105,193 results match your criteria object


The funny current in genetically modified mice.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, France; LabEx Ion Channels Science and Therapeutics (ICST), France. Electronic address:

Since its first description in 1979, the hyperpolarization-activated funny current (I) has been the object of intensive research aimed at understanding its role in cardiac pacemaker activity and its modulation by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. I was described in isolated tissue strips of the rabbit sinoatrial node using the double-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Since then, the rabbit has been the principal animal model for studying pacemaker activity and I for more than 20 years. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence and Cellular Segmentation in Tissue Microscopy Images.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology and Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, 60637. Electronic address:

With applications in object detection, image feature extraction, image classification, and image segmentation, artificial intelligence is enabling high-throughput analysis of image data in a variety of biomedical imaging disciplines, ranging from radiology and pathology to cancer biology and immunology. Specifically, a growth in research surrounding deep learning has led to widespread application of computer vision techniques to analyze and mine data from biomedical images. The availability of open-source software packages and the development of novel, trainable deep neural network architectures has led to an increase in accuracy of cell detection and segmentation algorithms. Read More

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An integrated platform to facilitate the calculation, validation and visualization of optical flow velocities in biological images.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210248. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Integrative Sciences and Engineering Programme, NUS Graduate School, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Optical flow algorithms have seen poor adoption in the biological community compared with particle image velocimetry for quantifying cellular dynamics because of the lack of proper validation and an intuitive user interface. To address these challenges, we present OpFlowLab, an integrated platform that integrates our motion estimation workflow. Using routines in our workflow, we demonstrate that optical flow algorithms are more accurate than PIV in simulated images of the movement of nuclei. Read More

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Microgel that swims to the beat of light.

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 2021 Jun 15;44(6):79. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

DWI - Leibniz-Institut for Interactive Materials, RWTH university, Forckenbeckstr. 50, D-52056, Aachen, Germany.

Complementary to the quickly advancing understanding of the swimming of microorganisms, we demonstrate rather simple design principles for systems that can mimic swimming by body shape deformation. For this purpose, we developed a microswimmer that could be actuated and controlled by fast temperature changes through pulsed infrared light irradiation. The construction of the microswimmer has the following features: (i) it is a bilayer ribbon with a length of 80 or 120 [Formula: see text]m, consisting of a thermo-responsive hydrogel of poly-N-isopropylamide coated with a 2-nm layer of gold and equipped with homogeneously dispersed gold nanorods; (ii) the width of the ribbon is linearly tapered with a wider end of 5 [Formula: see text]m and a tip of 0. Read More

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Analyzing musculoskeletal risk prevalence among workers in developing countries: an analysis of small-scale cast-iron foundries in India.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2021 Jun 15:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ch. Ranbir Singh State Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jhajjar, Haryana, India.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common health issues around the globe and a major cause of disability among workers. In developing countries, most casting industries fall under Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs); SMEs lack modern equipment and often intensively rely on manual labor. As processes are mainly labor intensive, workers employed in the metal casting sector are often at risk of MSDs. Read More

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Bidirectional connectivity between Broca's area and Wernicke's area during interactive verbal communication.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Yale School of Medicine, 12228, Psychiatry, Neuroscience, and Comparative Medicine, 300 George St, Suite 902, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06511;

Aim: This investigation aims to advance understanding of the neural dynamics that underlie live and natural interactions during spoken dialogue between two-individuals.

Introduction: The underlying hypothesis is that functional connectivity between canonical speech areas in the human brain will be modulated by social interaction.

Methods: Granger causality was applied to compare directional connectivity across Broca's and Wernicke's Areas during verbal conditions consisting of interactive and non-interactive communication. Read More

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Decoding location-specific and location-invariant stages of numerosity processing in subitizing.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Mind/Brain Sciences - CIMeC, University of Trento, Rovereto, (TN), Italy.

