26,062 results match your criteria numbers children


The dynamic optotype (Dyop): a novel visual acuity test for use in children.

J AAPOS 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose: To evaluate the "dynamic optotype" (Dyop), a simple visual acuity test based on a dynamic target that requires minimal knowledge of symbols and letters.

Methods: A total of 160 consecutive, systemically healthy children, 4-17 years of age were prospectively recruited from the Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit of Meir Medical Center. Children were tested with the Dyop visual acuity test and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) Lea numbers chart. Read More

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September 2021

Defects of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the ventral dentate gyrus region are implicated depression-like behavior in mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Hangzhou 310052, China. Electronic address:

Depression is an increasingly common but extremely serve mood disorder that remains poorly understood and inadequately treated. Fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVIs), a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons (GABA, g-aminobutyric acid), exhibit a widespread distribution throughout the hippocampus, and has been reported to play an important role in a variety of mental disorders. However, the relationship between depression and hippocampal PVIs remains unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Seizure outcomes of large volume temporo-parieto-occipital and frontal surgery in children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Sep 20;177:106769. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, London, WC1N 3JH, United Kingdom.

Objective: In this study, we investigate the seizure outcomes of temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) and frontal disconnections or resections in children with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) in order to determine factors which may predict surgical results.

Methods: Children with DRE, who underwent either TPO or frontal disconnection or resection at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children between 2000 and 2017, were identified from a prospectively collated operative database. Demographic data, age at surgery, type of surgery, scalp EEGs and operative histopathology were collected. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing parental understanding of variant reclassification in pediatric neurology and developmental pediatrics clinics.

J Community Genet 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Center for Bioethics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Improvements in technology used for genetic testing have yielded an increased numbers of variants that are identified, each with a potential to return uninformative results. While some genetics providers may expect patients to be responsible for staying abreast of updates to their genetic testing results, it is unknown whether patients are even aware of the possibility of variant reclassification. Little research has assessed the comprehension and attitudes of parents of pediatric patients regarding reclassification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Read More

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September 2021

Stress and Metabolomics for Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Prospective Nested Case-Control Study in a Tertiary Hospital.

Front Pediatr 2021 7;9:670382. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Deficiency of effective predict methods is an urgent problem that needs to be solved. Numbers of researchers spare no efforts to investigate differential indicators. Read More

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September 2021

Associations Between Maternal Immunisation and Reduced Rates of Preterm Birth and Stillbirth: A Population Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:704254. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

The Ritchie Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Stillbirth and preterm birth (PTB) remain two of the most important, unresolved challenges in modern pregnancy care. Approximately 10% of all births are preterm with nearly one million children dying each year due to PTB. It remains the most common cause of death among children under five years of age. Read More

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September 2021

Combining multi-site magnetic resonance imaging with machine learning predicts survival in pediatric brain tumors.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18897. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, School of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Brain tumors represent the highest cause of mortality in the pediatric oncological population. Diagnosis is commonly performed with magnetic resonance imaging. Survival biomarkers are challenging to identify due to the relatively low numbers of individual tumor types. Read More

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September 2021

Self-harm in children and adolescents by ethnic group: an observational cohort study from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Centre for Mental Health and Safety, School of Health Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; The National Institute for Health Research Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, Manchester, UK.

Background: Studies report an increasing incidence of self-harm in children and adolescents, but the extent to which this is seen in different ethnic groups is unclear. We aimed to investigate rates of emergency department presentations for self-harm in children and adolescents by ethnicity, as well as to examine their demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes.

Methods: In this observational cohort study, we used data on hospital emergency department presentations for self-harm in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years between 2000 and 2016 from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. Read More

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September 2021

Early medical abortion services provided in Australian primary care.

Med J Aust 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.

Objectives: To examine primary care provision of early medical abortion services in Australia.

Design: Cross-sectional study; analysis of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) dispensing data.

