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BESPOKE study protocol: a multicentre, prospective observational study to evaluate the impact of circulating tumour DNA guided therapy on patients with colorectal cancer.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 24;11(9):e047831. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Natera Inc, San Carlos, California, USA

Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly prevalent disease, wherein, ~30%-40% of patients with CRC relapse postresection. In some patients with CRC, adjuvant chemotherapy can help delay recurrence or be curative. However, current biomarkers show limited clinical utility in determining if/when chemotherapy should be administered, to provide benefit. Read More

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September 2021

Threshold dynamics of a nonlocal and delayed cholera model in a spatially heterogeneous environment.

J Math Biol 2021 Sep 24;83(4):41. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Mathematics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, 70503, USA.

A nonlocal and delayed cholera model with two transmission mechanisms in a spatially heterogeneous environment is derived. We introduce two basic reproduction numbers, one is for the bacterium in the environment and the other is for the cholera disease in the host population. If the basic reproduction number for the cholera bacterium in the environment is strictly less than one and the basic reproduction number of infection is no more than one, we prove globally asymptotically stability of the infection-free steady state. Read More

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September 2021

A New Subfamily of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 30 with Strict Xylobiohydrolase Function.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 7;8:714238. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI, United States.

The (basonym: ) glycoside hydrolase family 30 cellulosomal protein encoded by the Clocl_1795 gene was highly represented during growth on cellulosic substrates. In this report, the recombinantly expressed protein has been characterized and shown to be a non-reducing terminal (NRT)-specific xylobiohydrolase (Xbh30A). Biochemical function, optimal biophysical parameters, and phylogeny were investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Framing healthcare professionals in written adverse events: A discourse analysis.

Nurs Inq 2021 Sep 22:e12461. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Health and Care Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Healthcare professionals have a major responsibility to protect patients from harm. Despite vast efforts to decrease the number of adverse events, the progression of patient safety has internationally been acknowledged as slow. From a social construction perspective, it has been argued that the understanding of patient safety is contextual based on historical and structural rules, and that this meaning construction points out different directions of possible patient safety actions. Read More

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September 2021

Genome-wide estimation of recombination, mutation and positive selection enlightens diversification drivers of Mycobacterium bovis.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 22;11(1):18789. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, C2, Room 2.4.11, 1749-016, Lisbon, Portugal.

Genome sequencing has reinvigorated the infectious disease research field, shedding light on disease epidemiology, pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions and also evolutionary processes exerted upon pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), enclosing M. bovis as one of its animal-adapted members causing tuberculosis (TB) in terrestrial mammals, is a paradigmatic model of bacterial evolution. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic & Telehealth Implementation in a Student Run Free Clinic.

J Community Health 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Student run free clinics (SRFCs) fill a void in healthcare access for many communities and have been subject to unprecedented shifts in care delivery brought about by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our single-center institution serving uninsured patients in central Missouri switched from in-person visits to strictly telehealth visits with the onset of the pandemic. This study investigated the impact of the pandemic and the switch to telehealth on the clinic return rates by ethnicity, race, gender, rurality, and age. Read More

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September 2021

Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Alternative to Connective Tissue Graft-A Narrative Review.

Authors:
Shashi Dadlani

Int J Dent 2021 1;2021:1652032. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Section of Periodontology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Clinic of Dentistry, Oviedo university, Spain.

Porcine acellular dermal matrix has recently been introduced in dentistry as an alternative to the gold standard connective tissue graft especially for the use in gingival recession treatments and soft tissue augmentation in implant surgery. Connective tissue grafts are inconvenient and require a second surgical site leading to greater morbidity, longer surgical procedures, and a more painful postoperative phase for the patient. Other options such as allografts have ethical concerns and are less available in Europe. Read More

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September 2021

Cohort profile: a migratory cohort study of US Marines who train in Australia.

BMJ Open 2021 09 15;11(9):e050330. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Austere environments Consortium for Enhanced Sepsis Outcomes (ACESO), Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA

Purpose: In 2012, US Marines and Sailors began annual deployments to Australia to participate in joint training exercises with the Australian Defence Force and other partners in the region. During their training, US service members are exposed to a variety of infectious disease threats not normally encountered by American citizens. This paper describes a cohort of US Marines and Sailors enrolled during five rotations to Australia between 2016 and 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Ocular dermoids in 13 cats: a multicentre retrospective study.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Sep 14:1098612X211043819. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Centre Hospitalier Vétérinaire Saint Martin, Saint Martin Bellevue, France.

