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Dissecting the multi-omics atlas of the exosomes released by human lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells.

NPJ Genom Med 2021 Jun 14;6(1):48. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Translational Medicine Collaborative Innovation Center, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma is heterogeneous and hierarchically organized, with a subpopulation of stem-like cells (CSCs) that reside at the apex of the hierarchy, in which exosomes act as important mediators by transporting specific molecules among different cell populations. Although there have been numerous studies on tumor exosomes, the constituents and functional properties of CSC-derived exosomes are still poorly characterized. Here we present a detail transcriptome and proteome atlas of the exosomes released by human lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LSLCs). Read More

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Emamectin benzoate induced enzymatic and transcriptional alternation in detoxification mechanism of predatory beetle Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) at the sublethal concentration.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, P.R. China.

In this study, the detoxification enzyme activity and the transcriptional profile changes in the second instar through RNA-sequencing technology due to emamectin benzoate (EB) were assessed. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) enzyme activity was not altered by EB due to the change in concentration and exposure time in all treatments. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme was not considerably varying in all treatments, while exposure time significantly changed the enzyme activity. Read More

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Strains Induce Transcriptional and Morphological Changes and Reduce Root Colonization of spp.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:652468. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Göttingen Center for Molecular Biosciences, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Phytopathogenic Verticillia cause Verticillium wilt on numerous economically important crops. Plant infection begins at the roots, where the fungus is confronted with rhizosphere inhabiting bacteria. The effects of different fluorescent pseudomonads, including some known biocontrol agents of other plant pathogens, on fungal growth of the haploid and/or the amphidiploid were compared on pectin-rich medium, in microfluidic interaction channels, allowing visualization of single hyphae, or on roots. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis of embryonic muscle development in Chengkou Mountain Chicken.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 9;22(1):431. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Beibei, 400715, Chongqing, P. R. China.

Background: Muscle is the predominant portion of any meat product, and growth performance and product quality are the core of modern breeding. The embryonic period is highly critical for muscle development, the number, shape and structure of muscle fibers are determined at the embryonic stage. Herein, we performed transcriptome analysis to reveal the law of muscle development in the embryonic stage of Chengkou Mountain Chicken at embryonic days (E) 12, 16, 19, 21. Read More

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From Passive Gatekeeper to Quarterback: Evolving Perceptions of Primary Care Among Medical Students in Longitudinal Outpatient Clerkships.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Departments of Medicine and Medical Education, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Longitudinal clerkships provide students with meaningful clinical care roles that promote learning and professional development. It remains unclear how longitudinal primary care clerkships inform students' perceptions of primary care.

Objective: To explore perceptions of primary care among medical students enrolled in longitudinal primary care clerkships. Read More

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MicroRNAs as important contributors in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 3;140:111759. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Skull Base Research Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most fatal and fourth most frequently diagnosed neoplasm in the world. Numerous non-coding RNAs have been shown to contribute in the development of CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are among the mostly assessed non-coding RNAs in CRC. Read More

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Citizen advisory groups for the creation and improvement of decision aids: experience from two Swiss centers for primary care.

Res Involv Engagem 2021 Jun 5;7(1):37. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Center for primary care and public health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, Rue de Bugnon 44, 1010, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Guidelines for patient decision aids (DA) recommend target population involvement throughout the development process, but developers may struggle because of limited resources. We sought to develop a feasible means of getting repeated feedback from users.

Methods: Between 2017 and 2020, two Swiss centers for primary care (Lausanne and Bern) created citizen advisory groups to contribute to multiple improvement cycles for colorectal, prostate and lung cancer screening DAs. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA exploration for mesenchymal stem cell characterisation.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 4;22(1):412. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

IRMB, University of Montpellier, INSERM, 80 rue Augustin Fliche, Montpellier, France.