Extracting the number of objects in perceived scenes is a fundamental cognitive ability. Number processing is proposed to rely on two consecutive stages: an early object location map that captures individuated objects in a location-specific way and a subsequent location-invariant representation that captures numerosity at an abstract level. However, it is unclear whether this framework applies to small numerosities that can be individuated at once ("subitized"). Read More

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Microglia proliferation plays distinct roles in acquired epilepsy depending on disease stages.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Microgliosis occurs in animal models of acquired epilepsy and in patients. It includes cell proliferation that is associated with seizure frequency and decreased neuronal cells in human epilepsy. The role of microglia proliferation in the development of acquired epilepsy is unknown; thus, we examined its contribution to spontaneous seizure, neurodegeneration, and cognitive deficits in different disease phases. Read More

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How achievement motive enactment shapes daily flow experience and work engagement: The interplay of personality systems.

Motiv Emot 2021 Jun 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, Faculty of Economy, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

In the present study, we examined how different forms of achievement motive interact to predict daily flow experience and work engagement. In particular, we conducted two diary studies to examine the main and interaction effects of motive enactment via extension memory (a macrosystem that enables holistic and experience-based information processing) and via the object recognition system (an alert-oriented macrosystem). In study 1, in line with personality systems interaction (PSI) theory, we found that motive enactment via extension memory fosters both day-specific flow and work engagement, whereas the conjunction of both forms of motive enactment has beneficial effects on flow and work engagement (two-way interaction). Read More

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Junior doctors and conscientious objection to voluntary assisted dying: ethical complexity in practice.

J Med Ethics 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Australian Centre for Health Law Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

In jurisdictions where voluntary assisted dying (VAD) is legal, eligibility assessments, prescription and administration of a VAD substance are commonly performed by senior doctors. Junior doctors' involvement is limited to a range of more peripheral aspects of patient care relating to VAD. In the Australian state of Victoria, where VAD has been legal since June 2019, all health professionals have a right under the legislation to conscientiously object to involvement in the VAD process, including provision of information about VAD. Read More

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Xylological Variant of Reverse Fregoli Syndrome, Delusions of Being a Tree.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):145

Smell and Taste Treatment and Research Foundation, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: The delusion of being a living animate non-animal object has not heretofore been reported.

Methods: A 21-year-old right-handed cisgender female, two months prior to presentation, noted stiffness and difficulty with ambulation. One-month prior to admission, she experienced recurrent depression with myriad vegetative and nonvegetative symptoms of depression. Read More

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Recent Advances in C-C/Heteroatom Bond Forming and Annulation Reactions of β-Ketodithioesters.

Curr Org Synth 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Chemistry Department, Manipur University, Canchipur-795003, India.

β Ketodithioesters (KDEs) are versatile building blocks for the rapid construction of various heterocyclic compounds. Quite a good number of successful reactions based on KDEs have been developed in the past decade for the construction of heterocyclic skeletons under mild conditions. This review covers the new C-C/X bond formation and annulation reactions of KDEs with dielectrophilic or dinucleophilic reagents. Read More

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DETECTION OF DENSE, OVERLAPPING, GEOMETRIC OBJECTS.

Int J Artif Intell Appl 2020 ;11(4)

NIST, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg, MD.

Using a unique data collection, we are able to study the detection of dense geometric objects in image data where object density, clarity, and size vary. The data is a large set of black and white images of scatterplots, taken from journals reporting thermophysical property data of metal systems, whose plot points are represented primarily by circles, triangles, and squares. We built a highly accurate single class U-Net convolutional neural network model to identify 97 % of image objects in a defined set of test images, locating the centers of the objects to within a few pixels of the correct locations. Read More

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January 2020

Approach trajectory and solar position affect host plant attractiveness to the small white butterfly.

Vision Res 2021 Jun 11;186:140-149. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

While it is well documented that insects exploit polarized sky light for navigation, their use of reflected polarized light for object detection has been less well studied. Recently, we have shown that the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, distinguishes between host and non-host plants based on the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) of light reflected from their leaves. To determine how polarized light cues affect host plant foraging by female P. Read More

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Interaction between spatial neglect and attention deficit in patients with right hemisphere damage.

