17,091 results match your criteria object recognition

Microglia proliferation plays distinct roles in acquired epilepsy depending on disease stages.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Microgliosis occurs in animal models of acquired epilepsy and in patients. It includes cell proliferation that is associated with seizure frequency and decreased neuronal cells in human epilepsy. The role of microglia proliferation in the development of acquired epilepsy is unknown; thus, we examined its contribution to spontaneous seizure, neurodegeneration, and cognitive deficits in different disease phases. Read More

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How achievement motive enactment shapes daily flow experience and work engagement: The interplay of personality systems.

Motiv Emot 2021 Jun 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, Faculty of Economy, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

In the present study, we examined how different forms of achievement motive interact to predict daily flow experience and work engagement. In particular, we conducted two diary studies to examine the main and interaction effects of motive enactment via extension memory (a macrosystem that enables holistic and experience-based information processing) and via the object recognition system (an alert-oriented macrosystem). In study 1, in line with personality systems interaction (PSI) theory, we found that motive enactment via extension memory fosters both day-specific flow and work engagement, whereas the conjunction of both forms of motive enactment has beneficial effects on flow and work engagement (two-way interaction). Read More

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Neuromorphic Time-Multiplexed Reservoir Computing With On-the-Fly Weight Generation for Edge Devices.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The human brain has evolved to perform complex and computationally expensive cognitive tasks, such as audio-visual perception and object detection, with ease. For instance, the brain can recognize speech in different dialects and perform other cognitive tasks, such as attention, memory, and motor control, with just 20 W of power consumption. Taking inspiration from neural systems, we propose a low-power neuromorphic hardware architecture to perform classification on temporal data at the edge. Read More

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Cortical connectivity in the face of congenital structural changes-A case of homozygous LAMC3 mutation.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

A.S. Brain Research Center and National Magnetic Resonance Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

The homozygous LAMC3 gene mutation is associated with severe bilateral smoothening and thickening of the lateral occipital cortex . Despite this and further significant changes in gray matter structure, a patient harboring this mutation exhibited a range of remarkably intact perceptual abilities . One possible explanation of this perceptual sparing could be that the white matter structural integrity and functional connectivity in relevant pathways remained intact. Read More

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Behavioral and neurobiological changes in a novel mouse model of schizophrenia induced by the combination of cuprizone and MK-801.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 11;174:141-152. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Engineering Research Center for Nerve System Drugs, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Diseases of Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100053, China. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by episodes of psychosis, apathy, social withdrawal, and cognitive impairment. White matter lesions and glutamatergic hypofunction are reported to be the key pathogeneses underlying the multiple clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Cuprizone (CPZ) is a copper chelator that selectively injures oligodendrocytes, and MK-801 is an antagonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Read More

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Object expectations alter information use during visual recognition.

Cognition 2021 Jun 9;214:104803. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

Prior expectations influence how we perceive and recognize objects. However, how they do so remains unclear, especially in the case of real-world complex objects. Expectations of objects may affect which features are used to recognize them subsequently. Read More

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The effect of photoperiod and high fat diet on the cognitive response in photoperiod-sensitive F344 rats.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 9:113496. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Chemistry and Bioscience, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK. Electronic address:

In many species, seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod) have profound effects on physiology and behavior. In humans, these include cognitive function and mood. Here we investigated the effect of photoperiod and high fat diets on cognitive deficits, as measured by novel object recognition, in the photoperiod-sensitive F344 rat, which exhibits marked natural changes in growth, body weight and food intake in response to photoperiod. Read More

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Blood-brain barrier leakage and perivascular collagen accumulation precede microvessel rarefaction and memory impairment in a chronic hypertension animal model.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Koç University Research Center for Translational Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Hypertension (HT) is one of the main causes of vascular dementia, lead to cognitive decline. Here, we investigated the relationship between cerebral microvessels, pericytes, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and memory impairment at mid-life in a chronic hypertension animal model. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) (n = 20) are chosen for the model and age matched Wistar rats (n = 16) as controls. Read More

