146,925 results match your criteria observational studies


Prediction Model Performance With Different Imputation Strategies: A Simulation Study Using a North American ICU Registry.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Research Institute, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of pragmatic imputation approaches when estimating model coefficients using datasets with varying degrees of data missingness.

Design: Performance in predicting observed mortality in a registry dataset was evaluated using simulations of two simple logistic regression models with age-specific criteria for abnormal vital signs (mentation, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, WBC count, heart rate, and temperature). Starting with a dataset with complete information, increasing degrees of biased missingness of WBC and mentation were introduced, depending on the values of temperature and systolic blood pressure, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Long-term quality of life among breast cancer survivors eligible for screening at diagnosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Public Health 2021 Sep 21;199:65-76. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Section of Cancer Screening, P.O. 5313, Majorstuen, Oslo, 0304, Norway; Department of Health and Care Sciences, UiT The Artic University of Norway, P.O. 6050, Tromsø, 9037, Norway. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the long-term quality of life (QoL) among breast cancer survivors eligible for mammographic screening at diagnosis and compare that to QoL among women with no history of breast cancer.

Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies published between January 2000 and July 2019 was performed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Induced Cough in Chinese Patients: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2021 ;24:137-147

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta.

Purpose: To determine the risk of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced cough compared to non-ACEI cough among Chinese patients.

Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted including randomized controlled trials, case-control studies and observational studies that compared ACEI treatment with control treatment in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. The studies which contained: Chinese population, ACEI, non-ACEI, and indications for the treatment of ACEI were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Further Evidence of Psychometric Performance of the Self-care of Diabetes Inventory in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Ann Behav Med 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Background: The Self-care of Diabetes Inventory (SCODI) is a theory-based tool that measures self-care, a key strategy in the appropriate treatment of diabetes. However, despite the clinical differences between people with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), the psychometric properties of the SCODI were only tested in mixed samples.

Purpose: This study aims to test the psychometric performances of the SCODI in two separate groups of adults with T1DM and T2DM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Role of Cholesterol-Associated Steatohepatitis in the Development of NASH.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

The rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NAFLD-related cirrhosis in the United States and globally highlights the need to better understand the mechanisms causing progression of hepatic steatosis to fibrosing steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in a small proportion of patients with NAFLD. Accumulating evidence suggests that lipotoxicity mediated by hepatic free cholesterol (FC) overload is a mechanistic driver for necroinflammation and fibrosis, characteristic of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in many animal models and also in some patients with NASH. Diet, lifestyle, obesity, key genetic polymorphisms, and hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance are pivotal drivers leading to aberrant cholesterol signaling, which leads to accumulation of FC within hepatocytes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The evolution of epistemological methodologies in anatomy: From antiquity to modern times.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Present day scenario regarding epistemological methods in anatomy is in sharp contrast to the situation during ancient period. This study aimed to explore the evolution of epistemological methodologies in anatomy across centuries. In ancient times Egyptian embalmers acquired anatomical knowledge from handling human bodies and likewise anatomical studies in India involved human dissection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Beneficial and Harmful Outcomes of Tocilizumab in Severe COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pharmacotherapy 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Bellvitge University Hospital, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: The results of studies of tocilizumab (TCZ) in COVID-19 are contradictory. Our study aims to update the medical evidence from controlled observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCT) on the use of TCZ in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Methods: We searched the following databases from January 1, 2020 to April 13, 2021 (date of the last search): MEDLINE database through the PubMed search engine and Scopus, using the terms ("COVID-19" [Supplementary Concept]) AND "tocilizumab" [Supplementary Concept]). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Factors Influencing the Selection of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 24:10742484211049919. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Major atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines recommend non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) over warfarin, except in rare clinical circumstances based on 4 randomized controlled trials comparing each NOAC with warfarin. We aimed to investigate the current NOAC prescription behaviors in alignment with the recent clinical evidence available.

Method: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of NOAC-using patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who were aged ≥65 years on the index date (July 1, 2018) based on nationwide claims data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Interaction networks between the Fallopian tubes and the embryo in human tubal pregnancy: Current knowledge and perspectives.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Gynaecology, Longgang District Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital of Shenzhen City, Shenzhen City, China.

Aim: More than 90% of ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tubes. As the pathogenesis of tubal pregnancy remains largely unclear, the development of strategies to prevent and treat tubal pregnancy still represents a major clinical challenge. This review thoroughly summarizes the current data, aiming to determine the genes and signaling pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of human tubal pregnancy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Free of charge medicine schemes in the NHS. A local and regional Drug and Therapeutic Committees (DTC) experience.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Centre of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London.