Setting, Participants: Women of child-bearing age (15-54 years), Australia, 2015-2019. Read More

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September 2021

Characterisation of peri-implantation endometrial Treg and identification of an altered phenotype in recurrent pregnancy loss.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, L3 Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) affects 2-4% of couples, and with increasing numbers of pregnancy losses the risk of miscarrying a euploid pregnancy is increased, suggesting RPL is a pathology distinct from sporadic miscarriage that is due largely to lethal embryonic aneuploidy. There are a number of conditions associated with RPL including unspecified "immune" pathologies; one of the strongest candidates for dysregulation remains T regulatory cells as depletion in the very early stages of pregnancy in mice leads to pregnancy loss. Human endometrial Treg and conventional CD4T cells were isolated during the peri-implantation period of the menstrual cycle in normal women. Read More

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September 2021

Reading Proficiency Trends Following Newborn Hearing Screening Implementation.

Pediatrics 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado.

Objectives: To investigate trends in population-level school-aged reading scores among students with hearing loss in an urban Colorado school district after implementation of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention.

Methods: The final sample included 1422 assessments conducted during the 2000-2001 through 2013-2014 school years for 321 children with hearing loss in grades 3 through 10. Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to examine reading proficiency (controlling for birth year, grade in school, free and reduced lunch status, additional disability services, and English not spoken in the home). Read More

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September 2021

The effects of removing dead bacteria by propidium monoazide on the profile of salivary microbiome.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Sep 22;21(1):460. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Center of Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Oral microbiome played an important role in maintaining healthy state and might exhibit certain changes under circumstances of diseases. However, current microbiological research using sequencing techniques did not regard dead bacteria as a separate part, causing findings based on subsequent analyses on dynamic equilibrium and functional pathways of microbes somewhat questionable. Since treatment by propidium monoazide (PMA) was able to remove dead bacteria effectively, it would be worth studying how the sequencing results after PMA treatment differed from those focusing on the whole microbiota. Read More

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September 2021

Prevention of poisonings by educational intervention aimed at parents of preschool children.

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2021 Sep 22:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Poison Control Centre, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.

The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the specific design of a poisoning prevention intervention. This controlled before-after study followed Solomon design for educational interventions using two groups (the educational intervention group and the control group). Participants comprised parents of children attending kindergartens under the jurisdiction of the City of Zagreb and in the vicinity of Zagreb. Read More

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September 2021

A rapid and simple procedure for the isolation and cultivation of fibroblast-like cells from medaka and zebrafish embryos and fin clip biopsies.

Lab Anim 2021 Sep 22:236772211045483. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Child and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.

In many human diseases, the molecular pathophysiological mechanisms are not understood, which makes the development and testing of new therapeutic approaches difficult. The generation and characterization of animal models such as mice, rats, fruit flies, worms or fish offers the possibility for in detail studies of a disease's development, its course and potential therapies in an organismal context, which considerably minimizes the risk of therapeutic side effects for patients. Nevertheless, due to the high numbers of experimental animals used in research worldwide, attempts to develop alternative test systems will help in reducing their count. Read More

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September 2021

Infection-exposure in infancy is associated with reduced allergy-related disease in later childhood in a Ugandan cohort.

Elife 2021 09 22;10. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Lack of early infection-exposure has been associated with increased allergy-related disease (ARD) susceptibility. In tropical Africa, little is known about which infections contribute to development of ARDs, and at which time.

Methods: We used latent class analysis to characterise the early infection-exposure of participants in a Ugandan birth cohort and assessed ARDs in later childhood. Read More

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September 2021

Trends in teenage pregnancy in Brazil in the last 20 years (2000-2019).

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2021 Jun;67(5):759-765

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca, Instituto de Medicina Social da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of teenage pregnancy in all Brazilian regions and states in the period of 2000-2019 among two age groups, namely, 10-14 and 15-19 years old, and correlate it with the human development index.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by using the data from the Live Birth Info System from the National Health System's database.