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Rutin prevents tau pathology and neuroinflammation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jun 11;18(1):131. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Background: Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. During disease progression, abnormally phosphorylated forms of tau aggregate and accumulate into neurofibrillary tangles, leading to synapse loss, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of tau pathology is expected to be a promising strategy for AD treatment. Read More

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14-3-3ζ is crucial for the conversion of labile short-term object recognition memory into stable long-term memory.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Neurobiology, CIMES, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

The consolidation of new memories into long-lasting memories is multistage process characterized by distinct temporal dynamics. However, our understanding on the initial stage of transformation of labile memory of recent experience into stable memory remains elusive. Here, with the use of rats and mice overexpressing a memory enhancer called regulator of G protein signaling 14 of 414 amino acids (RGS14 ) as a tool, we show that the expression of RGS14 in male rats' perirhinal cortex (PRh), which is a brain area crucial for object recognition memory (ORM), enhanced the ORM to the extent that it caused the conversion of labile short-term ORM (ST-ORM) expected to last for 40 min into stable long-term ORM (LT-ORM) traceable after a delay of 24 hr, and that the temporal window of 40 to 60 min after object exposure not only was key for this conversion but also was the time frame when a surge in 14-3-3ζ protein was observed. Read More

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Unsupervised changes in core object recognition behavior are predicted by neural plasticity in inferior temporal cortex.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, United States.

Temporal continuity of object identity is a feature of natural visual input, and is potentially exploited -- in an unsupervised manner -- by the ventral visual stream to build the neural representation in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Here we investigated whether plasticity of individual IT neurons underlies human core-object-recognition behavioral changes induced with unsupervised visual experience. We built a single-neuron plasticity model combined with a previously established IT population-to-recognition-behavior linking model to predict human learning effects. Read More

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Lrig1 deficiency affects hippocampal dendrite complexity and impairs cognitive function.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencias "Prof. E. De Robertis"(IBCN)- CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) transmembrane proteins have been directly linked to neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. We have previously shown that the LRR transmembrane protein Lrig1 is a physiological regulator of dendrite complexity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and social behavior. In this study, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate spatial memory and cognitive capabilities in Lrig1 mutant mice. Read More

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HTS-based discovery and optimization of novel positive allosteric modulators of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 29;222:113560. Epub 2021 May 29.

Pharmacological and Drug Safety Research, Gedeon Richter Plc., Budapest, Hungary.

HTS campaign of the corporate compound collection resulted in a novel, oxalic acid diamide scaffold of α7 nACh receptor positive allosteric modulators. During the hit expansion, several derivatives, such as 4, 11, 17 demonstrated not only high in vitro potency, but also in vivo efficacy in the mouse place recognition test. The advanced hit molecule 11 was further optimized by the elimination of the putatively mutagenic aromatic-amine building block that resulted in a novel, aminomethylindole compound family. Read More

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Immediate and cumulative effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognition and neuronal excitability in mice.

Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300130, PR China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetic Technology and Intelligent Health, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300130, PR China. Electronic address:

This study primarily explored the potential effects of high-frequency (20 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with different intervention protocols on cognition and neuronal excitability in mice. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group that received sham stimulation, an rTMS in vitro group whose acute brain slices received high-frequency stimulation, an rTMS 1 d group that received high-frequency stimulation for only 1 d, and an rTMS 15 d group that received high-frequency stimulation for 15 d. The novel object recognition and step-down tests were used to assess cognitive ability. Read More

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NQR sensitive embedded signatures for authenticating additively manufactured objects.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12207. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Automatic recognition of unique characteristics of an object can provide a powerful solution to verify its authenticity and safety. It can mitigate the growth of one of the largest underground industries-that of counterfeit goods-flowing through the global supply chain. In this article, we propose the novel concept of material biometrics, in which the intrinsic chemical properties of structural materials are used to generate unique identifiers for authenticating individual products. Read More

