy postpartum, a recent trend to perform urinalysis upon presentation for delivery has been adopted at our institution and various satellite hospitals to putatively minimize cases of postpartum pyelonephritis. Read More

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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Endovascular Angiosomal Revascularization in the Setting of Collateral Vessels.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital; Washington, District of Columbia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Endovascular procedures for targeted treatment of lower extremity wounds can be subdivided as direct (DR), indirect (IR), and indirect revascularization via collateral flow (IRc). While previous systematic reviews assert superiority of DR when compared to IR, the role of collateral vessels in clinical outcomes remains to be defined. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to define the utility of DR, IR, and IRc in treatment of lower extremity wounds with respect to 1) wound healing, 2) major amputation 3) reintervention and 4) all-cause mortality. Read More

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Evaluation of potential complication of interstitial lung disease with abemaciclib and palbociclib treatments.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 3:e1402. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Background: Various cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors have demonstrated promising anti-tumor effects. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has issued a warning about interstitial lung diseases as an adverse effect of CDK4/6 inhibitors. However, a large-scale evaluation of potential complications has not been conducted to date, and the occurrence of these adverse effects is unclear. Read More

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Torsade de pointes associated with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin: a retrospective analysis of individual case safety reports from VigiBase.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.

Purpose: To analyze the cases of torsade de pointes (TdP) and related symptoms reported in association with chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and azithromycin (AZT) to the World Health Organization (WHO) global database of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for drug monitoring (VigiBase) using qualitative and quantitative pharmacovigilance approaches.

Methods: The main characteristics of the ICSRs reporting TdP with CQ, HCQ, and AZT have been summarized. Co-reported drugs with risk to cause QT prolongation have been described. Read More

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US LI-RADS Visualization Score: Interobserver Variability and Association With Cause of Liver Disease, Sex, and Body Mass Index.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2021 May 3:8465371211012104. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Radiology, 3688Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Objectives: To evaluate the interobserver agreement between radiologists using the Ultrasound Liver Reporting And Data System (US LI-RADS) visualization score and assess association between visualization score and cause of liver disease, sex, and body mass index (BMI).

Methods: This retrospective, single institution, cross-sectional study evaluated 237 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance US examinations between March 4, 2017 and September 4, 2017. Five abdominal radiologists independently assigned a US LI-RADS visualization score (A, no or minimal limitations; B, moderate limitations; C, severe limitations). Read More

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A meta-analysis of the use of intraoperative cholangiography; time to revisit our approach to cholecystectomy?

Surg Open Sci 2021 Jan 15;3:8-15. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Surgery, Letterkenny University Hospital and Donegal Clinical Research Academy, Letterkenny, County Donegal, Ireland.

Background: Despite some evidence of improved survival with intraoperative cholangiography during cholecystectomy, debate has raged about its benefit, in part because of its questionable benefit, time, and resources required to complete.

Methods: An International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews-registered (ID CRD42018102154) meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from 2003 to 2018 was undertaken including search strategy "intraoperative AND cholangiogra* AND cholecystectomy." Articles scoring ≥ 16 for comparative and ≥ 10 for noncomparative using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria were included. Read More

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January 2021

Catch Me if You Can: Acute Events Hidden in Structured Chronic Disease Diagnosis Descriptions Show Detectable Recording Patterns in EHR.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:373-382. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC.

Our previous research shows that structured cancer DX description data accuracy varied across electronic health record (EHR) segments (e.g. encounter DX, problem list, etc. Read More

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January 2021

Differentiation between hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma using contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To explore the diagnostic ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in distinguishing intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials And Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in differentiating ICC from HCC. The diagnostic ability of CEUS was assessed based on the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and area under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Read More

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Artificial intelligence (AI) real-time detection vs. routine colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Internal Medicine - Division of Gastroenterology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Goals And Background: Studies analyzing artificial intelligence (AI) in colonoscopies have reported improvements in detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) lesions, however its utility in the realworld remains limited. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluate the efficacy of AI-assisted colonoscopies against routine colonoscopy (RC).

Study: We performed an extensive search of major databases (through January 2021) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting adenoma and polyp detection rates. Read More

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Defibrillation Safety Margin Testing in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease: Results From the NCDR.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Objectives: This study analyzed the predictors of defibrillation safety margin (DSM) testing at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) insertion and factors associated with inadequate DSM in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).

Background: There are few data about the prevalence and safety of DSM testing in those with CHD.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients with atrial or ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, Ebstein anomaly, or common ventricle undergoing a transvenous ICD procedure in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) ICD Registry from April 2010 to March 2016, and DSM testing was assessed. Read More

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A retrospective study of clinical encounters for pelvic inflammatory disease: missed opportunities to screen for syphilis and HIV?

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Objective: Missed screening opportunities may contribute to the rising rates of sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs) in Manitoba. This study sought to determine the proportion of women who are screened for syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) when admitted with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all inpatient admissions for PID over 3 discrete years (fiscal years 2007, 2012, 2017) at a single tertiary care centre. Read More

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Concerns About the Cost of Contraception Among Young Women Attending Community College.

Womens Health Issues 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California; Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Introduction: Contraceptive use is lower among students attending community college than 4-year college students, which may be due to financial barriers to accessing contraceptives. This study examined insurance coverage, access to free or low-cost birth control, and concerns about contraceptive costs among women in community college.

Methods: We analyzed data from a study conducted at five community colleges in California and Oregon, which have expanded Medicaid coverage of family planning services for low-income individuals. Read More

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Systematic review and meta-analysis on juvenile primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Conservative or surgical approach first?

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250929. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan.