Introduction: Free of charge (FoC) medicine schemes are increasingly available and allow access to investigational treatments outside clinical trials or in advance of licensing or NHS commissioning.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed FoC medicine schemes evaluated between 2013 and 2019 by a single NHS trust and a regional drug and therapeutics committee (DTC). The details of each locally reviewed FoC scheme, and any nationally available MHRA Early Access to Medicines Scheme (MHRA EAMS) in the same period, were recorded and categorised. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Front Nutr 2021 7;8:667188. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Food Biosciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Cork, Ireland.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The exact mechanism by which NEC develops is poorly understood however there is growing evidence to suggest that perturbations in the early-life gut microbiota composition increase the risk for NEC. Modulation of the gut microbiota with probiotics, prebiotics, or in combination (synbiotics) is an area which has attracted intense interest in recent years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

What Influences the Sustainable Food Consumption Behaviours of University Students? A Systematic Review.

Int J Public Health 2021 7;66:1604149. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Global environmental challenges demand sustainable behaviours and policies to protect human and planetary health. We aimed to summarize the evidence about the factors related to Sustainable Food Consumption (SFC) behaviours of university students, and to propose an operational categorization of SFC behaviours. Seven databases were searched for observational studies evaluating Sustainable Food Consumption (SFC) among university students and that reported at least one behavioural outcome measure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Arthroscopic Management of Meniscal Cysts: A Systematic Review.

Orthop Res Rev 2021 17;13:123-139. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

USC Epstein Family Center for Sports Medicine at Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the outcomes of arthroscopic management of meniscal cysts and to compare the results across the reported surgical techniques.

Methods: Following the PRISMA methodology, 3 databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from inception to June 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies reporting outcomes on patients with meniscal cysts who underwent arthroscopic surgery. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to evaluate the study quality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Understanding the burden of interstitial lung disease post-COVID-19: the UK Interstitial Lung Disease-Long COVID Study (UKILD-Long COVID).

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Sep;8(1)

Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, UCL Respiratory, University College London, London, UK.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 100 million cases worldwide. The UK has had over 4 million cases, 400 000 hospital admissions and 100 000 deaths. Many patients with COVID-19 suffer long-term symptoms, predominantly breathlessness and fatigue whether hospitalised or not. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

[Relevance of different study types in benefit assessment: Results from expert interviews].

Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institut für Evidenz in der Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Deutschland; Cochrane Deutschland, Cochrane Deutschland Stiftung, Freiburg, Deutschland. Electronic address:

Background: Careful evaluation of new interventions is essential. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs provide the most reliable evidence base in comparative evaluations of treatments and interventions. Observational study designs are found at the lower levels of the classical evidence hierarchy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Association Between Metformin Prescription and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth and Clinical Events: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

The Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease (QRC-PVD), College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia; The Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; The Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Townsville University Hospital, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: A meta-analysis of the association between metformin prescription and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth and events (rupture or surgical repair) was performed.

Methods: Open source databases were searched for observational studies reporting the association between metformin prescription and AAA growth or events. Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Evaluation of Cold Sensitivity in Patients With Upper Extremity Nerve Compression Syndromes: A Scoping Review.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Toronto Western Hospital Hand Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine the prevalence of cold sensitivity in upper extremity nerve compression syndromes and the impact of treating nerve compression syndromes on cold sensitivity.

Methods: Following a standardized scoping review protocol, this study included interventional and observational study designs assessing patients with cold sensitivity and upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. Review articles, case reports, and small case series (n < 5) were excluded. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization in Late-Presenting Patients With STEMI.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(13):1291-1305

Department of Cardiology, Toulouse Rangueil University Hospital, UMR 1295 INSERM, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Background: The optimal management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presenting late->12 hours following symptom onset-is still under debate.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics, temporal trends, and impact of revascularization in a large population of latecomer STEMI patients.

Methods: The authors analyzed the data of 3 nationwide observational studies from the FAST-MI (French Registry of Acute ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction) program, conducted over a 1-month period in 2005, 2010, and 2015. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

[Clinical evaluation of progestogens used in Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT)].

Authors:
Alfred O Mueck

Ther Umsch 2021 ;78(8):447-455

Department für Frauengesundheit, Universitätskliniken Tübingen, Deutschland und Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, China.