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Evidence for deficits in behavioural and physiological responses in aged mice relevant to the psychiatric symptom of apathy.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;5:23982128211015110. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Apathy is widely reported in patients with neurological disorders or post viral infection but is also seen in otherwise-healthy aged individuals. This study investigated whether aged male mice express behavioural and physiological changes relevant to an apathy phenotype. Using measures of motivation to work for reward, we found deficits in the progressive ratio task related to rate of responding. Read More

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Multiple adjoining word- and face-selective regions in ventral temporal cortex exhibit distinct dynamics.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

The map of category-selectivity in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) provides organizational constraints to models of object recognition. One important principle is lateral-medial response biases to stimuli that are typically viewed in the center or periphery of the visual field. However, little is known about the relative temporal dynamics and location of regions that respond preferentially to stimulus classes that are centrally viewed, like the face- and word-processing networks. Read More

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Repeated 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol exposure alters social dominance in adult mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 9;758:136006. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Medical and Health Science of HeBMU, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China; Hebei Key Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Hebei Medicinal University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medicinal University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China; Research Unit of Digestive Tract Microecosystem Pharmacology and Toxicology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050017, China. Electronic address:

The influence of gut microbiota on brain function and brain disorders has been attracted more and more attention. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), an indirect metabolite of gut microbiota, has been linked to aging, cognitive impairment, and other brain disorders. However, the relationship between TMAO and social behaviors are still poorly understood. Read More

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Behavioural tagging: Effect of novelty exploration on plasticity related molecular signatures.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Learning and memory are one of those frontier areas of neurobiology which attract us to investigate the intricacy of this process. Here, we aimed to investigate the general mechanism of "Behavioural Tagging and Capture" in long term memory (LTM) formation and to find the key factors playing role in consolidation of LTM. In this study, we've shown that not only plasticity related proteins (PRPs) but neurotransmitters and immediate early genes (IEGs) also play an important role in memory formation process. Read More

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RDD2020: An annotated image dataset for automatic road damage detection using deep learning.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 12;36:107133. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Tokyo, Japan.

This data article provides details for the RDD2020 dataset comprising 26,336 road images from India, Japan, and the Czech Republic with more than 31,000 instances of road damage. The dataset captures four types of road damage: longitudinal cracks, transverse cracks, alligator cracks, and potholes; and is intended for developing deep learning-based methods to detect and classify road damage automatically. The images in RDD2020 were captured using vehicle-mounted smartphones, making it useful for municipalities and road agencies to develop methods for low-cost monitoring of road pavement surface conditions. Read More

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Prodromal neuroinflammatory, cholinergic and metabolite dysfunction detected by PET and MRS in the TgF344-AD transgenic rat model of AD: a collaborative multi-modal study.

Theranostics 2021 3;11(14):6644-6667. Epub 2021 May 3.

Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are valuable but do not fully recapitulate human AD pathology, such as spontaneous Tau fibril accumulation and neuronal loss, necessitating the development of new AD models. The transgenic (TG) TgF344-AD rat has been reported to develop age-dependent AD features including neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangles, despite only expressing and mutations, suggesting an improved modelling of AD hallmarks. Alterations in neuronal networks as well as learning performance and cognition tasks have been reported in this model, but none have combined a longitudinal, multimodal approach across multiple centres, which mimics the approaches commonly taken in clinical studies. Read More

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GABA Alpha 2,3 Modulation Improves Select Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

Front Psychiatry 2021 21;12:678090. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by functional loss of the Fragile X Protein (FXP), also known as Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). In humans and animal models, loss of FXP leads to sensory hypersensitivity, increased susceptibility to seizures and cortical hyperactivity. Read More

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The Effect of Focal Damage to the Right Medial Posterior Cerebellum on Word and Sentence Comprehension and Production.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 20;15:664650. Epub 2021 May 20.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Functional imaging studies of neurologically intact adults have demonstrated that the right posterior cerebellum is activated during verb generation, semantic processing, sentence processing, and verbal fluency. Studies of patients with cerebellar damage converge to show that the cerebellum supports sentence processing and verbal fluency. However, to date there are no patient studies that investigated the specific importance of the right posterior cerebellum in language processing, because: (i) case studies presented patients with lesions affecting the anterior cerebellum (with or without damage to the posterior cerebellum), and (ii) group studies combined patients with lesions to different cerebellar regions, without specifically reporting the effects of right posterior cerebellar damage. Read More

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Classification of human body motions using an ultra-wideband pulse radar.