Objectives: The aim of this multicentre retrospective study was to review the clinical data, outcomes and histopathological features of cats that had been treated for ocular surface dermoids.

Methods: Thirteen cats from various private practices in France with a clinical diagnosis of ocular surface dermoid were included in the study.

Results: The mean age of the study population at the time of diagnosis was 5 months. Read More

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September 2021

Outcomes of Patients with Malignancy Admitted to the Intensive Care Units: A Prospective Study.

Crit Care Res Pract 2021 1;2021:4792309. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Introduction: Decisions regarding whether advanced cancer patients should be admitted to the ICU are based on a complex suite of considerations, including short- and long-term prognosis, quality of life, and therapeutic options to treat cancer. We aimed to describe demographic, clinical, and survival data and to identify factors associated with mortality in critically ill advanced cancer patients with nonelective admissions to general ICUs.

Materials And Methods: Critically ill adult (≥18 years old) cancer patients nonelectively admitted to the intensive care units at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between August 1 2015 and March 1 2019 were included. Read More

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September 2021

Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptors Mediate Timing-Dependent LTP Elicited by Low Repeat Coincident Pre- and Postsynaptic Activity at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Synapses.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Institut für Physiologie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität (OVGU), Medizinische Fakultät, Magdeburg 39120, Germany.

High-frequency stimulation induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and low-frequency stimulation induced LTD are considered as cellular models of memory formation. Interestingly, spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can induce equally robust timing-dependent LTP (t-LTP) and t-LTD in response to low frequency repeats of coincident action potential (AP) firing in presynaptic and postsynaptic cells. Commonly, STDP paradigms relying on 25-100 repeats of coincident AP firing are used to elicit t-LTP or t-LTD, but the minimum number of repeats required for successful STDP is barely explored. Read More

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September 2021

Detection of Urinary Exosomal HSD11B2 mRNA Expression: A Useful Novel Tool for the Diagnostic Approach of Dysfunctional 11β-HSD2-Related Hypertension.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:681974. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objective: Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) enzyme deficiency, traditionally assessed by measuring either the urinary cortisol metabolites ratio (tetrahydrocortisol+allotetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone, THF+5αTHF/THE) or the urinary cortisol/cortisone (F/E) ratio. Exosomal mRNA is an emerging diagnostic tool due to its stability in body fluids and its biological regulatory function. It is unknown whether urinary exosomal HSD11B2 mRNA is related to steroid ratio or the HSD11B2 662 C>G genotype (corresponding to a 221 A>G substitution) in patients with AME and essential hypertension (EH). Read More

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Multimorbidity of chronic non-communicable diseases: burden, care provision and outcomes over time among patients attending chronic outpatient medical care in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia-a mixed methods study protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 09 8;11(9):e051107. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Multimorbidity refers to the presence of two or more chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in a given individual. It is associated with premature mortality, lower quality of life (QoL) and greater use of healthcare resources. The burden of multimorbidity could be huge in the low and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Ethiopia. Read More

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September 2021

Metallodrugs as Anticancer Chemotherapeutics and Diagnostic Agents: A Critical Patent Review (2010-2020).

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway H91 TK33. Ireland.

Background: The development of metallodrugs with potential applications in cancer treatment and diagnosis has been a hot topic since the approval and subsequent marketing of the anticancer drug cisplatin in 1978. Since then, thousands of metal-based derivatives have been reported and evaluated for their chemotherapeutic or tumor imaging properties, but only a very limited number gained clinical status. Nonetheless, research in the field has been increasing exponentially over the years, especially in a view to exploiting novel drug designing approaches and strategies aimed at improving pharmacological outcomes and, at the same time, reducing side-effects. Read More

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September 2021

A Retrospective Study on the Feasibility of Completely Laparoscopic Transabdominal Approach Partial Intersphincteric Resection.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, China.

With the development of surgical techniques, gastrointestinal surgeons seek ways to improve the quality of life (QOL) for postoperative patients, while ensuring the tumor radical effect, such as reducing trauma, alleviating pain, and preserving the anus. This article discusses the postoperative outcomes of completely laparoscopic transabdominal approach partial intersphincteric resection (CLTPISR). The clinical data of 68 patients who underwent CLTPISR at the Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College between May 2017 and June 2020, including procedure-related data, general postoperative conditions, and postoperative anal function data, were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the feasibility and safety of CLTPISR. Read More

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September 2021

Mammography self-evaluation online test for screening readers: an Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) initiative.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Unit of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Rodolfo Morandi 30, 20097, San Donato Milanese, Italy.

