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Lidocaine injections and neck corset wearing improve dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

Clin Park Relat Disord 2019 26;1:82-85. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital, Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.

Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders (PDRD) may exhibit dropped head syndrome (DHS), which does not yet have an effective treatment.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of combining lidocaine injection into the bilateral scalene muscles and neck corset wearing on dropped head syndrome.

Methods: We performed needle electromyography assessments of the scalene, sternocleidomastoid (SCM), levator scapulae, splenius capitis, and trapezius muscles. Read More

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October 2019

Long-term retinal changes in progressive geographic atrophy.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 24:11206721211035636. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

UPMC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness with loss of retinal layers over long term. We aim to evaluate these changes in eyes with progressive non-exudative AMD with geographic atrophy (GA).

Methods: This retrospective study included patients with GA with a minimum of 4 years follow up. Read More

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Patterns of SARS-CoV-2 aerosol spread in typical classrooms.

Build Environ 2021 Oct 21;204:108167. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Although current industry guidelines to control the spread of aerosols such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have adopted a six-foot (~1.8 m) spacing between individuals indoors, recent evidence suggests that longer range spread is also responsible for infections in public spaces. The vehicle for long-range spread is smaller (<5 μm) droplets or particles, termed bio-aerosols, or aerosols for short, which have a large surface area to volume ratio such that aerodynamic drag is much larger than gravity forces. Read More

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October 2021

Optical coherence tomography biomarkers of photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Joint Shantou International Eye Center, Shantou University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, North Dongxia Road, Shantou, 515041, China.

Purpose: Several parameters on optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been suggested as biomarkers for photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This study is to compare the spatial distribution of the changes of OCT biomarkers in RP patients.

Methods: OCT line scans of the horizontal meridian were conducted in 22 eyes of 22 RP patients and 30 eyes of 30 healthy controls. Read More

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Does pterygium morphology affect corneal astigmatism?

Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2021 Jan-Dec;13:25158414211030423. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Sakarya University Medical Education and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between corneal astigmatism and the morphology of pterygium with anterior segment optic coherence tomography (AS-OCT).

Material And Methods: The size of pterygium (horizontal length, vertical width) was measured manually; pterygium area and percentage extension of the pterygium onto the cornea were calculated. Anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism, Sim K, K1, K2 were measured using a dual Scheimpflug analyzer. Read More

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Analysis of imaging biomarkers and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in RPGR-associated retinitis pigmentosa.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate multimodal retinal imaging characteristics including the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with RPGR-associated retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study included 17 consecutive patients (median age, 21 years) with RPGR-associated RP who underwent retinal imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT), short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (AF) imaging, and RNFL scans centered on the optic disc. RNFL thickness was manually segmented and compared to clinical and imaging parameters including the transfoveal ellipsoid zone (EZ) width, the horizontal diameter of the macular hyperautofluorescent ring. Read More

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Repeatability and agreement of white-to-white measurements between slit-scanning tomography, infrared biometry, dual rotating Scheimpflug camera/Placido disc tomography, and swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0254832. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Purpose: To assess the agreement and repeatability of horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID) or white-to-white (WTW) measurements between four imaging modalities; combination slit scanning elevation/Placido tomography, infrared biometry, dual rotating scheimpflug camera/Placido tomography, and swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).

Methods: A prospective study of 35 right eyes of healthy volunteers were evaluated using the Orbscan IIz, IOL Master 700, Galilei G2, and DRI Triton OCT devices. The inter-device agreement and repeatability of HVID/WTW measurements for each device were analysed. Read More

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Comparison of the swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography and wide-field ultrasound biomicroscopy for imaging previously operated horizontal extraocular muscles.

J AAPOS 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-India.

Purpose: To assess the feasibility and accuracy of determining extraocular muscle insertion distance from the limbus of previously operated extraocular muscles with the swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) compared with wide-field ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM).

Methods: Patients with a history of previous strabismus surgery for whom additional strabismus surgery was planned were enrolled. The insertion distance was measured by AS-OCT and UBM before reoperation and compared to the caliper measurement at the time of surgery. Read More

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Corneal Vertical and Horizontal Thickness Profiles Generated by UHR-OCT for Suspected and Subclinical Keratoconus Diagnosis.

J Refract Surg 2021 Jul 1;37(7):438-445. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Purpose: To verify the diagnostic power of vertical and horizontal thickness profiles of the corneal sublayers generated by ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT) in subclinical and suspected keratoconus.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 eyes with confirmed keratoconus, 63 eyes with suspected keratoconus, 15 eyes with subclinical keratoconus, and 42 normal eyes were investigated. Vertical and horizontal thickness profiles of the corneal epithelium, Bowman's layer, and stroma were measured by UHR-OCT. Read More

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Biometric and ICL-related risk factors associated to sub-optimal vaults in eyes implanted with implantable collamer lenses.

