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Epilepsy Is Heterogeneous in Early-Life Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Jul 6;123:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) typically presents with early onset, multiple seizure types, and intractability. However, variability is observed among individuals. Here, detailed individual data on seizure characteristics collected prospectively during early life were used to define epilepsy profiles in this population. Read More

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Identification of a GrgA-Euo-HrcA Transcriptional Regulatory Network in Chlamydia.

mSystems 2021 Aug 3:e0073821. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose unique developmental cycle consists of an infectious elementary body and a replicative reticulate body. Progression of this developmental cycle requires temporal control of the transcriptome. In addition to the three chlamydial sigma factors (σ, σ, and σ) that recognize promoter sequences of genes, chlamydial transcription factors are expected to play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation. Read More

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Three-dimensional characterizations of two-photon excitation fluorescence images of elastic fibers affected by cutaneous scar duration.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Aug;11(8):3584-3594

Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: The type or duration of a scar determines the choice of therapy available. Traditional detection methods can easily cause secondary trauma, so there is an urgent need for a non-invasive, rapid diagnostic approach.

Methods: A strategy for quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) elastic fibers in human cutaneous scars was designed, which included 3D reconstruction, skeleton extraction, quantitative analysis, and random forest regression. Read More

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Distinct mutations in importin-β family nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors transportin-SR and importin-13 affect specific cargo binding.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15649. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Cellular Dynamics Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

Importin-(Imp)β family nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors (NTRs) are supposed to bind to their cargoes through interaction between a confined interface on an NTR and a nuclear localization or export signal (NLS/NES) on a cargo. Although consensus NLS/NES sequence motifs have been defined for cargoes of some NTRs, many experimentally identified cargoes of those NTRs lack those motifs, and consensus NLSs/NESs have been reported for only a few NTRs. Crystal structures of NTR-cargo complexes have exemplified 3D structure-dependent binding of cargoes lacking a consensus NLS/NES to different sites on an NTR. Read More

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vhp Is a Fibrinogen-Binding Protein Related to vWbp in Staphylococcus aureus.

mBio 2021 Aug 3:e0116721. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Center for Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Staphylococcus aureus can target a variety of tissues, causing life-threatening infections. The basis for this diversity stems from the microorganism's ability to spread in the vascular system throughout the body. To survive in blood, S. Read More

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Longitudinal Serological Monitoring of Commercial Broiler Breeders for Fowl Adenoviruses (FAdVs)-Presence of Antibodies Is Linked with Virus Excretion.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):177-187

Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Currently, the poultry industry worldwide is facing an emerging trend of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-associated diseases with a significant economic impact, especially in meat-type chickens. Vertical transmission is an important feature of all FAdVs; hence, preventive measures mostly revolve around breeding stocks. However, knowledge about temporal development of FAdV infections in modern commercial settings is rare or even nonexistent. Read More

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Models for measuring metabolic chemical changes in the metastasis of high grade serous ovarian cancer: fallopian tube, ovary, and omentum.

Mol Omics 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common and deadly subtype, accounting for 70-80% of OC deaths. HGSOC has a distinct pattern of metastasis as many believe it originates in the fallopian tube and then it metastasizes first to the ovary, and later to the adipose-rich omentum. Metabolomics has been heavily utilized to investigate metabolite changes in HGSOC tumors and metastasis. Read More

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The spectrum of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in pediatric CNS tumors.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab074. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: We previously established the landscape of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in 23 subtypes of pediatric malignancies, characterized mtDNA mutation profiles among these subtypes, and provided statistically significant evidence for a contributory role of mtDNA mutations to pediatric malignancies.

Methods: To further delineate the spectrum of mtDNA mutations in pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, we analyzed 545 tumor-normal paired whole-genome sequencing datasets from the Children's Brain Tumor Tissue Consortium.

Results: Germline mtDNA variants were used to determine the haplogroup, and maternal ancestry, which was not significantly different among tumor types. Read More

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Development of a standardized histopathology scoring system for intervertebral disc degeneration in rat models: An initiative of the ORS spine section.

JOR Spine 2021 Jun 26;4(2):e1150. Epub 2021 May 26.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York New York USA.

