10,282 results match your criteria nutrition units


Time to achieve delivery of nutrition targets is associated with clinical outcomes in critically ill children.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Optimal nutrition in critically ill children involves a complex interplay between the doses, route, and timing of macronutrient delivery.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between the time to achieve delivery of 60% of the prescribed energy and protein targets and clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated children.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of mechanically ventilated children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) worldwide. Read More

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Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 28;15(7):e0008824. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. Read More

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The Standardization and Control of Serology and Nucleic Acid Testing for Infectious Diseases.

Authors:
Wayne Dimech

Clin Microbiol Rev 2021 Jul 28:e0003521. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Serology Reference Laboratory, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia.

Historically, the detection of antibodies against infectious disease agents was achieved using test systems that utilized biological functions such as neutralization, complement fixation, hemagglutination, or visualization of binding of antibodies to specific antigens, by testing doubling dilutions of the patient sample to determine an endpoint. These test systems have since been replaced by automated platforms, many of which have been integrated into general medical pathology. Methods employed to standardize and control clinical chemistry testing have been applied to these serology tests. Read More

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Is store density associated with sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and overweight or obesity in Mexican adolescents?

Pediatr Obes 2021 Jul 28:e12838. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Center for Evaluation and Survey Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Background: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is a risk factor for obesity. In Mexico, SSBs are widely available and consumed daily by adolescents.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect association between store density (including grocery, convenience, non-alcoholic beverage stores and supermarkets) and overweight or obesity (OW/O) among Mexican adolescents, using SSB consumption as a mediator. Read More

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A novel, scalable, and modular bioreactor design for dynamic simulation of the digestive tract.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada.

In vitro gut model systems permit the growth of gut microbes outside their natural habitat and are essential to the study of gut microbiota. Systems available today are limited by lack of scalability and flexibility in mode of operation. Here we describe the development of a versatile bioreactor module that can be easily adjusted for culture size and capable of sensing and controlling of environmental parameters such as pH control of culture medium, rate of influx and efflux of the culture medium, and aerobic/anaerobic atmosphere. Read More

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Assessing the Impact of a Pilot Nutrition Curriculum on Students' Confidence and Ability to Perform Nutritional Assessments on Overweight Dogs and Cats for Use in a Veterinary Outreach Program.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 Jul 16:e20200162. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Obesity is a growing concern for dogs and cats. Although veterinary input is critical to prevent and manage obesity, conversations addressing overweight pets are challenging and require training to perform effectively. This study assessed the impact of a nutrition curriculum developed for use in a veterinary outreach program on student confidence and ability to perform nutritional assessments, particularly on overweight pets. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with heart failure admitted to the intensive care unit with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A multicenter cohort study.

Am Heart J Plus 2021 Jul 19;7:100033. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Care Services, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Patients with underlying heart failure (HF) in the setting of COVID-19 who require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) might present with a unique set of challenges. This study aims to extensively describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with HF who were admitted to ICU with COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis for all adult patients with HF and an objectively confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs between March 1 and August 31, 2020, in Saudi Arabia. Read More

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Smart and Functionalized Development of Nucleic Acid-Based Hydrogels: Assembly Strategies, Recent Advances, and Challenges.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 07 7;8(14):2100216. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality Department of Nutrition and Health China Agricultural University No. 17, Qinghua East Road Beijing 100083 China.

Nucleic acid-based hydrogels that integrate intrinsic biological properties of nucleic acids and mechanical behavior of their advanced assemblies are appealing bioanalysis and biomedical studies for the development of new-generation smart biomaterials. It is inseparable from development and incorporation of novel structural and functional units. This review highlights different functional units of nucleic acids, polymers, and novel nanomaterials in the order of structures, properties, and functions, and their assembly strategies for the fabrication of nucleic acid-based hydrogels. Read More

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Preoperative enteral nutrition in adults with complicated Crohn's disease: Effect on disease outcomes and gut microbiota.

Nutrition 2020 15;70S:100009. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Gastroenterology Service, Hospital Beatriz Ângelo, Loures, Portugal.

Objectives: The use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) before surgical resection can reduce disease activity and improve nutritional status. The mechanism of EEN action is unclear, but it might involve modulation of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects (namely changes in gut microbiota) of preoperative EEN in adults with complicated CD referred to surgery. Read More

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Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria as a nutrition assessment tool for patients with cancer.

Nutrition 2021 Jun 29;91-92:111379. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing China; Department of Oncology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for Cancer Metabolism and Nutrition, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Since the launch of Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM), there has been an urgent need to validate the new criteria, especially in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the use of the GLIM criteria in patients with cancer.

Method: This multicenter cohort study compared the GLIM with the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (sPG-SGA). Read More

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Anthropometrics and Body Composition Predict Physical Performance and Selection to Attend Special Forces Training in United States Army Soldiers.

Mil Med 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Military Nutrition Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA.

Introduction: Anthropometrics and body composition characteristics differentiate many types of athletes and are related to performance on fitness tests and tasks in military personnel. Soldiers competing to enter elite units must demonstrate physical fitness and operational competence across multiple events. Therefore, this study determined whether anthropometrics and body composition predicted physical performance and selection for special forces training among soldiers attending the rigorous Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS) course. Read More

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Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Porous Silica Thin Films Functionalized by Silver Ions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 13;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Poland.

