29,119 results match your criteria nutritional requirements

Evaluation of the activity and medical nutrition therapy types used by nutrition support teams in hospitals in the Greater Poland voivodeship.

Prz Gastroenterol 2021 26;16(1):43-46. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Traumatology, and Urology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: Nutrition therapy is medical treatment that includes assessment of patients' nutritional status, their nutrient requirements, supply of nutritional products in appropriate quantities, and monitoring all of these processes. The nutrition support team is responsible for the organization of the nutrition therapy.

Aim: To evaluate the activity of nutrition support teams in hospitals in the Greater Poland voivodeship. Read More

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REVIEW: Practical strategies to maintain anabolism by intravenous nutritional management in children with inborn metabolic diseases.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Section of Clinical Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:

One of the most vital elements of management for patients with inborn errors of intermediary metabolism is the promotion of anabolism, the state in which the body builds new components, and avoidance of catabolism, the state in which the body breaks down its own stores for energy. Anabolism is maintained through the provision of a sufficient supply of substrates for energy, as well as critical building blocks of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins for synthetic function and growth. Patients with metabolic diseases are at risk for decompensation during prolonged fasting, which often occurs during illnesses in which enteral intake is compromised. Read More

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Dynamic evaluation of swallowing in pediatric patients with dysphagia: The Brazilian perspective.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Dynamic Evaluation of Swallowing (DES) is an exam which provides invaluable information on the swallowing function. This review describes the requirements, protocols and processes for DES in regions of Brazil. Dysphagia is a swallowing abnormality, in one or more swallowing phases, with risk and/or occurrence of aspiration, damage regarding nutrition and/or hydration and possible need of nonoral feeding methods. Read More

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Nutrient-Poor Breeding Substrates of Ambrosia Beetles Are Enriched With Biologically Important Elements.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:664542. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Research Group Insect-Fungus Symbiosis, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Fungus-farming within galleries in the xylem of trees has evolved independently in at least twelve lineages of weevils (Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) and one lineage of ship-timber beetles (Lymexylidae). Jointly these are termed ambrosia beetles because they actively cultivate nutritional "ambrosia fungi" as their main source of food. The beetles are obligately dependent on their ambrosia fungi as they provide them a broad range of essential nutrients ensuring their survival in an extremely nutrient-poor environment. Read More

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Military nutrition research: contemporary issues, state of the science and future directions.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 May 12:1-23. Epub 2021 May 12.

Military Nutrition Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, 01760, USA.

The importance of diet and nutrition to military readiness and performance has been recognized for centuries as dietary nutrients sustain health, protect against illness, and promote resilience, performance and recovery. Contemporary military nutrition research is increasingly inter-disciplinary with emphasis often placed on the broad topics of: 1) determining operational nutrition requirements in all environments, 2) characterizing nutritional practices of military personnel relative to the required (role/environment) standards, and 3) developing strategies for improving nutrient delivery and individual choices. This review discusses contemporary issues shared internationally by military nutrition research programs, and highlights emerging topics likely to influence future military nutrition research and policy. Read More

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Intentional and unintentional selection during plant domestication: herbivore damage, plant defensive traits and nutritional quality of fruit and seed crops.

New Phytol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, CONICET, Quintral, 1250, Bariloche, 8400, Argentina.

●Greater susceptibility to herbivory can arise as an effect of crop domestication. One proposed explanation is that defenses decreased intentionally or unintentionally during the domestication process, but evidence remains elusive. An alternative but non-excluding explanation is presumed selection for higher nutritional quality. Read More

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Does Consumption of Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae Affect Their Fatty Acid Composition?

J Insect Sci 2021 May;21(3)

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Tel-Hai College, Upper Galilee, Israel.

