94 results match your criteria obesity revisiting

Management of chronic diseases in preventive cardiology: Revisiting "the Problem of Obesity."

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Mar 1;1:100005. Epub 2020 May 1.

Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Center for Preventive Cardiology, Mailcode, HRC5N, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 97236, USA.

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Adipose Tissue-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and the Tumor Microenvironment: Revisiting the Hallmarks of Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 2;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Inflammation and Metabolism, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-201 Niterói, Brazil.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial elements that sustain the communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment, and have emerged as a widespread mechanism of tumor formation and metastasis. In obesity, the adipose tissue becomes hypertrophic and hyperplastic, triggering increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, interleukin 1, and leptin. Furthermore, obese adipose tissue undergoes dysregulation in the cargo content of the released EVs, resulting in an increased content of pro-inflammatory proteins, fatty acids, and oncogenic microRNAs. Read More

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Baseline risk factor prevalence among adolescents aged 15-17 years old: findings from National Non-communicable Disease Monitoring Survey (NNMS) of India.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 29;11(6):e044066. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Jodphur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Objective: To generate national estimates of key non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors for adolescents (15-17 years) identified in the National NCD Monitoring Framework and, study the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards NCD risk behaviours among school-going adolescents.

Design And Setting: A community-based, national, crosssectional survey conducted during 2017-2018. The survey was coordinated by the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research with 10 reputed implementing research institutes/organisations across India in urban and rural areas. Read More

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Revisiting the Immigrant Epidemiological Paradox: Findings from the American Panel of Life 2019.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 27;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK.

Objective: Immigrants enjoy a health advantage over their US-born counterparts (termed the immigrant paradox), though the extent of this paradox may not extend to all health outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed data from the RAND American Life Panel. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between immigrant status and a wide range of health outcomes (e. Read More

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Revisiting the Impact of Local Leptin Signaling in Folliculogenesis and Oocyte Maturation in Obese Mothers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Reproductive Immunology and Pathology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of PAS, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

The complex nature of folliculogenesis regulation accounts for its susceptibility to maternal physiological fitness. In obese mothers, progressive expansion of adipose tissue culminates with severe hyperestrogenism and hyperleptinemia with detrimental effects for ovarian performance. Indeed, maternal obesity is associated with the establishment of ovarian leptin resistance. Read More

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Revisiting the Role of Natural Killer Cells in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:640869. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Gut Microbes and Health Institute Strategic Programme, Food Innovation and Health Institute Strategic Programme, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease. The histological spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to chronic inflammation and liver fibrosis during Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). The current view is that innate immune mechanisms represent a key element in supporting hepatic inflammation in NASH. Read More

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February 2021

A two-stage Generalized Method of Moments model for feedback with time-dependent covariates.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 Apr 27;30(4):943-957. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Correlated observations in longitudinal studies are often due to repeated measures on the subjects. Additionally, correlation may be realized due to the association between responses at a particular time and the predictors at earlier times. There are also feedback effects (relation between responses in the present and the covariates at a later time), though these are not always relevant and are often ignored. Read More

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Revisiting the Complexity of GLP-1 Action from Sites of Synthesis to Receptor Activation.

Endocr Rev 2021 Mar;42(2):101-132

Department of Medicine, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in gut endocrine cells and in the brain, and acts through hormonal and neural pathways to regulate islet function, satiety, and gut motility, supporting development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Classic notions of GLP-1 acting as a meal-stimulated hormone from the distal gut are challenged by data supporting production of GLP-1 in the endocrine pancreas, and by the importance of brain-derived GLP-1 in the control of neural activity. Moreover, attribution of direct vs indirect actions of GLP-1 is difficult, as many tissue and cellular targets of GLP-1 action do not exhibit robust or detectable GLP-1R expression. Read More

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Role of betaine in liver disease-worth revisiting or has the die been cast?

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct;26(38):5745-5748

Department of Medicine, Creighton University Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Omaha, NE 68124, United States.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an important indication for liver transplantation in many Western countries due to the epidemic of obesity and insulin resistance. Unfortunately, no medication is approved for NASH and risk factor modification is often advised. Over the last decade, several clinical trials on NASH have been conducted with several ongoing and the future looks promising. Read More

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October 2020

Total energy expenditure (TEE) of young adults from urban South India: revisiting their daily energy requirement.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 05 24;75(5):845-851. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Division of Nutrition, St. John's Research Institute, A recognized research center of University of Mysore, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bengaluru, India.