Cortex 2021 May 19;141:331-346. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Rehabilitation for the Movement Functions, Research Institute of National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan; Regenerative Rehabilitation Section of Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) was originally regarded as a parietal syndrome, but it has become evident that USN is a disturbance in the widespread attention network. Here, we focused on an interaction between spatial neglect and non-spatial aspect of attention deficit, and aimed to establish a novel evaluation approach based on the characteristics of the spatial distribution of reaction times. We tested 174 patients with right hemisphere damage and divided them based on their prescreening scores on the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT): (1) USN++ (n = 79: BIT<131), (2) USN+ (n = 47: BIT≥131 with history of USN), and (3) RHD (n = 48: without neglect symptom). Read More

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Challenges in surgical video annotation.

Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon) 2021 Dec;26(1):58-68

Surgical AI & Innovation Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Annotation of surgical video is important for establishing ground truth in surgical data science endeavors that involve computer vision. With the growth of the field over the last decade, several challenges have been identified in annotating spatial, temporal, and clinical elements of surgical video as well as challenges in selecting annotators. In reviewing current challenges, we provide suggestions on opportunities for improvement and possible next steps to enable translation of surgical data science efforts in surgical video analysis to clinical research and practice. Read More

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December 2021

Upper gastrointestinal bleed in a toddler - an unusual encounter revealing foreign body ingestion.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1249-1251

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The Indus Hospital network, Karachi, Pakistan.

Foreign body (FB) ingestion is common in children; however, management varies based on the object ingested, its location and clinical presentation. Urgent intervention is needed if any warning signs are present. We describe the case of a four-year-old child who presented with acute onset of life-threatening upper gastro intestinal bleeding. Read More

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Neuromorphic Time-Multiplexed Reservoir Computing With On-the-Fly Weight Generation for Edge Devices.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The human brain has evolved to perform complex and computationally expensive cognitive tasks, such as audio-visual perception and object detection, with ease. For instance, the brain can recognize speech in different dialects and perform other cognitive tasks, such as attention, memory, and motor control, with just 20 W of power consumption. Taking inspiration from neural systems, we propose a low-power neuromorphic hardware architecture to perform classification on temporal data at the edge. Read More

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C.DOT - Convolutional Deep Object Tracker for Augmented Reality Based Purely on Synthetic Data.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Augmented reality applications use object tracking to estimate the pose of a camera and to superimpose virtual content onto the observed object. Today, a number of tracking systems are available, ready to be used in industrial applications. However, such systems are hard to handle for a service maintenance engineer, due to obscure configuration procedures. Read More

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Multi-Interactive Dual-Decoder for RGB-Thermal Salient Object Detection.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

RGB-thermal salient object detection (SOD) aims to segment the common prominent regions of visible image and corresponding thermal infrared image that we call it RGBT SOD. Existing methods don't fully explore and exploit the potentials of complementarity of different modalities and multi-type cues of image contents, which play a vital role in achieving accurate results. In this paper, we propose a multi-interactive dual-decoder to mine and model the multi-type interactions for accurate RGBT SOD. Read More

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CycleSegNet: Object Co-Segmentation with Cycle Refinement and Region Correspondence.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Image co-segmentation is an active computer vision task that aims to segment the common objects from a set of images. Recently, researchers design various learning-based algorithms to undertake the co-segmentation task. The main difficulty in this task is how to effectively transfer information between images to make conditional predictions. Read More

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Top-down and bottom-up guidance in normal aging during scene search.

Psychol Aging 2021 Jun;36(4):433-451

School of Psychology.

Age-related differences in visual search have been extensively studied using simple item arrays, showing an attentional decline. Little is known about how aging affects attentional guidance during search in more complex scenes. To study this issue, we analyzed eye-movement behavior in realistic scene search. Read More

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Cortical connectivity in the face of congenital structural changes-A case of homozygous LAMC3 mutation.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

A.S. Brain Research Center and National Magnetic Resonance Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

The homozygous LAMC3 gene mutation is associated with severe bilateral smoothening and thickening of the lateral occipital cortex . Despite this and further significant changes in gray matter structure, a patient harboring this mutation exhibited a range of remarkably intact perceptual abilities . One possible explanation of this perceptual sparing could be that the white matter structural integrity and functional connectivity in relevant pathways remained intact. Read More

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Improving the Robustness of Object Detection Through a Multi-Camera-Based Fusion Algorithm Using Fuzzy Logic.