Background: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) prevalence is typically higher in juvenile patients than in adults. We aimed to evaluate the optimal treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax and its efficacy and safety in juveniles.

Materials And Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for eligible studies published from database inception to October 10, 2020, and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

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Prevalence of Hypertension and Albuminuria in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e216069. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Hypertension and albuminuria are markers of diabetes-related nephropathy and important factors associated with kidney outcomes in pediatric type 2 diabetes. However, their prevalence in these patients is unknown.

Objective: To measure the prevalence of hypertension and albuminuria in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the association of sex and race/ethnicity with these conditions. Read More

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Patterns and Factors Associated With Adherence to Lung Cancer Screening in Diverse Practice Settings.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e218559. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill.

Importance: For lung cancer screening to confer mortality benefit, adherence to annual screening with low-dose computed tomography scans is essential. Although the National Lung Screening Trial had an adherence rate of 95%, current data are limited on screening adherence across diverse practice settings in the United States.

Objective: To evaluate patterns and factors associated with adherence to annual screening for lung cancer after negative results of a baseline examination, particularly in centralized vs decentralized screening programs. Read More

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Can Topical Vancomycin Prevent Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 04 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

M. T. Wong, S. S. Sridharan, E. M. Davison, R. Ng, N. M. Desy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after hip and knee arthroplasty is a leading cause of revision surgery, inferior function, complications, and death. The administration of topical, intrawound vancomycin (vancomycin powder) has appeared promising in some studies, but others have found it ineffective in reducing infection risk; for that reason, a high-quality systematic review of the best-available evidence is needed.

Questions/purposes: In this systematic review, we asked: (1) Does topical vancomycin (vancomycin powder) reduce PJI risk in hip and knee arthroplasty? (2) Does topical vancomycin lead to an increased risk of complications after hip and knee arthroplasty?

Methods: A search of Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases as of June 2020 was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Read More

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Health Care Utilization, Lost Work Days, and Bed Days Among U.S. Workers With COPD, by Industry and Occupation.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 May;63(5):e294-e297

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia (Dr Kurth and Dr Syamlal).

Objective: To assess health care utilization, lost work days, and bed days among workers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by industry and occupation.

Methods: The 2014 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed.

Results: Among workers with COPD the highest odds of reporting an emergency room (ER) visit and lost work days were observed among workers aged ≥65 years, females, those with no health insurance, and current combustible tobacco users. Read More

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Agriculture Exposure and Time to Pregnancy Among Women Enrolled in the French Prospective Cohort AGRICAN.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 May;63(5):432-440

Université de Caen Normandie (Dr Pons, Dr Boulanger, Ms Busson, Ms Renier, Dr Lebailly), France; French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm); Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1086 ANTICIPE (Dr Pons, Dr Boulanger, Dr Tual, Ms Busson, Ms Renier, Ms Perrier, Ms Levêque-Morlais, Dr Lebailly), Caen, France; Comprehensive Cancer Centrer François Baclesse (Dr Boulanger, Dr Tual, Ms Perrier, Ms Levêque-Morlais, Dr Lebailly) Caen, France; Central Agricultural Social Insurance (CCMSA), Echelon National Santé Sécurité au Travail, Bobigny (Dr Marcotullio), France; French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm), Population Health Research Center, Team EPICENE Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1219, Université de Bordeaux (Dr Baldi), France; CHU de Bordeaux, Pôle de Santé Publique, Service Santé Travail Environnement (Dr Baldi), Bordeaux, France.

Objectives: In few retrospective studies, prolonged time-to-pregnancy (TTP) was observed for women exposed to pesticides especially in flower production. The present study investigated time-to-pregnancy in the AGRICAN cohort.

Methods: Analyses were performed on 616 women reporting a pregnancy (2005 to 2017), and data on agricultural activities performed before the last pregnancy was retrospectively collected. Read More

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National routine adult immunisation programmes among World Health Organization Member States: an assessment of health systems to deploy COVID-19 vaccines.

Euro Surveill 2021 04;26(17)

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

IntroductionAs SARS-CoV-2 disproportionately affects adults, the COVID-19 pandemic vaccine response will rely on adult immunisation infrastructures.AimTo assess adult immunisation programmes in World Health Organization (WHO) Member States.MethodsWe evaluated country reports from 2018 on adult immunisation programmes sent to WHO and UNICEF. Read More

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Associations between safety perceptions and medical error reporting among neonatal intensive care unit staff.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Respiratory Therapy, Byrdine F. Lewis College of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: Critically ill neonates are particularly susceptible to medical errors; however, few studies have evaluated NICU safety climate in the context of medical error reporting. This study aims to identify the association between perceptions of safety and culture among NICU staff with medical error reporting behaviours.

Methods: This study used a convenience sample of 79 NICU staff members (38 Nurses and 41 Respiratory Therapists). Read More

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Association Between Lack of Blinding and Mortality Results in Critical Care Randomized Controlled Trials: A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, Département de Santé Publique, Paris, France. Département de réanimation médico-chirurgicale, APHP, Hôpital Avicenne, UFR SMBH, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, France. Common and Rare Kidney Diseases, Sorbonne Université, INSERM, UMR-S 1155, Paris, France.

Objectives: To investigate whether intervention effect estimates for mortality differ between blinded and nonblinded randomized controlled trials conducted in critical care. We used a meta-epidemiological approach, comparing effect estimates between blinded and nonblinded randomized controlled trials for the same research question.

Data Sources: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials evaluating a therapeutic intervention on mortality in critical care, published between January 2009 and March 2019 in high impact factor general medical or critical care journals and by Cochrane. Read More

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