Background/objectives: Young Indian adults are at greater risk of overweight/obesity due to their high energy intake and sedentary lifestyle. Their energy requirement (ER) is based on their total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated from factorial method, which possibly overestimates their basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity level (PAL). This study aimed to compare the accurately measured TEE with ER in young adults. Read More

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Agri-nutrition research: Revisiting the contribution of maize and wheat to human nutrition and health.

Food Policy 2020 Sep 18:101976. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), El Batán, C.P. 56237 México, Mexico.

Research linking agriculture and nutrition has evolved since the mid-20th century. The current focus is on child-stunting, dietary diversity and 'nutrient-rich' foods in recognition of the growing burdens of malnutrition and non-communicable diseases. This article concerns the global dietary and health contribution of major cereals, specifically maize and wheat, which are often considered not to be 'nutrient-rich' foods. Read More

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September 2020

Revisiting the Compensatory Theory as an explanatory model for relapse in obesity management.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 11;112(5):1170-1179

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Weight regain remains the main challenge in obesity management, and its etiology remains elusive. The aim of the present review was to revise the available evidence regarding the "Compensatory Theory," which is an explanatory model of relapse in obesity treatment, and to propose alternative mechanisms that can contribute to weight regain. It has been proposed, and generally accepted as true, that when a person loses weight the body fights back, with physiological adaptations on both sides of the energy balance equation that try to bring body weight back to its original state: this is the Compensatory Theory. Read More

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November 2020

Current Perspectives on the Impact of the National Diabetes Prevention Program: Building on Successes and Overcoming Challenges.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 19;13:2949-2957. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

To address the public health and economic burden of type 2 diabetes, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began dissemination of the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) in the United States in 2010. Based on the intensive lifestyle intervention from a large efficacy trial, the NDPP aims to reduce incidence through lifestyle change and weight loss. This narrative review summarizes evidence on reach, effectiveness, and sustainability of the NDPP, while highlighting opportunities to overcome challenges in these areas. Read More

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Revisiting the Bacterial Phylum Composition in Metabolic Diseases Focused on Host Energy Metabolism.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 10 9;44(5):658-667. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Mitochondrial and Metabolic Diseases, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.

Over a hundred billion bacteria are found in human intestines. This has emerged as an environmental factor in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and related diseases. The majority of these bacteria belong to two dominant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Read More

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October 2020

Revisiting and expanding the meta-analysis of variation: The log coefficient of variation ratio.

Res Synth Methods 2020 Jul 15;11(4):553-567. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Meta-analyses are often used to estimate the relative average values of a quantitative outcome in two groups (eg, control and experimental groups). However, they may also examine the relative variability (variance) of those groups. For such comparisons, two relatively new effect size statistics, the log-transformed "variability ratio" (the ratio of two standard deviations; lnVR) and the log-transformed "coefficients of variation ratio" (the ratio of two coefficients of variation; lnCVR) are useful. Read More

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Revisiting the Ghrelin Changes Following Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery.

Obes Surg 2020 Jul;30(7):2763-2780

Obesity Area, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII 36, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain.

Since the description of ghrelin in 1999, several studies have dug into the effects of this hormone and its relationship with bariatric surgery. While some aspects are still unresolved, a clear connection between ghrelin and the changes after metabolic surgery have been established. Besides weight loss, a significant amelioration in obesity-related comorbidities following surgery has also been reported. Read More

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Weight loss reduces head motion: Revisiting a major confound in neuroimaging.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 06 2;41(9):2490-2494. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Head motion during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) induces image artifacts that affect virtually every brain measure. In parallel, cross-sectional observations indicate a correlation of head motion with age, psychiatric disease status and obesity, raising the possibility of a systematic artifact-induced bias in neuroimaging outcomes in these conditions, due to the differences in head motion. Yet, a causal link between obesity and head motion has not been tested in an experimental design. Read More

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Revisiting the Global Overfat Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2020 25;8:51. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

The previously described overfat pandemic, estimated to be 62-76% worldwide, is comprised of individuals with excess body fat sufficient to impair health. The overfat condition is common in those who are overweight and obese, and can also occur in significant numbers of normal-weight non-obese individuals. Being overfat increases the risk for a wide spectrum of common cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolic) abnormalities, chronic diseases and physical impairment. Read More

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Introduction to the Theme Issue on Dynamics of Health Behavior: Revisiting Systems Science for Population Health.