Front Artif Intell 2021 26;4:638951. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

A single camera creates a bounding box (BB) for the detected object with certain accuracy through a convolutional neural network (CNN). However, a single RGB camera may not be able to capture the actual object within the BB even if the CNN detector accuracy is high for the object. In this research, we present a solution to this limitation through the usage of multiple cameras, projective transformation, and a fuzzy logic-based fusion. Read More

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Mesoscopic Seepage Simulation and Analysis of Unclassified Tailings Pores Based on 3D Reconstruction Technology.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 24;6(22):14309-14316. Epub 2021 May 24.

New Metallurgy Hi-Tech Group, China Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China.

Taking the unclassified tailings as the research object, the three-dimensional (3D) pore model was established using computed tomography (CT) scanning technology, image processing, and the 3D reconstruction method. The model was imported into Flac3D software for mesoscopic seepage simulation and analysis. Combined with the laboratory seepage experiment, the influence of tailings' mesoscopic parameters on permeability was explored. Read More

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Monocular Diplopia in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 4;8(5):002509. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Odontostomatology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

Background: Diplopia is the double vision of a single object, and can be binocular or monocular. Binocular diplopia is caused by the misalignment of the visual axes, with images falling on the fovea of the fixating eye and on the extra-foveal retina of the non-fixating eye, as a consequence of both neurological (i.e. Read More

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Reliability and validity of a computer game-based tool of upper extremity assessment for object manipulation tasks in children with cerebral palsy.

J Rehabil Assist Technol Eng 2021 Jan-Dec;8:20556683211014023. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

SDM College of Physiotherapy, Dharwad, India.

Introduction: A computer game-based upper extremity (CUE) assessment tool is developed to quantify manual dexterity of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to determine test-retest reliability of the CUE performance measures (success rate, movement onset time, movement error, and movement variation) and convergent validity with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale version 2 (PDMS-2) and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST).

Methods: Thirty-five children with CP aged four to ten years were tested on two occasions two weeks apart. Read More

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Object-Gaze Distance: Quantifying Near- Peripheral Gaze Behavior in Real-World Applications.

J Eye Mov Res 2021 May 19;14(1). Epub 2021 May 19.

ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Eye tracking (ET) has shown to reveal the wearer's cognitive processes using the measurement of the central point of foveal vision. However, traditional ET evaluation methods have not been able to take into account the wearers' use of the peripheral field of vision. We propose an algorithmic enhancement to a state-of-the-art ET analysis method, the Object- Gaze Distance (OGD), which additionally allows the quantification of near-peripheral gaze behavior in complex real-world environments. Read More

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Beyond the tracked line of sight - Evaluation of the peripheral usable field of view in a simulator setting.

J Eye Mov Res 2021 Apr 26;12(3). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen, Germany.

Combining advanced gaze tracking systems with the latest vehicle environment sensors opens up new fields of applications for driver assistance. Gaze tracking enables researchers to determine the location of a fixation, and under consideration of the visual saliency of the scene, to predict visual perception of objects. The perceptual limits, for stimulus identification, found in literature have mostly been determined in laboratory conditions using isolated stimuli, with a fixed gaze point, on a single screen with limited coverage of the field of view. Read More

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Eye movements in real and simulated driving and navigation control - Foreword to the Special Issue.

J Eye Mov Res 2021 Jun 3;12(3). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The control of technological systems by human operators has been the object of study for many decades. The increasing complexity in the digital age has made the optimization of the interaction between system and human operator particularly necessary. In the present thematic issue, ten exemplary articles are presented, ranging from observational field studies to experimental work in highly complex navigation simulators. Read More

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