Eye Vis (Lond) 2021 Jul 5;8(1):26. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Research and Development Department, Ophthalmology Clinic Vista Sánchez Trancón, Building Tecnolaser, Room 14 Calle La Violeta, 06005, Badajoz, Spain.

Background: To identify biometric and implantable collamer lens (ICL)-related risk factors associated with sub-optimal postoperative vault in eyes implanted with phakic ICL.

Methods: This study reports a retrospective case series of the first operated eye in 360 patients implanted with myopic spherical or toric ICL. Preoperatively, white-to-white (WTW), central keratometry (Kc) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured using the Pentacam. Read More

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Influence of one or two horizontal muscle surgeries on OCT findings.

Strabismus 2021 Jul 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul.

We investigate the effects of differences between one or two horizontal rectus muscle surgeries (recession ± resection) on the central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Measurements of the CMT, SFCT, and RNFL in patients who underwent horizontal rectus muscle surgery were obtained using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were grouped as those who had undergone rectus muscle recession surgery (Group 1) and those who had undergone rectus muscle recession + resection surgery (Group 2). Read More

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An en face swept source optical coherence tomography study of the vitreous in eyes with anterior uveitis.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Eye Clinic, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Science 'Luigi Sacco', Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: To analyse vitreous anatomy patients with anterior uveitis (AU) using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed AU and healthy participants were scanned using 16-mm SS-OCT B-scans and 12 × 12 mm cube centred at the fovea. Linear SS-OCT scans were evaluated to identify the premacular bursa (PB) above the macula and the Cloquet's canal above the optic disc. Read More

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Anatomical and functional features of photic retinopathy: a spectral domain optical coherence tomography-based longitudinal study.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Retina and Vitreous Services, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India.

Background: Photic retinopathy may lead to permanent foveal structural injury, leading to irreversible visual acuity loss.

Method: This prospective observational study evaluated 51 eyes of 30 patients with photic retinopathy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was performed for all the eyes at baseline and final follow-up. Read More

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Repeatability and Reproducibility of Macular Hole Size Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 29;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Eye and Vision Science, University of Liverpool, William Henry Duncan Building, 6 West Derby Street, Liverpool L7 8TX, UK.

The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of measuring the minimum linear diameter (MLD) of macular holes (MHs) using horizontal linear and radial scan modes in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients with concurrent sets of radial and horizontal linear OCT volume scans were included. The MLD was measured twice in both scan modes by six raters of three different experience levels (groups). Read More

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Biomarkers in Early Response to Brolucizumab on Pigment Epithelium Detachment Associated with Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Biomedicines 2021 Jun 10;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Unit of Ophthalmology, Fondazione Policlinico A Gemelli, IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Background: The purpose of this study was to describe early changes in the morphology of pigment epithelium detachments (PED) after an intravitreal injection of Brolucizumab into eyes with macular neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (e-AMD).

Method: We included twelve eyes of 12 patients with PED secondary to e-AMD which were not responding to prior anti-VEGF treatments. An ophthalmic examination and an assessment of PED-horizontal maximal diameter (PED-HMD), PED-maximum high (PED-MH) and macular neovascularization (MNV) flow area (MNV-FA) by the means of structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCT-A) were performed at baseline, as well as 1, 7, 14 and 30 days after the injection. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of swept source optical coherence tomography classification algorithms for detection of gonioscopic angle closure.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, National University Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore.

Purpose: To evaluate the performance of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to detect gonioscopic angle closure using different classification algorithms.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2028 subjects without ophthalmic symptoms recruited from a community-based clinic. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and SS-OCT (Casia, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) under dark room conditions. Read More

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Choroidal thickness and vessel pattern in myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Université de Paris, Ophthalmology Department, APHP, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France

Aim: To analyse the choroidal thickness (CT) and vessel pattern of myopic patients with dome-shaped macula (DSM) and their association with the DSM axis and serous retinal detachment (SRD).

Methods: Retrospective study. The CT and vessel pattern were assessed on optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography and ultra-wide-field photography. Read More

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Changes of microbial community structure during the initial stage of biological clogging in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 12;337:125405. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China.

The clogging is a universal problem in constructed wetlands, where microorganisms play an essential role. However, the implication of micro-organism variation due to the clogging is not clear. Four horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HFCWs) were designed and operated to simulate the process of clogging. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of hand loads on upper extremity muscle activity during pushing and pulling motions.

Appl Ergon 2021 Oct 19;96:103504. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, South Korea. Electronic address:

Manual pushing or pulling with a hand tool is a coordinated action by various upper extremity muscles. The objective of this experimental study was to examine the effects of horizontal and vertical hand loads on upper extremity muscle activity during concentric pushing and pulling exertions. Twenty young female participants conducted repetitive pushing and pulling trials with three horizontal loads (1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg) and two vertical loads (0. Read More

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October 2021

Variations of antibiotic resistome in swine wastewater during full-scale anaerobic digestion treatment.

