300,502 results match your criteria odds ratio

Linking Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Platelet Activation: A Composite Biomarker Score for Predicting Outcomes after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Thromb Haemost 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia, The University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

Background:  Activation of both platelets and neutrophils can contribute to the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an important product of the platelet-neutrophil axis and exaggerate vascular damage in cardiovascular disease. Additionally, activated platelets can drive NETosis and are directly linked to thromboembolic risk. Read More

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Does Higher Self-Reported Cardiorespiratory Fitness Reduce the Odds of Hospitalization From COVID-19?

J Phys Act Health 2021 May 12:1-7. Epub 2021 May 12.

Background: Regular physical activity and higher cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness enhance immune function, possibly reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection severity. The aim was to assess the association between physical activity and self-reported CR fitness on COVID-19 infection characteristics.

Methods: Participants formerly testing positive for COVID-19 completed an online questionnaire measuring COVID-19 infection characteristics and complications, self-reported CR fitness level, physical activity, and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Read More

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Time series analysis of the in-hospital diagnostic process in suspected pulmonary embolism evaluated by computed tomography: An explorative study.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 8;140:109758. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: This retrospective study aims to analyze the distribution of demand and the duration of the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) using computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA).

Methods: Time data from physical examination to report creation were identified for each CTPA in 2013 and 2018 at a tertiary hospital. Multivariable multinomial logistic and linear regression models were used to evaluate differences between 3 time intervals (I1: 6am-2pm, I2: 2pm-10pm, I3: 10pm-6am). Read More

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Polymorphism of the DNA repair gene XDP increases the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus but not multiple sclerosis in the Iranian population.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 28;52:102985. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD ) is an essential component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which can play a major role in DNA repair processes. A deficiency in this pathway was suggested as a causative factor of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism (rs13181) as one of the most common XDP polymorphisms and the risk of two important auto-immune diseases,namely systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Iranian population. Read More

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Functional independence measure predicts the outcome of clean intermittent catheterization training in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2021 May 10:101539. Epub 2021 May 10.

Sorbonne Université, GRC 001, GREEN Groupe de Recherche Clinique en Neuro-Urologie, AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, F-75020 Paris, France.

Background: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is the reference treatment of urinary retention in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Predicting which patients could use this treatment, based on their motor and cognitive abilities, is crucial.

Objectives: To determine whether the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), used to assess degree of disability, can predict the outcome of CIC training in pwMS. Read More

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Concomitant Coronary Artery Bypass in Patients with Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is sometimes necessary in acute Type A Aortic Dissection (AAAD) repair. The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence, indications and influence in-hospital outcomes of AAAD repair requiring concomitant CABG in a high-volume single-center experience. Retrospective study of all consecutive AAAD patients. Read More

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Maternal Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Twin Gestations.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Data on the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in twin pregnancies are limited. As a result, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) currently provides only provisional recommendations on GWG in this population.

Objective: To identify the optimal range of GWG in twin pregnancies and to estimate the association between inappropriate GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Effects of Short-Term Air Pollution Exposure on Venous Thromboembolism: A Case-Crossover Study.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Utah, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

Rationale: Exposure to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, respiratory illness, and mortality. The effect of air pollution on venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less certain.

Objectives: To test for associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and VTE. Read More

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Body mass index in early adulthood and dementia in late life: Findings from a pooled cohort.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: To examine the independent association of body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood with dementia incidence among men and women.

Methods: We studied 5104 older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. We imputed early adulthood and midlife BMI using a pooled parent cohort with complete adult lifespan coverage and previously established methods. Read More

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Pregnancy outcomes in women with booking HbA1c ≤ 40 mmol/mol compared with 41-49 mmol/mol in South Auckland, New Zealand.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Counties Manukau Health, Auckland, New Zealand.

Aims: There are few data on pregnancy outcomes in women with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 41-49 mmol/mmol) at pregnancy booking. We aimed to (i) identify the proportion of women in Counties Manukau Health (CMH), South Auckland, New Zealand (NZ), with pre-diabetes at booking and (ii) compare outcomes between women with normal HbA1c and pre-diabetes.

Materials And Methods: Using data from a multi-ethnic population of 10,869 singleton pregnancies, booked at <20 weeks from January 2017 to December 2018 in CMH, we compared outcomes between those with normal HbA1c (≤40 mmol/mol) and those with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 41-49 mmol/mol). Read More

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Prevalence, incidence and mortality of delirium in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Age Ageing 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Attention should be paid to delirium in COVID-19 patients, especially older people, since advanced age poses increased risk of both delirium and COVID-19-related death.