Health Educ Behav 2020 04 24;47(2):185-190. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Systems science can help public health professionals to better understand the complex dynamics between factors affecting health behaviors and outcomes and to identify intervention opportunities. Despite their demonstrated utility in addressing health topics such influenza, tobacco control, and obesity, the associated methods continue to be underutilized by researchers and practitioners addressing health behaviors. This article discusses the growth of systems science methods (e. Read More

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Revisiting the Pharmacological Value of Glucagon: An Editorial for the Special Issue "The Biology and Pharmacology of Glucagon".

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 8;21(2). Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Medicine-Endocrinology and Diabetes and Metabolism, Comprehensive Diabetes Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35899, USA.

In 1921, a Canadian research team led by Frederick Banting and John Macleod succeeded in the isolation of insulin from pancreatic homogenate [... Read More

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January 2020

Revisiting the impact of lifestyle on colorectal cancer risk in a gender perspective.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2020 Jan 18;145:102834. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Center for Gender-Specific Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Patterns and trends in CRC incidence and mortality correlate with increasing adoption of Western lifestyles and with the overweight/obesity epidemic. Both genetic background and a range of modifiable environmental/lifestyle factors play a role in CRC etiology. Read More

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January 2020

Revisiting carotid imaging: integrating atherosclerosis, the adventitia, and perivascular adipose tissue.

Kardiol Pol 2019 11 22;77(11):1005-1006. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Boden Collaboration for Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Australia; Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

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November 2019

Revisiting Weight-Normalized SUV and Lean-Body-Mass-Normalized SUV in PET Studies.

J Nucl Med Technol 2020 Jun 11;48(2):163-167. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey.

SUV normalized by total body weight is affected by the amount of body fat. The SUV of normal tissues and lesions is higher (overestimated) in obese patients than in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI). SUL (SUV normalized by lean body mass [LBM]) is recommended for more accurate SUV results. Read More

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Revisiting the obesity paradox in heart failure: Per cent body fat as predictor of biomarkers and outcome.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2019 11 1;26(16):1751-1759. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.

Aims: Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is characterized by better prognosis and lower plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure. We assessed whether another anthropometric measure, per cent body fat (PBF), reveals different associations with outcome and heart failure biomarkers (NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2)).

Methods: In an individual patient dataset, BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m) , and PBF through the Jackson-Pollock and Gallagher equations. Read More

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November 2019

Revisiting the Role of Exercise Countermeasure on the Regulation of Energy Balance During Space Flight.

Front Physiol 2019 29;10:321. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Université de Strasbourg, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien UMR 7178, Strasbourg, France.

A body mass loss has been consistently observed in astronauts. This loss is of medical concern since energy deficit can exacerbate some of the deleterious physiological changes observed during space flight including cardiovascular deconditioning, bone density, muscle mass and strength losses, impaired exercise capacity, and immune deficiency among others. These may jeopardize crew health and performance, a healthy return to Earth and mission's overall success. Read More

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Revisiting the Cardiotoxic Effect of Chloroquine.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2019 02;33(1):1-11

Division of Medical Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.

Purpose: Cardiotoxicity is a well-known side effect of chloroquine. Several studies have proposed chloroquine as a potential anti-diabetic treatment but do not address this problem. The current study investigated the effect of ex vivo chloroquine treatment on (1) heart function and glucose uptake, (2) mitochondrial function and (3) in vivo treatment on heart function. Read More

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February 2019

Obesity and cardiovascular disease: revisiting an old relationship.

Metabolism 2019 03 3;92:98-107. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis. Read More

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Revisiting the evolutionary origins of obesity: lazy versus peppy-thrifty genotype hypothesis.

Obes Rev 2018 11 27;19(11):1525-1543. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

The recent global obesity epidemic is attributed to major societal and environmental changes, such as excessive energy intake and sedentary lifestyle. However, exposure to 'obesogenic' environments does not necessarily result in obesity at the individual level, as 40-75% of body mass index variation in population is attributed to genetic differences. The thrifty genotype theory posits that genetic variants promoting efficient food sequestering and optimal deposition of fat during periods of food abundance were evolutionarily advantageous for the early hunter-gatherer and were positively selected. Read More

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November 2018

Revisiting the United States Army body composition standards: a receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 08 4;43(8):1508-1515. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Military Academy, West Point, NY, 10996, USA.

Background: The objective for percent body fat standards in the United States Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) is to ensure soldiers maintain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions. However, conducting large-scale experiments within the United States Army to evaluate the efficacy of the thresholds is challenging.

Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was performed on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to determine optimal gender-specific age cohort thresholds that meet ABCP percent body fat standards in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Read More

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