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Joint geophysical prospecting for groundwater exploration in weathered terrains of South Guangdong, China.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Oct 19;193(11):734. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Groundwater occurrence in a hard rock terrain is strongly controlled by the weathered/fractured zones. However, delineation of such zones is a challenging task given their structural heterogeneity. Traditionally, large numbers of well tests are conducted to assess the subsurface formation. Read More

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October 2021

Assessing Multiplex Tiling PCR Sequencing Approaches for Detecting Genomic Variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Municipal Wastewater.

mSystems 2021 Oct 19:e0106821. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbiagrid.17091.3e, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Wastewater-based genomic surveillance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus shows promise to complement genomic epidemiology efforts. Multiplex tiling PCR is a desirable approach for targeted genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater due to its low cost and rapid turnaround time. However, it is not clear how different multiplex tiling PCR primer schemes or wastewater sample matrices impact the resulting SARS-CoV-2 genome coverage. Read More

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October 2021

Moving towards a strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination in a high-burden city-Lessons learned from the Amazon city of Manaus, Brazil.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(10):e0258539. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The World Health Organization Call to Eliminate Cervical Cancer resonates in cities like Manaus, Brazil, where the burden is among the world's highest. Manaus has offered free cytology-based screening since 1990 and HPV immunization since 2013, but the public system is constrained by many challenges and performance is not well-defined. We obtained cervical cancer prevention activities within Manaus public health records for 2019 to evaluate immunization and screening coverage, screening by region and neighborhood, and the annual Pink October screening campaign. Read More

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October 2021

Association of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion with Trauma Outcomes and Access to Rehabilitation among Young Adults: Findings Overall, by Race/Ethnicity, and Community Income Level.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Center for Surgical Outcomes Research and Center for Child Health Equity and Outcomes Research, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Division of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

Background: Low-income young adults disproportionately experience traumatic injury and poor trauma outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion, in its first four years, on trauma care and outcomes in young adults, overall and by race/ethnicity and zip-code level median income.

Study Design: Statewide hospital discharge data from 5 states that did and 5 states that did not implement Medicaid expansion were used to perform difference-in-difference (DD) analyses. Read More

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September 2021

Prescription Medication Use and Baseline Health Status of Women with Live Birth Deliveries in a National Data Network.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Oct 14:100512. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

Background: The US Food and Drug Administration increasingly uses administrative databases to conduct surveillance of medications used during pregnancy. To assess adverse fetal effects, administrative records must be linked between the mother and infant. The Sentinel Initiative's Mother-Infant Linkage table provides a large cohort of linked deliveries from national, regional, and public insurance claims in the US for the FDA to conduct surveillance. Read More

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October 2021

Adherence of HIV clinics to guidelines for the delivery of TB screening among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Oct 16;21(1):1110. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) - an intervention to reduce the burden of TB among PLHIV - is being implemented at HIV clinics in Ghana since 2007, but TB screening coverage remains low. Facility adherence to intervention guidelines may be a factor but is missing in implementation science literature. This study assesses the level of HIV clinic adherence to the guidelines and related facility characteristics in selected district hospitals in Ghana. Read More

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October 2021

Ratio estimators of intervention effects on event rates in cluster randomized trials.

Stat Med 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

We consider five asymptotically unbiased estimators of intervention effects on event rates in non-matched and matched-pair cluster randomized trials, including ratio of mean counts , ratio of mean cluster-level event rates , ratio of event rates , double ratio of counts , and double ratio of event rates . In the absence of an indirect effect, they all estimate the direct effect of the intervention. Otherwise, , and estimate the total effect, which comprises the direct and indirect effects, whereas and estimate the direct effect only. Read More

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October 2021

Fine scale behaviour and time-budget in the cryptic ectotherm European pond turtle Emys orbicularis.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(10):e0256549. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC, UMR 7178, Strasbourg, France.

For ectotherms, behaviour and associated energetic costs are directly related to thermal conditions. In the present context of global change, estimating time-budget for these species is relevant to assess and predict their capacity to adapt to near future. We tested the hypothesis that in ectotherms where reproduction is highly energy consuming, energy expenditure should vary throughout the breeding season with a maximum around nesting events. Read More

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October 2021

Representativeness of the FluWatchers Participatory Disease Surveillance Program 2015-2016 to 2018-2019: How do participants compare with the Canadian population?

Can Commun Dis Rep 2021 Sep 10;47(9):364-372. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: FluWatch is Canada's national surveillance system that monitors the spread of influenza. Its syndromic surveillance component monitors the spread of influenza-like illness (ILI) in near-real time for signals of unusual or increased activity. Syndromic surveillance data are collected from two main sources: the Sentinel Practitioner ILI Reporting System and FluWatchers. Read More

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September 2021

Climate change, climate-related disasters and mental disorder in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2021 Oct 14;11(10):e051908. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Introduction: Climate change and climate-related disasters adversely affect mental health. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and climate-related disasters and often lack adequate mental healthcare infrastructure. We used the scoping review methodology to determine how exposure to climate change and climate-related disasters influences the presence of mental disorders among those living in LMICs. Read More

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October 2021

Routine HIV Testing and Outcomes: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Division of Chronic Infectious Diseases, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Routine HIV testing is expected to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, to date, limited data are available on the presumed benefit of early detection with improved outcomes through routine HIV testing.