Background: The development of RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and the corresponding emergence of public datasets have created new avenues of transcriptional marker search. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute an emerging class of transcripts with a potential for high tissue specificity and function. Therefore, we tested the biomarker potential of lncRNAs on Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), a complex type of adult multipotent stem cells of diverse tissue origins, that is frequently used in clinics but which is lacking extensive characterization. Read More

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G protein-coupled receptors as candidates for modulation and activation of the chemical senses in decapod crustaceans.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252066. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Many studies have characterized class A GPCRs in crustaceans; however, their expression in crustacean chemosensory organs has yet to be detailed. Class A GPCRs comprise several subclasses mediating diverse functions. In this study, using sequence homology, we classified all putative class A GPCRs in two chemosensory organs (antennular lateral flagellum [LF] and walking leg dactyls) and brain of four species of decapod crustaceans (Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus, American lobster Homarus americanus, red-swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, and blue crab Callinectes sapidus). Read More

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Dynamic mRNA expression of donor-derived activating KIR genes and their significant effects on clinical outcome after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

HLA Laboratory of Jiangsu Institute of Haematology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Numerous reports suggest that activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (aKIRs) of natural killer (NK) cells, in addition to inhibitory KIRs (iKIRs), play a prognostic role after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We aimed to investigate the association between the dynamic expression of KIRs on NK cells, and the outcomes, particularly regarding graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). This study retrospectively enrolled 260 pairs of donors and recipients who had undergone allo-HSCT without in vitro T-cell depletion. Read More

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Medical educators' views and experiences of trigger warnings in teaching sensitive content.

Med Educ 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: Trigger warnings-prior notification of topics so recipients may prepare for ensuing distress-are encountered widely in contemporary culture. Students at some universities have expressed expectations for trigger warnings. Medical education routinely exposes students to numerous potentially distressing topics. Read More

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Barriers and facilitators of germline genetic evaluation for prostate cancer.

Prostate 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Population Science, Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Genetic counseling and germline testing have an increasingly important role for patients with prostate cancer (PCa); however, recent data suggests they are underutilized. Our objective was to perform a qualitative study of the barriers and facilitators of germline genetic evaluation among physicians who manage PCa.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and urologists from different U. Read More

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The role of circular RNAs in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Jul 24;223:153495. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of regulatory non-coding transcripts, which partake in the pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Numerous micro-array based investigations have discovered aberrant expression of circRNAs in HCC samples in comparison with para-cancerous sections. Furthermore, a number of in vitro and in vivo experimentations have aimed at understanding the molecular pathways of circRNAs contribution in the evolution of HCC. Read More

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The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Sepsis-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 10;8:684348. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children of MOE, Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Sepsis is a syndrome with life-threatening organ dysfunction induced by a dysregulated host response to infection. The heart is one of the most commonly involved organs during sepsis, and cardiac dysfunction, which is usually indicative of an extremely poor clinical outcome, is a leading cause of death in septic cases. Despite substantial improvements in the understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the origin and responses to sepsis, the prognosis of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction (SICD) remains poor and its molecular pathophysiological changes are not well-characterized. Read More

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Characterization of microRNAs from neem () and their tissue-specific expression study in leaves and stem.

3 Biotech 2021 Jun 19;11(6):277. Epub 2021 May 19.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Queretaro, Av. Epigmenio Gonzalez, No. 500 Fracc. San Pablo, 76130 Queretaro, CP Mexico.

Neem () is a very popular traditional medicinal plant used since ancient times to treat numerous ailments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, non-coding, short RNA molecules that play important regulatory roles in plant development and metabolism. In this study, deploying a high stringent genome-wide computational-based approach and following a set of strict filtering norms a total of 44 potential conserved neem miRNAs belonging to 21 families and their corresponding 48 potential target transcripts were identified. Read More

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Multiple cellular compartments engagement in Nicotiana benthamiana-peanut stunt virus-satRNA interactions revealed by systems biology approach.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Institute, 20 Władysława Węgorka Street, 60-318, Poznan, Poland.