Objective: This study aims to summarize the evidence on prevalence, incidence and mortality of delirium in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search on Pubmed and Embase from inception to December 1, 2020. Read More

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Maternal smoking and smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy and offspring development: sibling analysis in an intergenerational Swedish cohort.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Centre for Academic Mental Health, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: The association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring intellectual disability (ID) is less well understood than that of smoking and fetal growth restriction. As fetal growth and cognitive development may share similar confounding structures, comparison of the two associations may improve understanding of the causal nature of the association with ID. Furthermore, comparisons of smoking with smokeless tobacco use may aid identification of mechanisms of action. Read More

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Phenome-wide association of 1809 phenotypes and COVID-19 disease progression in the Veterans Health Administration Million Veteran Program.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251651. Epub 2021 May 13.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: The risk factors associated with the stages of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease progression are not well known. We aim to identify risk factors specific to each state of COVID-19 progression from SARS-CoV-2 infection through death.

Methods And Results: We included 648,202 participants from the Veteran Affairs Million Veteran Program (2011-). Read More

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Teenage pregnancy as a risk factor for placental abruption: Findings from the prospective Japan environment and children's study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251428. Epub 2021 May 13.

Fukushima Regional Center for the Japan Environmental and Children's Study, Fukushima, Japan.

Objective: Placental abruption is a significant obstetric complication that affects both maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The present study examined the effect of maternal age on the incidence of placental abruption.

Methods: We used data of singleton pregnancies from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which was a prospective birth cohort study conducted between January 2011 and March 2014 across 15 regional centers in Japan. Read More

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Does perioperative respiratory event increase length of hospital stay and hospital cost in pediatric ambulatory surgery?

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251433. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Objective: We examined the consequences of perioperative respiratory event (PRE) in terms of hospitalization and hospital cost in children who underwent ambulatory surgery.

Methods: This subgroup analysis of a prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02036021) was conducted in children aged between 1 month and 14 years who underwent ambulatory surgery between November 2012 and December 2013. Read More

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Malaria prevention practices and associated factors among households of Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia, 2020.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250981. Epub 2021 May 13.

Public Health Department, Pharma College Hawassa Campus, Hawassa, Sidama, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite it is easily preventable; malaria is still remains to be a major public health problem in globally as well as in Ethiopia. The disease can be easily prevented through individual and societal combined efforts by keeping the environment safe, effective utilization of long lasting Insecticide Nets and early treatment. However, the factors for poor knowledge and practices of malaria prevention is not well studied in Ethiopia; particularly, in the study area. Read More

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Risk factors for lactation mastitis in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251182. Epub 2021 May 13.

Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Lactation mastitis (LM) affects approximately 3% to 33% of postpartum women and the risk factors of LM have been extensively studied. However, some results in the literature reports are still not conclusive due to the complexity of LM etiology and variation in the populations. To provide nationally representative evidence of the well-accepted risk factors for LM in China, this study was aimed to systematically summary the risk factors for LM among Chinese women and to determine the effect size of individual risk factor. Read More

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Common genetic variants associated with obesity in an African-American and Hispanic/Latino population.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250697. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Introduction: Over 35% of all adults in the world are currently obese and risk of obesity in racial or ethnic minority groups exist in the US, but the causes of these differences are not all known. As obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, an improved understanding of risk factors across racial and ethnic groups may improve outcomes.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if susceptibility to obesity is associated with genetic variation in candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos. Read More

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Risk perception of the pre-distribution of stable iodine to guardians of children living around the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant, Saga Prefecture, Japan.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250570. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Global Health, Medicine and Welfare, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is effective for preventing childhood thyroid cancer when radioactive iodine is released into the environment during a nuclear power plant accident. Japan employs the pre-distribution of stable iodine (PDSI) to residents living near nuclear power plants; however, the number of residents who have actually received stable iodine to date remains limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of guardians of children living around the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant (GNPP) in Japan. Read More

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Assessment of the causal relevance of ECG parameters for risk of atrial fibrillation: A mendelian randomisation study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 13;18(5):e1003572. Epub 2021 May 13.

CTSU, Nuffield Department of Population Health, BHF Centre of Research Excellence, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Atrial electrical and structural remodelling in older individuals with cardiovascular risk factors has been associated with changes in surface electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters (e.g., prolongation of the PR interval) and higher risks of atrial fibrillation (AF). Read More

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Is there any association between asthma and Kawasaki disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Respiratory, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Shandong Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objective: Shared immune factors are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and Kawasaki disease (KD). Consequently, several observational studies have explored an association between KD and asthma. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between KD and asthma. Read More

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Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Led Penicillin Allergy Assessment Program and Allergy Delabeling in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219820. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Penicillin allergies are frequently mislabeled, which may contribute to use of less-preferred alternative antibiotics.