Background: Rats are a widely accepted preclinical model for evaluating intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and regeneration. IVD morphology is commonly assessed using histology, which forms the foundation for quantifying the state of IVD degeneration. IVD degeneration severity is evaluated using different grading systems that focus on distinct degenerative features. Read More

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Genetic Characteristics and Pathogenicity of a Novel Porcine Deltacoronavirus Southeast Asia-Like Strain Found in China.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:701612. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Farmers involved in the lucrative pork trading business between China and Southeast Asian countries should be aware of a recently discovered novel porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in Guangxi province, China. A PDCoV strain, CHN/GX/1468B/2017, was isolated from the small intestinal contents of piglets with diarrhea from this region, with a titer of 1 × 10 TCID/mL on LLC-PK cells. The full-length genome sequence consists of 25,399 nt as determined by next-generation sequencing and this was deposited in the GenBank (accession number MN025260. Read More

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A New Precision Minimally Invasive Method of Glial Scar Simulation in the Rat Spinal Cord Using Cryoapplication.

Front Surg 2021 15;8:607551. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, NCL-Neuromed Institute of Neurosciences, Rome, Italy.

According to the World Health Organization, every year worldwide up to 500,000 people suffer a spinal cord injury (SCI). Various animal biomodels are essential for searching for novel protocols and therapeutic approaches for SCI treatment. We have developed an original model of post-traumatic spinal cord glial scarring in rats through cryoapplication. Read More

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CAFs Interacting With TAMs in Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumorigenesis and Immune Evasion.

Authors:
Gurcan Gunaydin

Front Oncol 2021 14;11:668349. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Basic Oncology, Hacettepe University Cancer Institute, Ankara, Turkey.

Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most important and abundant players of the tumor microenvironment. CAFs as well as TAMs are known to play pivotal supportive roles in tumor growth and progression. The number of CAF or TAM cells is mostly correlated with poor prognosis. Read More

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A global checklist of the parasites of the harbor porpoise , a critically-endangered species, including new findings from the Baltic Sea.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Aug 13;15:290-302. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdańsk, Morska 2, 84-150, Hel, Poland.

The common harbor porpoise is a widely-distributed marine mammal with three known subspecies, including , with a clearly distinct and critically endangered (CR) subpopulation from the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper). As part of an assessment of the condition and health threats of these mammals, it is important to conduct parasitological monitoring. The aim of the study was therefore to compare the data on porpoise parasitofauna from this subpopulation with those on porpoises from other areas. Read More

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Pathogenesis of autoimmune demyelination: from multiple sclerosis to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 26;10(7):e1316. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Brain Autoimmunity Group Kids Neuroscience Centre Kids Research at the Children's Hospital at Westmead Sydney NSW Australia.

Autoimmunity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of demyelination. Multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) are now recognised as separate disease entities under the amalgam of human central nervous system demyelinating disorders. While these disorders share inherent similarities, investigations into their distinct clinical presentations and lesion pathologies have aided in differential diagnoses and understanding of disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Exploring the Origin and Relatedness of Maternal Lineages Through Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in the Holstein Horse.

Front Genet 2021 15;12:632500. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.

Maternal lineages are important for the breeding decision in the Holstein horse breed. To investigate the genetic diversity of the maternal lineages and the relationships between founder mares, the maternal inherited mitochondrial genome (except the repetitive part of the non-coding region) of 271 mares representing 75 lineages was sequenced. The sequencing predominantly revealed complete homology in the nucleotide sequences between mares from one lineage with exceptions in 13 lineages, where differences in one to three positions are probably caused by mutations or alternate fixation of heteroplasmy. Read More

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Fine-Tuning of Alkaline Residues on the Hydrophilic Face Provides a Non-toxic Cationic α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptide Against Antibiotic-Resistant ESKAPE Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:684591. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Biomedicine and Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, College of Basic Medicine, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE pathogens (, , , , , and ) has become a serious threat to public health worldwide. Cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides (CαAMPs) have attracted much attention as promising solutions in post-antibiotic era. However, strong hemolytic activity and inefficacy have hindered their pharmaceutical development. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene and Metagenome Sequencing in Pediatric Gut Microbiomes.

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:670336. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, United States.