Key Message: PSV infection changed the abundance of host plant's transcripts and proteins associated with various cellular compartments, including ribosomes, chloroplasts, mitochondria, the nucleus and cytosol, affecting photosynthesis, translation, transcription, and splicing. Virus infection is a process resulting in numerous molecular, cellular, and physiological changes, a wide range of which can be analyzed due to development of many high-throughput techniques. Plant RNA viruses are known to replicate in the cytoplasm; however, the roles of chloroplasts and other cellular structures in the viral replication cycle and in plant antiviral defense have been recently emphasized. Read More

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Regulation of alternative splicing in response to temperature variation in plants.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße, Haus, Potsdam, Germany.

Plants have evolved numerous molecular strategies to cope with perturbations in environmental temperature, and to adjust growth and physiology to limit the negative effects of extreme temperature. One of the strategies involves alternative splicing (AS) of primary transcripts to encode alternative protein products or transcript variants destined for degradation by non-sense mediated decay (NMD). Here, we review how changes in environmental temperature - cold, heat, and moderate alterations in temperature - affect AS in plants, including crops. Read More

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IL32: The multifaceted and unconventional cytokine.

Hum Immunol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG), Kalyani, West Bengal 741251, India. Electronic address:

Interleukin 32 is a unique intracellular cytokine which affects many cellular and physiological functions like cell death and survival, inflammation and response to pathogens. With numerous transcripts, more than one biologically active isoforms, IL32 drives its effect in diverse cellular functions. A cytokine restricted to higher mammals, it is known to fine tune multiple pathways involved in metabolic processes or infection. Read More

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Studying the virome in psychiatric disease.

Schizophr Res 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

An overlooked aspect of current microbiome studies is the role of viruses in human health. Compared to bacterial studies, laboratory and analytical methods to study the entirety of viral communities in clinical samples are rudimentary and need further refinement. In order to address this need, we developed Virobiome-Seq, a sequence capture method and an accompanying bioinformatics analysis pipeline, that identifies viral reads in human samples. Read More

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Life-limiting fetal conditions and pregnancy continuation: parental decision-making processes.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Nursing, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: When parents are facing a life-limiting fetal condition (LLFC), decision making about prenatal and neonatal care is very stressful. To participate in successful shared decision making, interdisciplinary care teams need to understand factors that parents consider and the process by which they make decisions about care of their baby.

Methods: This study reports on findings about parental decision making from a larger longitudinal, naturalistic study of parents' experiences of continuing pregnancy with an LLFC. Read More

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Single-cell genomics unveils a canonical origin of the diverse mitochondrial genomes of euglenozoans.

BMC Biol 2021 May 17;19(1):103. Epub 2021 May 17.

Center for Mechanisms of Evolution, Biodesign Institute, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.

Background: The supergroup Euglenozoa unites heterotrophic flagellates from three major clades, kinetoplastids, diplonemids, and euglenids, each of which exhibits extremely divergent mitochondrial characteristics. Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of euglenids comprise multiple linear chromosomes carrying single genes, whereas mitochondrial chromosomes are circular non-catenated in diplonemids, but circular and catenated in kinetoplastids. In diplonemids and kinetoplastids, mitochondrial mRNAs require extensive and diverse editing and/or trans-splicing to produce mature transcripts. Read More

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Outcomes that Matter: High-Needs Patients' and Primary Care Leaders' Perspectives on an Intensive Primary Care Pilot.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for the Study of Healthcare Innovation, Implementation & Policy (CSHIIP), VA Greater Los Angeles HSR&D, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Quantitative evaluations of the effectiveness of intensive primary care (IPC) programs for high-needs patients have yielded mixed results for improving healthcare utilization, cost, and mortality. However, IPC programs may provide other value.