In this work, we have developed a chemical procedure enabling the preparation of highly ordered and vertically aligned mesoporous silica films containing selected contents of silver ions bonded inside the mesopore channels via anchoring propyl-carboxyl units. The procedure involves the electrochemically assisted self-assembly co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and (3-cyanopropyl)triethoxysilane in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant, the subsequent hydrolysis of cyano groups into carboxylate ones, followed by their complexation with silver ions. The output materials have been electrochemically characterized with regard to the synthesis effectiveness in order to confirm and quantify the presence of the silver ions in the material. Read More

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[Pregnancy and Irreversible Loss of Brain Functions - Case Report].

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2021 Jul 23;56(7-08):526-535. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

A 29-year-old woman suffered major traumatic brain injury caused by a car accident. As diagnostic measures had revealed an early pregnancy (9th week), treatment on the intensive care unit was continued for 5 months, after unfavourable cerebral prognosis was followed by an irreversible loss of brain function in the 10th week of pregnancy. After assisted vaginal delivery of a healthy child in the 31th week of pregnancy on the critical care unit, organ procurement took place according to the presumed will of the patient. Read More

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Adrenal ganglioneuromas : a retrospective multicentric study of 104 cases from the COMETE network.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

L Amar, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Centre de référence des maladies rares de la surrénale, Unité fonctionnelle d'Hypertension artérielle, Université de Paris, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Objective: Adrenal ganglioneuromas are rare, differentiated, neuroblastic tumors that originate from the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Because of their rarity, information is limited, derived from small cases series. Our objective was to characterize this tumor and provide help for its management. Read More

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Hypophosphatemia in critically ill pediatric patients receiving enteral and oral nutrition.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State University of Campinas, Unicamp, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 126 Tessália Vieira de Camargo St., Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP, Zip Code: 13083-887, Brazil.

Background: Hypophosphatemia (HP) is related to several comorbidities in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of HP in severely ill pediatric patients under oral and/or enteral nutrition. The secondary objectives were to investigate the association between HP and the inflammatory state, prolonged PICU length stay, severity, mortality, nutritional status, and protein, energy, calcium, vitamin D and phosphate intake METHODS: : A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted in a PICU of a quaternary hospital. Read More

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Frailty predicts failure to discharge patients home from a subacute-care unit: a 3-year Italian experience.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, U8 Building, Floor 4, Lab 4045 Via Cadore, 48, 20900, Monza, Italy.

Background: The primary purpose of Subacute Care Units (SCU) is to decongest acute hospital wards and facilitate the return of older patients to home.

Aims: We analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to an Italian SCU, and we explored factors associated with discharge to locations other than home (outcome).

Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted at a medium-sized suburban hospital, enrolling all patients consecutively admitted to one SCU from October 2017 to February 2020. Read More

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Association of HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy With Type 2 Diabetes in the Hispanic Population of the Rio Grande Valley, Texas, USA.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:676979. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Valley AIDS Council, Harlingen, TX, United States.

The Rio Grande Valley (RGV) in South Texas has one of the highest prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States (US). We report for the first time the T2D prevalence in persons with HIV (PWH) in the RGV and the interrelationship between T2D, cardiometabolic risk factors, HIV-related indices, and antiretroviral therapies (ART). The PWH in this study received medical care at Valley AIDS Council (VAC) clinic sites located in Harlingen and McAllen, Texas. Read More

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Opportunistic diagnosis of osteoporosis, fragile bone strength and vertebral fractures from routine CT scans; a review of approved technology systems and pathways to implementation.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2021 10;13:1759720X211024029. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak, porous and fracture more easily. While a vertebral fracture is the archetypal fracture of osteoporosis, it is also the most difficult to diagnose clinically. Patients often suffer further spine or other fractures, deformity, height loss and pain before diagnosis. Read More

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Microencapsulated and Lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus Improved Gut Health and Immune Status of Preruminant Calves.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Livestock Production and Management Section, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122, UP, India.

The present study was conducted to study the effect of microencapsulated, lyophilized, or fermented milk using Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC15 as a probiotic to improve gut health, growth, nutrient utilization, and immunity status of young crossbred calves. The viable culture of L. acidophilus was used for preparation of different probiotic forms/products. Read More

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Candidate reference measurement procedure based on HPAEC-PAD for the development of certified reference materials for monosaccharides in serum.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Biometrology Group, Division of Chemical and Biological Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea.

To achieve the measurement reliability of monosaccharides used as diagnostic markers in clinical fields, it is essential to establish certified reference materials (CRMs). The purpose of this study is to develop a serum CRM by adopting high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) as a new candidate reference measurement procedure for the measurement of glucose and galactose, common diagnostic markers of diabetes and galactosemia, respectively. Using various monosaccharides as internal standards, the accuracy of the HPAEC-PAD method was tested by measuring glucose CRM following treatment with three different deproteinization methods: ultrafiltration, protein precipitation by trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and protein precipitation by acetonitrile. Read More

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Epicardial adipose tissue and severe Coronavirus Disease 19.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 07 20;20(1):147. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Endocrinology-Diabetology-Nutrition, CRNH-IdF, CINFO, AP-HP, Avicenne Hospital, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Avicenne, 125 route de Stalingrad, 93009, Bobigny, France.