The colonization of the human gut microbiome begins at birth, and over time, these microbial communities become increasingly complex. Most of what we currently know about the human microbiome, especially in early stages of development, was described using culture-independent sequencing methods that allow us to identify the taxonomic composition of microbial communities using genomic techniques, such as amplicon or shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Each method has distinct tradeoffs, but there has not been a direct comparison of the utility of these methods in stool samples from very young children, which have different features than those of adults. Read More

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Can Women With HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Be Cured?

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Santa Monica, CA. Electronic address:

Breast cancer that is characterized by amplification or over expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) accounts for 15% to 20% of all forms of the disease. Although HER2 amplification has been associated with aggressive disease behavior and poor prognosis, the development and availability of a number of HER2-targeted agents has led to improved outcomes for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, with data suggesting that overall survival has substantially improved in the past 2 decades. An increasing proportion of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer is diagnosed as de novo stage IV disease. Read More

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Solid-state polymer adsorption for surface modification: The role of molecular weight.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 21;605:441-450. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Solid-state polymer adsorption offers a distinct approach for surface modification. These ultrathin, so-called Guiselin layers can easily be obtained by placing a polymer melt in contact with an interface, followed by a removal of the non-adsorbed layer with a good solvent. While the mechanism of formation has been well established for Guiselin layers, their stability, crucial from the perspective of materials applications, is not. Read More

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Study protocol P-MAPS: microbiome as predictor of severity in acute pancreatitis-a prospective multicentre translational study.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 31;21(1):304. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal Oncology and Endocrinology, University Medical Center, Robert-Kochsstraße 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder that causes a considerable economic health burden. While the overall mortality is low, around 20% of patients have a complicated course of disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. There is an emerging body of evidence that the microbiome exerts a crucial impact on the pathophysiology and course of AP. Read More

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Epidemiological data and genome sequencing reveals that nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is underestimated and mostly mediated by a small number of highly infectious individuals.

J Infect 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at University of Oxford in partnership with Public Health England, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: Despite robust efforts, patients and staff acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitals. We investigated whether whole-genome sequencing enhanced the epidemiological investigation of healthcare-associated SARS-CoV-2 acquisition.

Methods: From 17-November-2020 to 5-January-2021, 803 inpatients and 329 staff were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at four Oxfordshire hospitals. Read More

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Poor Sleep in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Reflective of Distinct Sleep Disorders.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Background: Poor sleep is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), predicting increased risk of flares, surgery, and/or hospitalization and reducing quality of life.

Aims: To profile specific sleep disorder symptoms in IBD, informing intervention efforts.

Methods: 312 adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis were recruited from an academic medical center in New Hampshire, USA. Read More

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Axially slanted laser illumination scheme for direct and accurate Raman spectroscopic determination of gemcitabine concentration in freeze-dried gemcitabine injection powder housed in a glass container.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 9;1175:338746. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Convergence of Basic Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

When Raman spectroscopy is employed for a direct in situ determination of ingredient concentration for a product stored in a glass container, minimization of the interfering glass background in the collected spectrum is demanding to secure a more accurate analysis. To meet this request, an axially slanted illumination (ASI) scheme slantingly irradiating laser on the headspace side of a glass container and positioning a detector beneath the container was demonstrated in this study. This ASI scheme was basically designed to increase the distance between the laser illumination spot and detector location to minimize the number of glass photons reaching the detector. Read More

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Correlation of natural language assessment results with health-related quality of life in adult glioma patients.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jul 30:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

1Department of Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Impairments of speech are common in patients with glioma and negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The benchmark for clinical assessments is task-based measures, which are not always feasible to administer and may miss essential components of HRQoL. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that variations in natural language (NL) correlate with HRQoL in a pattern distinct from task-based measures of language performance. Read More

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Implementation of a text-based postpartum blood pressure monitoring program at three different academic sites.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Jul 27:100446. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Up to 30% of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy continue to have elevated blood pressures after delivery, often necessitating medication titration or hospital evaluation in the weeks following hospital discharge. A previous randomized controlled trial demonstrated that remote blood pressure monitoring program resulted in more blood pressures and increased compliance with clinical guidelines in monitoring patients for persistent or worsening postpartum hypertension.