Results: The percentage of live births from teenage mothers (age 10-19 years) in Brazil decreased by 37. Read More

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Updates to the Spectrum/AIM model for the UNAIDS 2020 HIV estimates.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 09;24 Suppl 5:e25778

Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: The Spectrum/AIM model is used by national HIV programs and UNAIDS to prepare annual estimates of key HIV indicators. This article describes key updates to paediatric and adult models for the 2021 round of HIV estimates.

Methods: Potential updates to Spectrum arise due to newly available data, new analyses of existing data, and the need for new issues to be addressed. Read More

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September 2021

Incidence and Mortality Trends of Acute Gastroenteritis and Pneumococcal Disease in Children Following Universal Rotavirus and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Ecuador.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Admirhserv, Quito, Ecuador.

Introduction: Ecuador introduced routine infant rotavirus (RV) vaccination in 2008 and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) in 2011 to manage disease and mortality in children caused by gastroenteritis (GE) and by pneumonia (PNE) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), respectively.

Methods: This retrospective ecological database study described vaccination coverage as well as the trends in incidence and mortality in the pre- versus post-vaccination periods and used time-trend analysis models to assess the impact of vaccination.

Results: RV vaccination coverage of the second dose was between 79-97% from 2008 to 2016. Read More

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September 2021

Family functioning and dental caries among preschool children.

J Public Health Dent 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship of family functioning with dental caries among 3-4-year-olds and the role of family functioning in explaining the relationship of family socioeconomic status (SES) with childhood dental caries.

Methods: Data from 761 parent-child dyads who took part in the East London Oral Health Inequalities study were analyzed. Family functioning was assessed using the 60-item family assessment device that yielded scores on general functioning and six domains (roles, communication, problem-solving, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and behavior control). Read More

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September 2021

Human or Chimeric Monoclonal Anti-CD20 Antibodies for Children with Nephrotic Syndrome: A Superiority Randomized Trial.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Laboratory on Molecular Nephrology, Division of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, Istituto Giannina Gaslini Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Genoa, Italy

Background: The chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab is effective in steroid-dependent and calcineurin inhibitor-dependent forms of nephrotic syndrome, but many patients relapse at 1 year. Because ofatumumab, a fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has a more extended binding site and higher affinity to CD20 compared with rituximab, it might offer superior efficacy in these patients.

Methods: We designed a single-center randomized clinical trial to compare the long-term efficacy of ofatumumab versus rituximab in children and young adults with nephrotic syndrome maintained in remission with prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors. Read More

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September 2021

Hypoxemia in Young Children Undergoing One-lung Ventilation: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Anesthesiology 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Background: One-lung ventilation in children remains a specialized practice with low case numbers even at tertiary centers, preventing an assessment of best practices. The authors hypothesized that certain case factors may be associated with a higher risk of intraprocedural hypoxemia in children undergoing thoracic surgery and one-lung ventilation.

Methods: The Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes database and a local quality improvement database were queried for documentation of one-lung ventilation in children 2 months to 3 yr of age inclusive between 2010 and 2020. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of COVID-19 anxiety levels of healthcare professionals on the quality of working life and related factors.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 19:e14889. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, Kırklareli University, Kırklareli, Turkey.

Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of COVID-19 anxiety levels of healthcare professionals on their working life quality.

Method: The sample of the descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study consisted of healthcare professionals working in two university hospitals in western Turkey between May and July 2021. We used the "Personal Information Form, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, and Working Life Quality Scale" as data collection tools. Read More

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September 2021

Performance, Variance Components, and Acceptability of Pro-vitamin A-Biofortified Sweetpotato in Southern Africa and Implications in Future Breeding.

Front Plant Sci 2021 3;12:696738. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

International Potato Center, Maputo, Mozambique.