Fatty acids are important compounds for insects, but the requirements for essential fatty acids may differ between insect species. Most of the fatty acids are acquired through the insect's diet; therefore, supplementing the diet with baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Read More

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Changes in physicochemical, nutritional characteristics and ATR-FTIR molecular interactions of cereal grains during germination.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Jun 27;58(6):2313-2324. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

The cereal grains such as wheat, barley, sorghum, millets were evaluated before and after germination (24 h, 48 h and 72 h) and compared for their proximate composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, pasting properties, in vitro starch digestibility and FTIR spectroscopy. Germination inversely affected the protein, fat, and ash content of different cereal grains. The germinated flours have less water content and higher oil absorption capacities along with reduced starch content. Read More

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CD4 T-cell differentiation and function: Unifying glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, polyamines NAD mitochondria.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

The progression through different steps of T-cell development, activation, and effector function is tightly bound to specific cellular metabolic processes. Previous studies established that T-effector cells have a metabolic bias toward aerobic glycolysis, whereas naive and regulatory T cells mainly rely on oxidative phosphorylation. More recently, the field of immunometabolism has drifted away from the notion that mitochondrial metabolism holds little importance in T-cell activation and function. Read More

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Impact of the exposome on the development and function of pancreatic β-cells.

David J Hill

Mol Aspects Med 2021 May 5:100965. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, St Joseph Health Care, 268 Grosvenor St, London, ON, N6A 4V2, Canada. Electronic address:

The development and plasticity of the endocrine pancreas responds to both the intrauterine and postnatal exposome in a constant attempt to predict and respond to alterations in nutritional availability and metabolic requirements. Both under- and over-nutrition in utero, or exposure to adverse environmental pollutants or maternal behaviors, can each lead to altered β-cell or function at birth, and a subsequent mismatch in pancreatic hormonal demands and secretory capacity postnatally. This can be further exacerbated by metabolic stress postnatally such as from obesity or pregnancy, resulting in an increased risk of gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and even type 1 diabetes. Read More

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Development of Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyles for Diabetes (HEAL-D), a culturally-tailored diabetes self-management education and support programme for black-British adults: a participatory research approach.

Diabet Med 2021 May 7:e14594. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Social Science, University College London.

Aims: To develop an evidence-based, culturally-tailored, diabetes self-management education and support programme for black-British adults, called Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyles for Diabetes (HEAL-D), using participatory methods to engage key stakeholders in the intervention design process.

Methods: Black-British adults living with type 2 diabetes, healthcare professionals and community leaders were engaged in an intervention development study. The intervention structure, format, content and delivery were developed through three phases of participatory research: phase 1, formative research, involved focus groups and interviews; interactive co-development workshops were conducted in phase 2; and phase 3 focused on materials development. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of copper chelate of ethylenediamine for all animal species (Zinpro Animal Nutrition (Europe), Inc.).

EFSA J 2021 Apr 28;19(4):e06541. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper chelate of ethylenediamine (Copper-EDA-Cl) as a feed additive for all animal species. The EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP Panel) identified several issues related to the data provided concerning the chemical characteristics of the additive and, based on the information provided from an dissociation study, considered it unlikely that the additive consists only of copper mono-chelate of EDA but of several coexisting (copper) species. Therefore, in the absence of adequate experimental data and owing to the uncertainties identified, the Panel cannot conclude on its identity and characterisation of the additive. Read More

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Monitoring the carryover of egg proteins in pasta making to support allergen risk management.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 May 6:1-9. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (Defens), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Egg proteins are among the major food allergens. Very often, the same pasta-making plants are used for industrial production of egg-based pasta (EBP) and semolina-only pasta (SP), so that residual egg proteins may be present in SP. This calls for defining the amount of semolina pasta that should be discarded when switching production lines. Read More

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Phenotypic and genomic characterization of a strain causing disease in provides insights into its niche adaptation and pathogenic mechanism.

Microb Genom 2021 May;7(5)

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aqua-ecology and Aquaculture, Fisheries College, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, PR China.