Objectives: To report and analyse the characteristics and performance of the first cohort of Italian radiologists completing the national mammography self-evaluation online test established by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM).

Methods: A specifically-built dataset of 132 mammograms (24 with screen-detected cancers and 108 negative cases) was preliminarily tested on 48 radiologists to define pass thresholds (62% sensitivity and 86% specificity) and subsequently made available online to SIRM members during a 13-month timeframe between 2018 and 2019. Associations between participants' characteristics, pass rates, and diagnostic accuracy were then investigated with descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariable regression analyses. Read More

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September 2021

The genetic consequences of dog breed formation-Accumulation of deleterious genetic variation and fixation of mutations associated with myxomatous mitral valve disease in cavalier King Charles spaniels.

PLoS Genet 2021 Sep 2;17(9):e1009726. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Selective breeding for desirable traits in strictly controlled populations has generated an extraordinary diversity in canine morphology and behaviour, but has also led to loss of genetic variation and random entrapment of disease alleles. As a consequence, specific diseases are now prevalent in certain breeds, but whether the recent breeding practice led to an overall increase in genetic load remains unclear. Here we generate whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 20 dogs per breed from eight breeds and document a ~10% rise in the number of derived alleles per genome at evolutionarily conserved sites in the heavily bottlenecked cavalier King Charles spaniel breed (cKCs) relative to in most breeds studied here. Read More

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September 2021

[Overview of systematic reviews on Shenmai Injection in prevention and treatment of diseases].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Aug;46(15):3998-4007

Evidence-based Medicine Center, Lanzhou University Lanzhou 730000, China School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University Lanzhou 730000, China Key Laboratory of Evidence-based Medicine and Knowledge Translation of Gansu Province, Lanzhou University Lanzhou 730000, China.

To summarize and evaluate the efficacy and safety of Shenmai Injection in the treatment of viral myocarditis, shock, pulmonary heart disease, coronary heart disease, neutropenia and tumor chemotherapy, so as to provide supportive evidences for clinical rational use of Shenmai Injection. By searching literatures about studies on the systematic reviews on Shenmai Injection in treatment of viral myocarditis, shock, pulmonary heart disease, coronary heart disease, neutropenia and tumor chemotherapy from the main Chinese and English databases. Primary efficacy and safety outcome measures were selected for comparative analysis and summary, and the appraisal tool of AMSTAR 2 was used to evaluate the included studies. Read More

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Cryo-EM density maps adjustment for subtraction, consensus and sharpening.

J Struct Biol 2021 Aug 29;213(4):107780. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Centro Nac. Biotecnología (CSIC), c/Darwin, 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain; Univ. San Pablo - CEU, Campus Urb. Montepríncipe, 28668 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged as a powerful structural biology instrument to solve near-atomic three-dimensional structures. Despite the fast growth in the number of density maps generated from cryo-EM data, comparison tools among these reconstructions are still lacking. Current proposals to compare cryo-EM data derived volumes perform map subtraction based on adjustment of each volume grey level to the same scale. Read More

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One Step Is Not Enough: A Multi-Step Procedure for Building the Training Set of a Query by String Keyword Spotting System to Assist the Transcription of Historical Document.

J Imaging 2020 Oct 13;6(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Information and Electrical Engineering and Applied Mathematics, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy.

Digital libraries offer access to a large number of handwritten historical documents. These documents are available as raw images and therefore their content is not searchable. A fully manual transcription is time-consuming and expensive while a fully automatic transcription is cheaper but not comparable in terms of accuracy. Read More

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October 2020

An ethical analysis of divergent clinical approaches to the application of genetic testing for autism and schizophrenia.

Hum Genet 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Univeristy of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Genetic testing to identify genetic syndromes and copy number variants (CNVs) via whole genome platforms such as chromosome microarray (CMA) or exome sequencing (ES) is routinely performed clinically, and is considered by a variety of organizations and societies to be a "first-tier" test for individuals with developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, in the context of schizophrenia, though CNVs can have a large effect on risk, genetic testing is not typically a part of routine clinical care, and no clinical practice guidelines recommend testing. This raises the question of whether CNV testing should be similarly performed for individuals with schizophrenia. Read More

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[Proposal to reorder dental health care in the National Health System. The experience of Toledo's "Unidad de Medicina y Cirugía Oral".]

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2021 Aug 27;95. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Gerencia de Atención Primaria de Toledo. SESCAM. Toledo. España.