Methods: This study was based on the Taiwan national HIV/AIDS registry, with follow-up data validated through December 31, 2014. Read More

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October 2021

The association between non-infectious uveitis and COVID-19 outcomes: an analysis of United States claims-based data.

Ophthalmology 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California; Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, California; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California; OptumLabs Visiting Fellow, Eden Prairie, MN. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify if non-infectious uveitis (NIU) is associated with a greater risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, hospitalization, and death.

Design: A retrospective cohort study from January 20, 2020 to December 31, 2020 using a national claims-based database.

Participants: Enrollees who had continuous enrollment with both medical and pharmacy coverage for three years prior to January 20, 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Health care providers' perceptions and experiences related to Midwife-led continuity of care-A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(10):e0258248. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Division of Reproductive Health, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.

Background: Though Midwife-led care remains a key to improving the health status of pregnant mothers, in Ethiopia, maternity care has traditionally been based on a model in which responsibility for care is shared by hospital-based midwives, nurses, general practitioners, and obstetricians. This type of care has been seen as representing a fragmented approach.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore health care providers' perceptions and experiences related to Midwife-led continuity of care at primary hospitals in the north Shoa zone Ethiopia. Read More

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October 2021

Does Vaterite Otolith Deformation Affect Post-Release Survival and Predation Susceptibility of Hatchery-Reared Juvenile Atlantic Salmon?

Front Vet Sci 2021 27;8:709850. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Sagittal otoliths are calcareous structures in the inner ear of fishes involved in hearing and balance. They are usually composed of aragonite; however, aragonite can be replaced by vaterite, a deformity which is more common in hatchery-reared than in wild fish. Vaterite growth may impair hearing and balance and affect important fitness-related behaviours such as predator avoidance. Read More

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September 2021

Estimates of country level temperature-related mortality damage functions.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 13;11(1):20282. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, USA.

Many studies project that climate change is expected to cause a significant number of excess deaths. Yet, in integrated assessment models that determine the social cost of carbon (SCC), human mortality impacts do not reflect the latest scientific understanding. We address this issue by estimating country-level mortality damage functions for temperature-related mortality with global spatial coverage. Read More

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October 2021

Use of metformin following a population-level intervention to encourage people with pre-diabetes to enroll in the National Diabetes Prevention Program.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Oct;9(1)

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Introduction: The National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) and metformin are interventions to slow progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes. When coverage for the NDPP was offered by a public research university's health insurance plan, proactive strategies were used to combat historically low enrollment. Although not specifically targeted by these strategies, metformin use was higher than expected, leading to this evaluation. Read More

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October 2021

Plausibility of a third wave of COVID-19 in India: A mathematical modelling based analysis.

Indian J Med Res 2021 May&Jun;153(5&6):522-532

Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi; ICMR-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India.

Background & Objectives: In the context of India's ongoing resurgence of COVID-19 (second wave since mid-February 2021, following the subsiding of the first wave in September 2020), there has been increasing speculation on the possibility of a future third wave of infection, posing a burden on the healthcare system. Using simple mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, this study examined the conditions under which a serious third wave could occur.

Methods: Using a deterministic, compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, four potential mechanisms for a third wave were examined: (i) waning immunity restores previously exposed individuals to a susceptible state, (ii) emergence of a new viral variant that is capable of escaping immunity to previously circulating strains, (iii) emergence of a new viral variant that is more transmissible than the previously circulating strains, and (iv) release of current lockdowns affording fresh opportunities for transmission. Read More

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October 2021

Systemic quinolones and risk of retinal detachment I: analysis of data from the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Quinolones comprise a class of antibiotics that are globally preferred for treating a wide range of bacterial infections due to their potency, broad coverage, favorable pharmacologic profile, and mostly mild to moderate adverse reactions. Spontaneous reports on adverse drug events (ADE) and data from some pharmacoepidemiologic studies have raised concerns regarding quinolones and risk of retinal detachment (RD). This study examined ADE reports submitted to FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS) for evidence on quinolone-associated RD risk. Read More

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October 2021

What we know and still do not know about tick-borne encephalitis?

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2021 ;70(3):189-198

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a febrile illness caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), frequently manifesting as inflammation of the central nervous system. TBEV is a typical arbovirus, i.e. Read More

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October 2021

Detailed molecular characterization of Neisseria meningitidis isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS), Czech Republic, 2010-2019.

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2021 ;70(3):168-177

Aim: Presentation of the first results of the analysis of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from invasive meningococcal disease and from clinically and/or epidemiologically linked cases from 2010-2019. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for the study.