Environ Int 2021 Oct 12;155:106694. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

SCNU Environmental Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China; School of Environment, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Anaerobic digesters have been widely used to treat wastewaters in livestock farms. With the increasing risk of antibiotic resistance originated from livestock husbandry, removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via anaerobic digesters deserved more attention. Here we investigated the removal of antibiotics and ARGs in swine wastewater by three on-farm full-scale anaerobic digesters, including buried biogas digester (BBD), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and high density polyethylene covered biogas digester (HDPE-BD). Read More

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October 2021

Effects of load mass and position on the dynamic loading of the knees, shoulders and lumbar spine during lifting: a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

Appl Ergon 2021 Oct 11;96:103491. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Musculoskeletal models may enhance our understanding of the dynamic loading of the joints during manual material handling. This study used state-of-the-art musculoskeletal models to determine the effects of load mass, asymmetry angle, horizontal location and deposit height on the dynamic loading of the knees, shoulders and lumbar spine during lifting. Recommended weight limits and lifting indices were also calculated using the NIOSH lifting equation. Read More

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October 2021

Morphometric evaluation and measurements of primary pterygium by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its relation with astigmatism.

Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2021 Jan-Dec;13:25158414211020145. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Dehradun, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between measurements and various morphometric parameters of primary pterygium on anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT) and refractive and keratometric astigmatism.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with primary pterygium were included. The AS-OCT parameters of pterygium consisting of epithelial thickness near apex(µm), apical or head thickness(µm), its thickness at limbus(µm), horizontal length of pterygium(mm), central corneal thickness (µm) and maximum pterygium thickness(mm) were evaluated. Read More

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Assessing the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and antibiotic resistance genes during the anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater at different temperatures.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 21;789:147910. Epub 2021 May 21.

Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C. Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain; Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain. Electronic address:

This study investigates the effect of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures on the anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater, in terms of biogas production, occurrence of 30 pharmaceutical compounds of veterinary use, 4 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) which provide resistance to tetracyclines (tetW), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (ermB) and sulfonamides (sul1) antibiotics, as well as class I integron-integrase gene (intI1), related to horizontal gene transfer. The highest methane yield was obtained at a mesophilic temperature (35 °C) (323 mL CH/g TCOD) followed by the yield obtained at thermophilic temperature (53 °C) (242 mL CH/g TCOD). Regarding pharmaceuticals, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and lincomycin were the most abundant in the slaughterhouse wastewater, being detected predominantly in the solid phase (with median concentrations >200 μg/kg dry weight). Read More

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October 2021

Slice encoding for the reduction of outflow signal artifacts in cine balanced SSFP imaging.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Oct 31;86(4):2034-2048. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose: Standard balanced SSFP (bSSFP) cine MRI often suffers from blood outflow artifacts. We propose a method that spatially encodes these outflowing spins to reduce their effects in the intended slice.

Methods: Bloch simulations were performed to characterize through-plane flow and to investigate how the use of phase encoding along the slice select's direction ("slice encoding") could alleviate its issues. Read More

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October 2021

Measurement of Iris Thickness at Different Regions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

J Ophthalmol 2021 11;2021:2653564. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China.

Purpose: To study the variation of iris thicknesses in different regions and explore the possible correlations with age and gender.

Methods: Healthy Chinese adults were recruited; the anterior segment of their eyes was imaged by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The horizontal scan of the right eye was selected, and the thicknesses of both the nasal and temporal irises were measured at 199 evenly spaced points. Read More

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Line-field optical coherence tomography: In vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma subtypes compared to histopathology.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany.

Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in the general population. Treatments vary from Mohs surgery to topical therapy, depending on the subtype. Dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have gained a foothold in daily clinical practice to optimize diagnosis and subtype-oriented treatment. Read More

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Assessing the correlation between swept-source optical coherence tomography lens density pattern analysis and best-corrected visual acuity in patients with cataracts.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2021 13;6(1):e000730. Epub 2021 May 13.

III, CHNO, Paris, Île-de-France, France.

Objective: To assess linear correlation between swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) lens density variation and patients' best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA).

Methods And Analysis: Linear densitometry was performed on horizontal lens images from 518 eyes, obtained using SS-OCT. All densities from the anterior to the posterior side of the cataract were exported for detailed analysis. Read More

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Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography of xanthogranuloma: Correlation with vertical and horizontal histopathology.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Dermatology Clinic, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) is a new noninvasive technique for a real-time, vertical, and horizontal imaging of the skin at cellular resolution. A 47-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of an asymptomatic yellowish papule. LC-OCT evaluation was able to show the diagnostic microscopic features of xanthogranuloma and showed an excellent correlation with vertical and horizontal histopathological sections by revealing enlarged dermal papillae containing multiple, bright roundish giant cells, corresponding to foamy histiocytes, and giant cells characterized by a dark center surrounded by a highly hyper-refractile peripheral ring, corresponding to Touton cells. Read More

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