The portfolio of services in Oral Health of the National Health System (SNS in Spanish) is very broad and includes different areas of assistance. The focus of the System managers has focused on improving dental health benefits for children. The relevance that Children´s Dental Assistance Programs (PADI, Planes de Atención Dental Infantil in Spanish) have been acquiring in the oral care of the SNS has led to the resources being directed towards the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental pathology in the child population. Read More

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Outer Membrane Vesicles Derived from Are a Driving Force for Horizontal Gene Transfer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 13;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry Scuola Medica Salernitana, University of Salerno, 84081 Salerno, Italy.

Gram-negative bacteria release Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) into the extracellular environment. Recent studies recognized these vesicles as vectors to horizontal gene transfer; however, the parameters that mediate OMVs transfer within bacterial communities remain unclear. The present study highlights for the first time the transfer of plasmids containing resistance genes via OMVs derived from (). Read More

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Acceleration of Biological Aging and Underestimation of Subjective Age Are Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19.

Biomedicines 2021 Jul 29;9(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Regeneration and Repair, University of Edinburgh, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, UK.

In an epidemic, it is important to have methods for reliable and rapid assessment of risk groups for severe forms of the disease for their priority vaccination and for the application of preventive lockdown measures. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for severe forms of COVID-19 in adults using indicators of biological and subjective aging. Longitudinal studies evaluated the severity of the disease and the number of cases. Read More

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Impact of High-Voltage Discharge After-Treatment Technology on Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Composition and Gaseous Emissions.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 6;6(32):21181-21192. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Combustion and Energy Research Laboratory (CERL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand.

Diesel particulate matter (DPM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are the emissions from diesel engines (compression ignition engines) of the most concern and are currently strictly regulated. In this work, we present an alternative diesel emission control technique to assist in further emission reduction. An experiment-oriented study on diesel engine emission abatement using low-power, low-frequency, high-voltage discharge (HVD) treatment was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor with whole diesel engine exhaust gas. Read More

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GABA Receptor-Mediated Impairment of Intermediate Progenitor Maturation During Postnatal Hippocampal Neurogenesis of Newborn Rats.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 6;15:651072. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Neonatology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The neurotransmitter GABA and its receptors assume essential functions during fetal and postnatal brain development. The last trimester of a human pregnancy and early postnatal life involves a vulnerable period of brain development. In the second half of gestation, there is a developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in the GABAergic system, which might be disturbed by preterm birth. Read More

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Comparative efficacy and cognitive function of magnetic seizure therapy vs. electroconvulsive therapy for major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Aug 21;11(1):437. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Psychiatry, First Hospital/First Clinical Medical College of Shanxi Medical University, 030001, Taiyuan, China.

Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) has established efficacy in the treatment of depression and a growing evidence base in the treatment of depression. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of MST in anti-depressive treatment and its impact on cognitive function (INPLASY registration number: INPLASY202170061). We searched for controlled trials published in English between 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2020 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases. Read More

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Epithelioid Leiomyosarcoma of the Uterus: Modern Outcome-based Appraisal of Diagnostic Criteria in a Large Institutional Series.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Division of Women's and Perinatal Pathology, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital-Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Pathology, University of Michigan-Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI.

Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma of the uterus is rare and poorly understood. Herein, we characterize a large institutional series of epithelioid leiomyosarcomas aiming to define outcome-determinant diagnostic pathologic features. We also retrieved epithelioid smooth muscle tumors of unknown malignant potential and evaluated a consecutive cohort of leiomyomas for epithelioid subtypes. Read More

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Has resistance to chlorhexidine increased among clinically-relevant bacteria? A systematic review of time course and subpopulation data.

Authors:
Stephen Buxser

PLoS One 2021 19;16(8):e0256336. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Select Bio Consult, LLC, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.

Chlorhexidine (CHX) was introduced for use as an antimicrobial more than 70 years ago. CHX has been and continues to be used broadly for disinfecting surfaces in medical and food service facilities as well as directly on skin of humans and animals. Considering its widespread use over many decades, questions of resistance to CHX have been raised. Read More

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Intentionality in adherence to long-term therapies. Results from an online survey of 3,001 patients with cardio-metabolic pathologiesin France.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2021 11;15:1739-1753. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Hypertension Unit -Vascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, CHU Timone, Marseille, France.

Purpose: Some patients make a rational choice not to follow medical prescriptions; others fail to take their medications for reasons beyond their control, such as mere forgetfulness or a weak medication routine. The aim of this study was to elucidate the functioning of patient intentionality in medication adherence.

Patients And Methods: This online study was conducted in metropolitan France in 2019. Read More

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