Clinical evaluation of progestogens used in Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) Primary indication for progestogens in MHT is to avoid estrogen-induced endometrial cancer. Progesteron has the least endometrial efficacy but is used increasingly (together with transdermal estradiol) because it is neutral in vascular and metabolic systems and possibly may have a lower risk of breast cancer. Comparable is dydrogesterone, the retro-isomer of progesterone, but with higher endometrial efficacy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Secondary electronic sources demonstrated very good sensitivity for identifying studies evaluating interventions for COVID-19.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Université de Paris, UMR 1153 CRESS Inserm, 75004, Paris, France; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, (AP-HP), 75004, Paris, France; Cochrane France, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, 75004, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess the sensitivity of two secondary electronic sources of COVID-19 studies: 1) the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (https://covid-19.cochrane.org/); and, 2) the Living Overview of the Evidence (L•OVE) COVID-19 platform (https://iloveevidence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University and Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have reported a significant association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the magnitude of the risk and whether this risk changes with the severity of NAFLD remains uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident CVD events. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment of the Saphenous Nerve for Refractory Osteoarthritis-Associated Knee Pain.

Pain Physician 2021 Sep;24(6):E761-E769

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Background: While the efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) for shoulder pain has been demonstrated, its efficacy on the saphenous nerves for knee osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain has only been reported in observational studies.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare saphenous nerve PRF to placebo for knee OA-associated pain.

Study Design: Patients, practitioners, and outcome assessor-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Are Landing Patterns in Jumping Athletes Associated with Patellar Tendinopathy? A Systematic Review with Evidence Gap Map and Meta-analysis.

Sports Med 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Sports and Exercise Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, QMUL, London, UK.

Background: Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is common and debilitating for jumping athletes. Intriguingly, despite its high prevalence and many research studies, a causal explanation for PT presence remains elusive.

Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether landing biomechanics among jumping athletes are associated with PT and can predict onset. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Psychosocial Effects of Vitiligo: A Systematic Literature Review.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Palo Alto Foundation Medical Group, Mountain View, CA, USA.

Background: Patients with vitiligo experience reduced quality of life.

Objective: To comprehensively describe the available evidence for psychosocial burden in vitiligo.

Methods: A systematic review of observational studies and clinical trials identified using PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane databases was performed through 1 March, 2021, to assess psychosocial comorbidities in vitiligo. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Adolescent cannabis use and adult psychoticism: A longitudinal co-twin control analysis using data from two cohorts.

J Abnorm Psychol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Child Development.

Observational studies have repeatedly linked cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis. We sought to clarify whether this association reflects a causal effect of cannabis exposure or residual confounding. We analyzed data from two cohorts of twins who completed repeated, prospective measures of cannabis use ( = 1544) and cannabis use disorder symptoms ( = 1458) in adolescence and a dimensional measure of psychosis-proneness (the Personality Inventory for -5 Psychoticism scale) in adulthood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Towards Equitable Surgical Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review of Disparities in Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Existing evidence for disparities in inflammatory bowel disease is fragmented and heterogenous. Underlying mechanisms for differences in outcomes based on race and socioeconomic status remain undefined. We performed a systematic review of the literature to examine disparities in surgery for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

[The impact of immunosuppression and chronic kidney disease on immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Oct 22;146(19):1277-1282. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THE APPROVED VACCINES IN KIDNEY DISEASES AND THOSE RECEIVING IMMUNOSUPPRESSION?:  Several observational studies indicated that immunosuppression is associated with a weakened or absent humoral response. Patients with chronic kidney diseases or undergoing maintenance dialysis without immunosuppression have a reduced humoral response to COVID-19 vaccines. I HAD COVID-19. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Hyponatremia Intervention Trial (HIT): Study Protocol of a Randomized, Controlled, Parallel-Group Trial With Blinded Outcome Assessment.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 6;8:729545. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Departments of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder with a prevalence of up to 30% in hospitalized patients. In contrast to acute hyponatremia where the need for immediate treatment is well-recognized, chronic hyponatremia is often considered not clinically relevant. This is illustrated by reports showing that appropriate laboratory tests are ordered in <50% of patients and that up to 75% are still hyponatremic at discharge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in South Asian infants: Results of observational cohort studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations.

J Glob Health 2021 4;11:04054. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage (NPC) is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease and reduced carriage of vaccine serotypes is a marker for the protection offered by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). The present study reports NPC during the first year of life in a vaccinated (with PCV10) cohort in Bangladesh and an unvaccinated cohort in India.

Methods: A total of 450 and 459 infants were recruited from India and Bangladesh respectively within 0-7 days after birth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Periphery kinetic perimetry: clinically feasible to complement central static perimetry.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 23;21(1):343. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chengdu First People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Existing evidence suggests that visual field defect in eyes with glaucoma significantly varies between individuals. The following study compared the central visual field defects with the peripheral visual field defects in patients with suspect glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and investigated whether using the central visual field test alone could result in loss of clinically valuable information.

Methods: In this prospective observational study, 167 eyes from 89 patients with suspect glaucoma or POAG were first examined with static automated perimetry (SAP), followed by a peripheral visual field test on Octopus 900 perimeter (Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021