Objective: To evaluate a pharmacist-led allergy assessment program's association with antimicrobial use and clinical outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A pharmacist-led allergy assessment program was launched in 2 phases (June 1, 2015, and November 2, 2016) at a single-center tertiary referral hospital. Read More

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Telemedicine Use in Orthopaedic Surgery Varies by Race, Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Insurance Status.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

G. Xiong, N. E. Greene, H. M. Lightsey, A. M. Crawford, B. M. Striano, Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA A. K. Simpson, A. J. Schoenfeld, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Healthcare disparities are well documented across multiple subspecialties in orthopaedics. The widespread implementation of telemedicine risks worsening these disparities if not carefully executed, despite original assumptions that telemedicine improves overall access to care. Telemedicine also poses unique challenges such as potential language or technological barriers that may alter previously described patterns in orthopaedic disparities. Read More

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Off-Label Use of Multitarget Stool DNA Testing in Primary Care.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):829-832

1Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: We evaluated the off-label use of multitarget stool DNA (mt-sDNA) testing in the primary care setting.

Methods: We reviewed all mt-sDNA orders between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, to determine the frequency of off-label mt-sDNA orders.

Results: Nine hundred two patients with mt-sDNA orders were evaluated, of which 160/902 patients (17. Read More

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Dye-Based Chromoendoscopy in Patients With Lynch Syndrome: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):825-828

1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam Cancer Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 4National Center for Hereditary Tumor Syndromes, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 5Department of Hematology and Oncology, Klinikum Coburg, Coburg, Germany; 6Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 7Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 9Division of Cancer Genetics and Prevention, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 10Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 11Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 12Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Radboud University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Introduction: The additional diagnostic value of dye-based chromoendosocpy (CE) for surveillance of patients with Lynch syndrome is subject of debate.

Methods: To clarify this debate, we performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized studies that compared CE with WLE for the detection of adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome.

Results: Three randomized studies comprising 533 patients were included. Read More

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Increasing Rates of Opioid Prescriptions for Gastrointestinal Diseases in the United States.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):796-807

1Department of Medicine and Vatche & Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Introduction: Pain control is an important management approach for many gastrointestinal conditions. Because of the ongoing opioid crisis, public health efforts have focused on limiting opioid prescriptions. This study examines national opioid prescribing patterns and factors associated with opioid prescriptions for gastrointestinal conditions. Read More

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Parechovirus Infection in Early Childhood and Association With Subsequent Celiac Disease.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):788-795

1Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Paediatric, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum, Norway; 4Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; 5Division of Institute Resources, Department of IT and e-health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 6Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: To test whether parechovirus and anellovirus, frequent enteric viruses, were associated with subsequent celiac disease (CD). We hypothesized that children who later developed CD would have increased frequency of parechovirus infections before transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibody development. Anellovirus testing was exploratory, as a potential marker of immune status. Read More

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Clinical Impact of Rectal Hyposensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study of 2,876 Patients With Refractory Functional Constipation.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):758-768

1National Bowel Research Centre and GI Physiology Unit, Blizard Institute, Centre for Neuroscience, Surgery & Trauma, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Alfred Health and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Introduction: Normal bowel function requires intact sensory pathways. Diminished rectal sensation (rectal hyposensitivity [RH]) is associated with constipation, although its clinical importance remains unclear.

Methods: Consecutive patients (aged 18-80) attending a tertiary center (2004-2016) for investigation of refractory functional constipation (Rome IV core criteria defined, applied post hoc) were included. Read More

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Direct Endoscopic Necrosectomy With and Without Hydrogen Peroxide for Walled-off Pancreatic Necrosis: A Multicenter Comparative Study.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):700-709

1Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Division Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; 3Division Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA; 4Borland-Groover Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA; 5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA; 6Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 7Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, USA; 8Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Ohio state University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA; 9Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA; 10Biostatistics & Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 11Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Endoscopic necrosectomy has emerged as the preferred treatment modality for walled-off pancreatic necrosis. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of direct endoscopic necrosectomy with and without hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) lavage.

Methods: Retrospective chart reviews were performed for all patients undergoing endoscopic transmural management of walled-off pancreatic necrosis at 9 major medical centers from November 2011 to August 2018. Read More

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Substance use classes and symptoms of anxiety and depression among Canadian secondary school students.

Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2021 May;41(5):153-164

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Few studies have assessed patterns of substance use among Canadian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined substance use classes among Canadian secondary school students and associations with anxiety and depression.

Methods: This study used data from Year 6 (2017/18) of the COMPASS study. Read More

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