Background: Both visceral adipose tissue and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have pro-inflammatory properties. The former is associated with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) severity. We aimed to investigate whether an association also exists for EAT. Read More

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SGLT2 inhibitors as potentially helpful drugs in PI3K inhibitor-induced diabetes: a case report.

Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jul 20;7(1):17. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Endocrinology, University Hospital La Conception, 147 boulevard Baille, 13005, Marseille, France.

Background: Hyperglycemia is the most common side-effect of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors that are approved for the treatment of some advanced or metastatic breast cancers. This side-effect is likely due to the central role of PI3K in insulin signalling. Here we report the use of a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor to manage severe hyperglycemia. Read More

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Research Note: Changes in eggshell quality and microstructure related to hen age during a production cycle.

Poult Sci 2021 May 27;100(9):101287. Epub 2021 May 27.

DSM Nutritional Products, 1, Boulevard d'Alsace, 68128, Village-Neuf, France. Electronic address:

We have studied in detail the changes that occur in eggshell structure and composition during a production cycle in order to better understand the deterioration of eggshell quality with hen age (at 33, 45, and 67 wk). To study changes in eggshell ultrastructure and microstructure characteristics (mammillary density, palisade layer thickness, size, and orientation of calcite crystals) and the cuticle composition, we used complementary analytical techniques such optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectrometry. The marked decrease in eggshell breaking strength from 5. Read More

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Effects of sodium butyrate and Lippia origanoides essential oil blend on growth, intestinal microbiota, histology, and haemato-immunological response of Nile tilapia.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 16;117:62-69. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

AQUOS - Aquatic Organisms Health Laboratory, Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1346. CEP 88040-900, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

This study aimed to verify the effects of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate and Lippia origanoides, combined and isolated, on the health and zootechnical performance of Nile tilapia juveniles Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 120 fish (5.38 ± 0. Read More

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Stachyose inhibits vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization and affects gut microbiota in mice.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 16:105094. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Research Units of Discovery of Unknown Bacteria and Function (2018 RU010), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 102206, PR China. Electronic address:

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) caused nosocomial infections are rising globally. Multiple measures have been investigated to address this issue, altering gut microbiota through dietary intervention represents one of such effort. Stachyose can promote probiotic growth, which makes it a good candidate for potentially inhibiting VRE infection. Read More

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Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jul 19;7:CD013307. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Delirium is an acute neuropsychological disorder that is common in hospitalised patients. It can be distressing to patients and carers and it is associated with serious adverse outcomes. Treatment options for established delirium are limited and so prevention of delirium is desirable. Read More

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Associastion of In-hospital Use of Statins, Aspirin, and Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Inhibitors with Mortality and ICU Admission Due to COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1327:205-214

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The exaggerated host response to Sars-CoV-2 plays an important role in COVID-19 pathology but provides a therapeutic opportunity until definitive virus targeted therapies and vaccines become available. Given a central role of endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation, repurposing ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), statins, and aspirin has been of interest. In this retrospective, single-center study, we evaluated the primary outcomes of mortality and ICU admission in 587 hospitalized patients with documented COVID-19 with or without ACEIs, ARBs, statins, and aspirin. Read More

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Decomposition of Microbial Necromass Is Divergent at the Individual Taxonomic Level in Soil.

Front Microbiol 2021 2;12:679793. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The turnover of microbial biomass plays an important part in providing a significant source of carbon (C) to soil organic C. However, whether the decomposition of microbial necromass (non-living microbial biomass) in the soil varies at the individual taxa level remains largely unknown. To fill up these gaps, we compared the necromass decomposition of bacterial and archaeal taxa by separating live microbial biomass with O-stable isotope probing from dead microbial biomass in soil. Read More

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A pilot study of the depression, anxiety and stress in Greek military personnel during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

BMJ Mil Health 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Medical Department, 110CW/Hellenic Tactical Air Force, Larissa, Greece.

Introduction: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a global health crisis which poses many psychological research challenges. The objective of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness and validity of depression, anxiety and stress in a representative cohort of Hellenic military personnel using the short version of the Greek military version of the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire.

Methods: A total of 158 participants were voluntarily surveyed using an electronically developed structured questionnaire. Read More

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Association of Remdesivir Treatment With Survival and Length of Hospital Stay Among US Veterans Hospitalized With COVID-19.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2114741. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Center for Access & Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, Iowa City.

Importance: Randomized clinical trials have yielded conflicting results about the effects of remdesivir therapy on survival and length of hospital stay among people with COVID-19.

Objective: To examine associations between remdesivir treatment and survival and length of hospital stay among people hospitalized with COVID-19 in routine care settings.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify adult patients in 123 VHA hospitals who had a first hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from May 1 to October 8, 2020. Read More

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