Objective: To understand the perspectives of high-needs patients and primary care facility leaders on the effects of a Veterans Affairs (VA) IPC program on patients. Read More

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RNA editing at a limited number of sites is sufficient to prevent MDA5 activation in the mouse brain.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009516. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of RNA Biology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme responsible for adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, is composed of two isoforms: nuclear p110 and cytoplasmic p150. Deletion of Adar1 or Adar1 p150 genes in mice results in embryonic lethality with overexpression of interferon-stimulating genes (ISGs), caused by the aberrant recognition of unedited endogenous transcripts by melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5). However, among numerous RNA editing sites, how many RNA sites require editing, especially by ADAR1 p150, to avoid MDA5 activation and whether ADAR1 p110 contributes to this function remains elusive. Read More

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ILRUN downregulates ACE2 expression and blocks infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2.

J Virol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CSIRO Health & Biosecurity, Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Private bag 24, Geelong 3220, Victoria, Australia

The human protein-coding gene (inflammation and lipid regulator with UBA-like and NBR1-like domains, previously C6orf106) was identified as a proviral factor for Hendra virus infection and recently characterised to function an inhibitor of type-I interferon expression. Here, we have utilised RNA-seq to define cellular pathways regulated by ILRUN in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of Caco-2 cells. We find that inhibition of ILRUN expression by RNA interference alters transcription profile of numerous cellular pathways, including upregulation of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor and several other members of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Read More

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Targeting the conserved stem loop 2 motif in the SARS-CoV-2 genome.

J Virol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, U.K.

RNA structural elements occur in numerous single stranded (+)-sense RNA viruses. The stem-loop 2 motif (s2m) is one such element with an unusually high degree of sequence conservation, being found in the 3' UTR in the genomes of many astroviruses, some picornaviruses and noroviruses, and a variety of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The evolutionary conservation and its occurrence in all viral subgenomic transcripts implicates a key role of s2m in the viral infection cycle. Read More

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Person-centred interventions for problem gaming: a stepped care approach.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 6;21(1):872. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.

Background: Problem gaming is reported by approximately 1-3% of the population and is associated with decreased health and wellbeing. Research on optimal health responses to problem gaming remains limited. This study aimed to identify and describe the key components of a person-centred approach to interventions for problem gaming for individuals who voluntary seek assistance. Read More

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Transcriptomic meta-analysis of disuse muscle atrophy vs. resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in young and older humans.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 5;12(3):629-645. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, St. Luke's Campus, Exeter, UK.

Background: Skeletal muscle atrophy manifests across numerous diseases; however, the extent of similarities/differences in causal mechanisms between atrophying conditions in unclear. Ageing and disuse represent two of the most prevalent and costly atrophic conditions, with resistance exercise training (RET) being the most effective lifestyle countermeasure. We employed gene-level and network-level meta-analyses to contrast transcriptomic signatures of disuse and RET, plus young and older RET to establish a consensus on the molecular features of, and therapeutic targets against, muscle atrophy in conditions of high socio-economic relevance. Read More

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An Intronic Variant of CHD7 Identified in Autism Patients Interferes with Neuronal Differentiation and Development.

Neurosci Bull 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Genetic composition plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Especially, inherited and de novo intronic variants are often seen in patients with ASD. However, the biological significance of intronic variants is difficult to address. Read More

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Genomic analysis of host gene responses to cerebral Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Introduction: A vaccine for malaria is urgently required but no vaccine has yet shown satisfactory protective efficacy especially for Plasmodium falciparum. P. falciparum infection can progress to cerebral malaria (CM), a neurological syndrome with exceedingly high mortality. Read More

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Loss of Increases Germ Cell Apoptosis but Is Still Compatible With Sperm Production in Atlantic Salmon ().

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:657192. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Marine Research, Research Group Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Bergen, Norway.

Entering meiosis strictly depends on () gene function in mammals. This gene is missing in a number of fish species, including medaka and zebrafish, but is present in the majority of fishes, including Atlantic salmon. Here, we have examined the effects of removing on male fertility in Atlantic salmon. Read More

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