The virulence of is variable depending on its virulence determinants. A strain, in which the virulence is governed by the and genes, can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps. Some that are non-AHPND strains also cause shrimp diseases and result in huge economic losses, while their pathogenicity and pathogenesis remain unclear. Read More

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The incidence of osteopenia of prematurity in preterm infants without phosphate supplementation: A prospective, observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25758

Departement of Pediatrics, University Medical Centre Groningen, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningenthe Netherlands.

Abstract: To meet their requirements for bone mineralization, it is recommended that preterm infants receive nutritional support containing calcium and phosphate. There are no clear data on the incidence of osteopenia of prematurity (OFP) in preterm infants without phosphate supplementation.This study aimed to investigate the incidence of OFP in preterm infants without phosphate supplementation and its relationship with the duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Read More

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Rediscovering potential molecular targets for glioma therapy through the analysis of the cell of origin, microenvironment, and metabolism.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tomas Lindahl Nobel Laureate Laboratory, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), No.628, Zhenyuan Rd, Guangming Dist., Shenzhen 518107. China.

Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors. Despite significant medical advances, gliomas remain incurable and are associated with high mortality. Although numerous biomarkers of diagnostic value have been identified and significant progress in the prognosis of the outcome has been made, the treatment has not been parallelly improved during the last three decades. Read More

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Food allergy safety: a descriptive report of changing policy in a single large medical center.

Isr J Health Policy Res 2021 May 3;10(1):32. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Diet and Nutrition, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: Food allergy can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis and is considered an increasing public health burden. Hospitalized patients are dependent on the hospital menu to meet their nutritional needs; thus, errors in the meals provided can have a substantial impact on patients' health outcomes. In Israel, no specific policy protocol exists to ensure food allergy safety in the setting of a hospital foodservice system. Read More

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Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total calcium.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that formulating diets for pigs based on a ratio between standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P instead of total Ca and STTD P does not decrease Ca retention, but increases P utilization. Forty barrows (59.4 ± 3. Read More

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Effects of oregano () essential oil supplementation on the performance, egg quality, and intestinal morphometry of Isa Brown laying hens.

Vet World 2021 Mar 9;14(3):595-602. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biology, Faculty Science, University of Tolima, Ibagué, Colombia.

Background And Aim: The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the feed of poultry, has contributed to an increase in the antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens worldwide. Hence, the development of new effective alternatives to antibiotics that do not hinder productivity is imperative. For this, the aim of the present study was to determine whether oregano essential oil (OEO) extracted from is a suitable alternative to growth-promoting antibiotics (GPAs) for improving the performance, egg quality, and intestinal morphometry of ISA Brown laying hens. Read More

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Responsiveness of one-carbon metabolites to a high-protein diet in older men: Results from a 10-wk randomized controlled trial.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 6;89:111231. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand; Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Sinapore. Electronic address:

Objectives: Dietary strategies to promote successful aging are divergent. Higher-protein diets are recommended to preserve skeletal muscle mass and physical function. Conversely, increased B-vitamin intake, supporting one-carbon (1C) metabolism, reduces the risk of cognitive decline and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Barriers to utilize nutrition interventions among lactating women in rural communities of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: An exploratory study.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250696. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mek'ele, Ethiopia.

Background: While lactation is a physiological process requiring high energy demand to fulfill the nutrient requirements of the mother and the breastfeeding child, many factors affecting maternal nutrient intake can lead to nutritional deficits. Previous studies in Ethiopia have reported the prevalence of maternal and child undernutrition and related complications. However, qualitative studies exploring potential barriers to utilizing available nutrition interventions are limited. Read More

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Measures Matter-Determining the True Nutri-Physiological Value of Feed Ingredients for Swine.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Many types of feed ingredients are used to provide energy and nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of swine. However, the analytical methods and measures used to determine the true nutritional and physiological ("nutri-physiological") value of feed ingredients affect the accuracy of predicting and achieving desired animal responses. Some chemical characteristics of feed ingredients are detrimental to pig health and performance, while functional components in other ingredients provide beneficial health effects beyond their nutritional value when included in complete swine diets. Read More

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The Role of Ovotransferrin in Egg-White Antimicrobial Activity: A Review.