Material And Methods: The study set included 59 isolates of N. Read More

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October 2021

Factors Associated with Healthcare Workers' (HCWs) Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccinations and Indications of a Role Model towards Population Vaccinations from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Greece, May 2021.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Oct 8;18(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Laboratory of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41222 Larissa, Greece.

A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) study was conducted at the end of May 2021 engaging 1456 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 20 hospitals throughout Greece. Acceptance of vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was estimated at 77.7%, with lower vaccine acceptance identified in nurses compared to physicians. Read More

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October 2021

Patient-Reported Financial Distress in Cancer: A Systematic Review of Risk Factors in Universal Healthcare Systems.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 7;13(19). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Section of Translational Medical Ethics, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Financial toxicity is a side effect of cancer that results from the perceived financial distress an individual may experience in the course of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to analyse underlying factors related to subjective financial distress in high-income countries with universal healthcare coverage. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies of cancer patient-reported subjective financial distress by performing a search in the databases of PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to December 2020. Read More

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October 2021

O-JMeSH: creating a bilingual English-Japanese controlled vocabulary of MeSH UIDs through machine translation and mutual information.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e26. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo 158-8557, Japan.

Previous approaches to create a controlled vocabulary for Japanese have resorted to existing bilingual dictionary and transformation rules to allow such mappings. However, given the possible new terms introduced due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the emphasis on respiratory and infection-related terms, coverage might not be guaranteed. We propose creating a Japanese bilingual controlled vocabulary based on MeSH terms assigned to COVID-19 related publications in this work. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and Disparities in Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Preschool Children in Guatemala.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-Chamblee 106-3, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background And Objective: Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies can impair proper growth and brain development in children. Data on the folate and vitamin B12 status of children aged 6-59 months in Guatemala are scarce. Identification of factors associated with higher prevalence of these micronutrient deficiencies within the population is needed for national and regional policymakers. Read More

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October 2021

Infectious diseases experts as part of the antibiotic stewardship team in primary care: protocol for a cluster-randomised blinded study (IDASP).

BMJ Open 2021 Oct 11;11(10):e053160. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain

Introduction: Antibiotic overuse is directly related to antibiotic resistance, and primary care is one of the main reasons for this overuse. This study aims to demonstrate that including experts on infectious diseases (ID) within the antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programme team in primary care settings achieves higher reductions in overall antibiotic consumption and increases the quality of prescription.

Methods And Analysis: A multicentre, cluster-randomised, blinded clinical trial will be conducted between 2021 and 2023. Read More

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October 2021

The resurgence of yellow fever outbreaks in Nigeria: a 2-year review 2017-2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 11;21(1):1054. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Independent Consultant and Professor of Virology, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Yellow fever outbreaks are documented to have a considerable impact not only on the individuals but on the health system with significant economic implications. Efforts to eliminate yellow fever outbreaks globally through the EYE strategy remains important following outbreaks in Africa, Nigeria included. The outbreaks reported in Nigeria, since 2017 and the response efforts provide an opportunity to document and guide interventions for improving future outbreaks in Nigeria and other countries in Africa. Read More

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October 2021

Disparities in telehealth utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from a nationally representative survey in the United States.

J Telemed Telecare 2021 Oct 11:1357633X211051677. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Center for Reducing Health Disparities, Department of Health Promotion, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA.

Telehealth is an important source of health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence is scarce regarding disparities in telehealth utilization in the United States. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with telehealth utilization among US adults. Read More

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October 2021

The impact of re-opening the international border on COVID-19 hospitalisations in Australia: a modelling study.

Med J Aust 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Centre for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.

Objective: To estimate the numbers of COVID-19-related hospitalisations in Australia after re-opening the international border.

Design: Population-level deterministic compartmental epidemic modelling of eight scenarios applying various assumptions regarding SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility (baseline R = 3.5 or 7. Read More

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October 2021

Real-World Utilization of Oral Anticancer Agents and Related Costs in Older Adults with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the United States.

Kidney Cancer 2021 28;5(3):115-127. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Substantial racial and socioeconomic disparities in metastatic RCC (mRCC) have persisted following the introduction of targeted oral anticancer agents (OAAs). The relationship between patient characteristics and OAA access and costs that may underlie persistent disparities in mRCC outcomes have not been examined in a nationally representative patient population.

Methods: Retrospective SEER-Medicare analysis of patients diagnosed with mRCC between 2007-2015 over age 65 with Medicare part D prescription drug coverage. Read More

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Epidemiology of Measles in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia: Analysis of Surveillance Data from 2013 to 2019.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 1;14:4093-4103. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Disease Control and Prevention Department, Bale Zone Health Office, Robe, Ethiopia.

Background: Measles remains a cause of vaccine-preventable death in children worldwide. Reported cases in Ethiopiarepresent only a small proportion of expected cases, due to weak measles-based surveillance implementation. In this study, we aimed to analyze 7 years' measles-surveillance data from Bale zone, in order to indicate measles epidemiology and surveillance-related gaps. Read More

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October 2021