Technol Health Care 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Background: The motion or gestures of a person are primarily recognized by detecting a specific object and the change in its position from image information obtained via an image sensor. However, the use of such systems is limited due to privacy concerns.

Objective: To overcome these concerns, this study proposes a radar-based motion recognition method. Read More

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Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence protects against adult traumatic brain injury-induced affective and cognitive deficits.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 4;1767:147544. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States. Electronic address:

Pre-clinical early-life stress paradigms model early adverse events in humans. However, the long-term behavioral consequences of early-life adversities after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults have not been examined. In addition, endocannabinoids may protect against TBI neuropathology. Read More

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Detection of a temporal structure in the rat behavioural response to an aversive stimulation in the emotional object recognition (EOR) task.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 2;238:113481. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Laboratory of Behavioral Physiology, Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (Bi.N.D.), Human Physiology Section "Giuseppe Pagano", University of Palermo, 90134 Palermo, Italy; Interdepartmental Center for Science Technology (C.I.T.C.), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:

Aim of the research was to investigate whether a temporal structure could be detected in the behavioural response to an aversive stimulation. A fear-related memory task was used in rats, placed in a modified version of the Novel Object Recognition task known as Emotional Object Recognition task, i.e. Read More

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On the necessity of recurrent processing during object recognition: it depends on the need for scene segmentation.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

While feed-forward activity may suffice for recognizing objects in isolation, additional visual operations that aid object recognition might be needed for real-world scenes. One such additional operation is figure-ground segmentation; extracting the relevant features and locations of the target object while ignoring irrelevant features. In this study of 60 human participants (female and male), we show objects on backgrounds of increasing complexity to investigate whether recurrent computations are increasingly important for segmenting objects from more complex backgrounds. Read More

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Longitudinal decline in spoken word recognition and object knowledge in primary progressive aphasia.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26163

Department of Neurology.

Abstract: The premise of this study is that spoken word recognition and object knowledge are impaired in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (svPPA) and are spared in logopenic variant (lvPPA) and nonfluent agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfaPPA) at disease onset. Over time, however, there may be heterogeneity in these abilities in lvPPA and nfaPPA. We hypothesized that individuals with svPPA would demonstrate poorer performance on baseline spoken word recognition and object knowledge than those with lvPPA and nfaPPA) as documented in the literature, but that rates of decline over time on spoken word recognition and object knowledge would be similar in all 3 PPA variants because these become less distinguishable with disease progression. Read More

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Quantitative circular flow immunoassays with trained object recognition to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 membrane glycoprotein.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 29;565:8-13. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Biology, State University, San Diego, USA. Electronic address:

Amidst infectious disease outbreaks, a practical tool that can quantitatively monitor individuals' antibodies to pathogens is vital for disease control. The currently used serological lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) can only detect the presence of antibodies for a single antigen. Here, we fabricated a multiplexed circular flow immunoassay (CFIA) test strip with YOLO v4-based object recognition that can quickly quantify and differentiate antibodies that bind membrane glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or hemagglutinin of influenza A (H1N1) virus in the sera of immunized mice in one assay using one sample. Read More

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Custom Hardware Architectures for Deep Learning on Portable Devices: A Review.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 4;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The staggering innovations and emergence of numerous deep learning (DL) applications have forced researchers to reconsider hardware architecture to accommodate fast and efficient application-specific computations. Applications, such as object detection, image recognition, speech translation, as well as music synthesis and image generation, can be performed with high accuracy at the expense of substantial computational resources using DL. Furthermore, the desire to adopt Industry 4. Read More

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