Objective: To measure program participant response rate during the first 10 days after hospital discharge, to assess replicability and scalability of the program, and to evaluate patient satisfaction at 3 distinct sites. Read More

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Disentangling the percepts of illusory movement and sensory stimulation during tendon vibration in the EEG.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 28;241:118431. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Acute Neurorehabilitation Unit (LRNA), Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Mechanical vibration of muscle tendons in specific frequencies - termed functional proprioceptive stimulation (FPS) - has the ability to induce the illusion of a movement which is congruent with a lengthening of the vibrated tendon and muscle. The majority of previous reports of the brain correlates of this illusion are based on functional neuroimaging. Contrary to the electroencephalogram (EEG) however, such technologies are not suitable for bedside or ambulant use. Read More

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Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoarthritis Distribution in the Hand Joints: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

J Rheumatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute on Aging under award number P01AG066603. The Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a collaborative project between public and private sectors, includes 5 contracts: N01-AR-2-2258, N01-AR-2-2259, N01-AR-2-2260, N01-AR-2-2261, and N01-AR-2-2262. The OAI is conducted by the OAI project investigators and is financially supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Private funding partners are Merck Research Laboratories, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline, and Pfizer Inc. In preparing this manuscript, publicly available OAI project datasets were used. The results of this work do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the OAI project investigators, the NIH, or the private funding partners. B. Mohajer, MD, MPH, S. Demehri, MD, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; R.M. Kwee, MD, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and Department of Radiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen/Sittard/ Geleen, the Netherlands; A. Guermazi, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; F. Berenbaum, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Sorbonne Université, INSERM CRSA, AP-HP Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; M. Wan, PhD, G. Zhen, MD, X. Cao, PhD, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; I.K. Haugen, MD, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. AG has received funding from MerckSerono, AstraZeneca, Galapagos, Pfizer, Roche, TissueGene ( for consultation), and Boston Imaging Core Lab (as the president and stockholder). SD has received funding from Toshiba Medical Systems ( for consultation) and grants from the GE Radiology Research Academic Fellowship and Carestream Health ( for a clinical trial study). IH has received funding from the Southeastern Norway Health Authority. None of the authors have any conflicting personal or financial relationships that could have influenced the results of this study. The other authors have no competing interests to declare. Address correspondence to Dr. B. Mohajer, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 5165, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Email: Accepted for publication June 2, 2021.

Objective: To investigate the metabolic syndrome (MetS) association with radiographic and symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (HOA).

Methods: Using 1:2 propensity score matching for relevant confounders, we included 2509 participants (896 MetS positive and 1613 MetS negative) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative dataset. MetS and its components, according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria, were extracted from baseline data, and included hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Read More

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Patient Phenotypes and SGLT-2 Inhibition in Type 2 Diabetes: Insights From the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Aug;9(8):568-577

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Using latent class analysis (LCA) of EMPA-REG OUTCOME (BI 10773 [Empagliflozin] Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients), this study identified distinct phenotypes in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular (CV) disease and explored treatment effects across phenotypes.

Background: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin reduced risk of CV death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) by 34% in subjects with T2D and CV disease. Among such subjects, there has been limited evaluation of clinical phenotypes. Read More

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Heparan sulfate proteoglycan molecules, syndecan and perlecan, have distinct roles in the maintenance of Drosophila germline stem cells.

Dev Growth Differ 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Life Science Center for Survival Dynamics, Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577, Japan.

The Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche provides an excellent model for understanding the stem cell niche in vivo. The GSC niche is composed of stromal cells that provide growth factors for the maintenance of GSCs and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM). Although the function of stromal cells/growth factors has been well-studied, the function of the ECM in the GSC niche is largely unknown. Read More

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The effects of low-dose IL-2 on Treg adoptive cell therapy in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Diabetes Center, UCSF, San Francisco, United States of America.

Background: A previous Phase I study showed that the infusion of autologous Treg cells expanded ex-vivo into recent onset Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients had an excellent safety profile, however, the majority of the infused Tregs could no longer be detected in the peripheral blood three months post-infusion (NCT01210664-Treg-T1D Trial). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been shown to enhance human Treg cell survival and expansion at low doses in vivo. Therefore, we conducted a Phase 1 study (NCT02772679-TILT trial) combining polyclonal Treg and low-dose IL-2 and assessed the impact over time on Tregs populations and other immune cells. Read More

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