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major cause of blindness in children under 5 years. Sweetpotato ( L.) is widely grown in this region, and pro-vitamin A varieties could help to combat such problems. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of natural cow milk based on a BALB/c mouse model.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 100866, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Cow milk allergy is one of the most prevalent food allergies worldwide, particularly in infants and children. To the best of our knowledge, minimal research exists concerning the antigenicity of cow milk (CM). This study was performed to evaluate the allergenicity of enzymatically hydrolyzed cow milk (HM) in a BALB/c mouse model. Read More

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September 2021

Childhood Cancer Drugs in China: An Overview and Comparison of Regulatory Approvals in China and the United States.

Int J Cancer 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Different from less developed countries, 80% of children with cancers in the US are cured. Traditional chemotherapy drugs are the mainstay of therapies; new targeted medications have become available recently. Using publicly available data, we created a database of cancer drugs with paediatric malignancy indications approved by October 31, 2020 in China and the US. Read More

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September 2021

The management of moderate acute malnutrition in children aged 6-59 mo in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: Malnutrition is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged <5 y, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Unlike severe acute malnutrition, moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects greater numbers globally, and guidelines lack a robust evidence base. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the evidence for lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs), fortified blended flours (FBFs) and nutrition counselling, in the treatment of MAM. Read More

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September 2021

BCG re-vaccination in Malawi: 30-year follow-up of a large, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 10;9(10):e1451-e1459

Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: A large, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of repeat BCG found 49% efficacy against leprosy but no protection against tuberculosis after 6-9 years' follow-up in 1995. We report here additional follow-up, which resulted in greatly increased tuberculosis case numbers, and allowed subgroup analysis.

Methods: Nearly 47 000 individuals of all ages living in northern Malawi with a BCG vaccine scar were randomly assigned (1:1) between 1986 and 1989 to receive a second BCG or placebo. Read More

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October 2021

Abundance of domestic mites in dwellings of children and adolescents with asthma in relation to environmental factors and allergy symptoms.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18453. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.

Exposure to house dust allergens, mainly from domestic mites, is an important cause of allergic reactions in sensitized asthmatic patients. A total of 63 dust samples were collected from 16 flats in Bytom (south Poland); in each flat a person (age 4-17 years) suffering from bronchial asthma lived with his/her family. Mite density was calculated as the number of specimens per g of dust. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy and safety of belimumab in paediatric and adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: an across-study comparison.

RMD Open 2021 09;7(3)

IRCCS Istitutu Giannina Gaslini, Clinica Pediatrica e Reumatologia, PRINTO, Genova, Italy.

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of belimumab in paediatric versus adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: We performed across-study comparisons of patients with active SLE who received belimumab or placebo, plus standard therapy, in PLUTO (paediatric phase II) and BLISS-52, BLISS-76, BLISS-NEA and EMBRACE (adult phase III). Analysed efficacy data included Week 52 SLE Responder Index (SRI)-4 response rate (EMBRACE: SRI with modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) proteinuria scoring (SRI-S2K)); SRI-4 response rate (EMBRACE: SRI-S2K) according to baseline disease activity indicators (Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) score; anti-dsDNA/C3/C4 levels); Week 52 SRI-6 response rate; and time to first severe flare (SELENA-SLEDAI Flare Index) over 52 weeks. Read More

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September 2021

Current neurologic treatment and emerging therapies in CDKL5 deficiency disorder.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Sep 16;13(1):40. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Mailstop 3063, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is associated with refractory infantile onset epilepsy, global developmental delay, and variable features that include sleep, behavioral disturbances, and movement disorders. Current treatment is primarily symptom-based and informed by experience in caring for this population.

Methods: We describe medication and non-medication approaches to treatment of epilepsy and additional key neurologic symptoms (sleep disturbances, behavioral issues, movement disorders, and swallowing dysfunction) in a cohort of 177 individuals meeting criteria for CDD, 154 evaluated at 4 CDKL5 Centers of Excellence in the USA and 40 identified through the NIH Natural History Study of Rett and Related Disorders. Read More

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September 2021