Foods 2021 Apr 10;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

STLO, INRAE, Institut Agro, 35042 Rennes, France.

Eggs are a whole food which affordably support human nutritional requirements worldwide. Eggs strongly resist bacterial infection due to an arsenal of defensive systems, many of which reside in the egg white. However, despite improved control of egg production and distribution, eggs remain a vehicle for foodborne transmission of serovar Enteritidis, which continues to represent a major public health challenge. Read More

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Overview of Important Micronutrients Supplementation in Preterm Infants after Discharge: A Call for Consensus.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Preterm infants have a lower level of nutrient body stores and immature body systems, resulting in a higher risk of malnutrition. Imbalanced complementary feeding could lead to further risk of nutritional deficits and excesses. However, evidence on their nutritional requirements following hospital discharge is limited. Read More

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Characterizing Micronutrient Status and Risk Factors among Late Adolescent and Young Women in Rural Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of the MaPPS Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.

Nutritional deficiencies are a leading underlying risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. In Pakistan, late adolescence is considered a nutritionally vulnerable period, as micronutrient requirements are increased to support maturation, and dietary staples are nutrient poor. However, there has been limited evaluation of micronutrient status beyond anemia and its determinants. Read More

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Insight into Liver lncRNA and mRNA Profiling at Four Developmental Stages in Ningxiang Pig.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

Ningxiang pigs, a fat-type pig, are native to Ningxiang County in Hunan Province, with thousands of years of breeding history. This study aims to explore the expression profiles and functional networks on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the liver. Liver tissue of Ningxiang piglets was collected at 30, 90, 150, and 210 days after birth (four development stages), and the mRNA and lncRNA expression was profiled. Read More

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Evaluation of Measured Resting Metabolic Rate for Dietary Prescription in Ageing Adults with Overweight and Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 8;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition, School of Science and Computing, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway Campus, Dublin Road, H91 T8NW Galway, Ireland.

The primary objective of this study was to compare weight changes in two groups of ageing Irish adults with overweight and adiposity-based chronic disease: participants who had dietary energy requirements prescribed on the base of measured RMR and participants whose RMR was estimated by a prediction equation. Fifty-four Caucasian adults (male = 25; female = 29, age 57.5 ± 6. Read More

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Rational Use of Protein Supplements in the Elderly-Relevance of Gastrointestinal Mechanisms.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 8;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD 4226, Australia.

Protein supplements are increasingly used by older people to maintain nutrition and prevent or treat loss of muscle function. Daily protein requirements in older people are in the range of 1.2 gm/kg/day or higher. Read More

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Zinc in Dog Nutrition, Health and Disease: A Review.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

LAQV, REQUIMTE, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Zinc is an essential trace element, required for enzymatic, structural, and regulatory functions. As body reserves are scarce, an adequate zinc status relies on proper dietary supply and efficient homeostasis. Several biomarkers have been proposed that enable the detection of poor zinc status, but more sensitive and specific ones are needed to detect marginal deficiencies. Read More

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Physiological demands and nutrient intake modulate a trade-off between dispersal and reproduction based on age and sex of field crickets.

J Exp Biol 2021 Apr 15;224(7). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of California, Berkeley, Department of Integrative Biology, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Animals adjust resource acquisition throughout life to meet changing physiological demands of growth, reproduction, activity and somatic maintenance. Wing-polymorphic crickets invest in either dispersal or reproduction during early adulthood, providing a system in which to determine how variation in physiological demands, determined by sex and life history strategy, impact nutritional targets, plus the consequences of nutritionally imbalanced diets across life stages. We hypothesized that high demands of biosynthesis (especially oogenesis in females) drive elevated resource acquisition requirements and confer vulnerability to imbalanced diets. Read More

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