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How the European In Vitro Diagnostic Regulation could negatively impact the European response to the next pandemic: an urgent call for action before May 2022.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Clinical Department of Laboratory Medicine and National Reference Center for Respiratory Pathogens, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated that the ability for laboratories to quickly set up and implement labdeveloped tests (LDTs) is essential to respond to an emerging health crisis. The Regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVDR) could, however, profoundly impact our ability to respond to a future pandemic since the IVDR could significant restrict the use of LDTs. We address using the example of the current pandemic a number of LDT implementing issues problems which should be addressed. Read More

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Bacteria as a treasure house of secondary metabolites with anticancer potential.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Institution of Excellence, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570006, India. Electronic address:

Cancer stands in the frontline among leading killers worldwide and the annual mortality rate is expected to reach 16.4 million by 2040. Humans suffer from about 200 different types of cancers and many of them have a small number of approved therapeutic agents. Read More

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Large-scale analysis of 2,152 Ig-seq datasets reveals key features of B cell biology and the antibody repertoire.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109110

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd., Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Antibody repertoire sequencing enables researchers to acquire millions of B cell receptors and investigate these molecules at the single-nucleotide level. This power and resolution in studying humoral responses have led to its wide applications. However, most of these studies were conducted with a limited number of samples. Read More

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Transformation of primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: experiences of healthcare professionals in eight European countries.

Br J Gen Pract 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Primary care has a crucial role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic as the first point of patient care and gatekeeper to secondary care. Qualitative studies exploring the experiences of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic have mainly focused on secondary care.

Aim: To understand the experiences of European PCPs working during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Old yeasts, young beer - the industrial relevance of yeast chronological lifespan.

Yeast 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

VIB - KU Leuven Center for Microbiology, Leuven, Belgium.

Much like other living organisms, yeast cells have a limited lifespan, both in terms of the maximal length of time a cell can stay alive (chronological lifespan) as well as the maximal number of cell divisions it can undergo (replicative lifespan). Over the past years, intensive research revealed that the lifespan of yeast depends both on the genetic background of the cells as well as on environmental factors. Specifically, the presence of stress factors, reactive oxygen species and the availability of nutrients profoundly impact lifespan, and signaling cascades involved in the response to these factors, including the TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways, play a central role. Read More

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antiSMASH 6.0: improving cluster detection and comparison capabilities.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Many microorganisms produce natural products that form the basis of antimicrobials, antivirals, and other drugs. Genome mining is routinely used to complement screening-based workflows to discover novel natural products. Since 2011, the "antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell-antiSMASH" (https://antismash. Read More

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Maillard conjugates of whey protein isolate-xylooligosaccharides for the microencapsulation of : protective effects and stability during spray drying, storage and gastrointestinal digestion.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4034-4045

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330047, China.

The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of whey protein isolate (WPI) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were prepared by a moist heat method for use as protectants to encapsulate Lactobacillus rhamnosus via spray drying. The protective effects of MRPs on bacterial cells during drying, storage, and in vitro digestion were explored. FTIR results indicated that MRPs were successfully prepared. Read More

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Structurally distinct unfolding intermediates formed from a staphylococcal capsule-producing enzyme retained NADPH binding activity.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 12:1-18. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

CapF, a capsule-producing enzyme expressed by , binds NADPH and exists as a dimer in the aqueous solution. Many other capsule-producing virulent bacteria also express CapF orthologs. To understand the folding-unfolding mechanism of CapF, herein a recombinant CapF (rCapF) was individually investigated using urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnCl). Read More

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Deciphering Potential Roles of Earthworms in Mitigation of Antibiotic Resistance in the Soils from Diverse Ecosystems.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Earthworms are capable of redistributing bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) through soil profiles. However, our understanding of the earthworm gut microbiome and its interaction with the antibiotic resistome is still lacking. Here, we characterized the earthworm gut and soil microbiome and antibiotic resistome in natural and agricultural ecosystems at a national scale, and microcosm studies and field experiments were also employed to test the potential role of earthworms in dynamics of soil ARGs. Read More

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Occult hepatitis B infection in Turkish HIV-infected patients: a multicentre, retrospective, cross-sectional study, Schindler Study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 12:e14358. Epub 2021 May 12.

Dicle University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Diyarbakır.

Objective: Occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) appears to have a higher prevalence in populations at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with concomitant liver disease. The aim was to assess the prevalence of OHBI in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus -1 positive and HBV surface antigen negative (HIV-1+/HBsAg-) Turkish patients.

Methods: Ten centers in Turkey were included in the study. Read More

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Molecular Biology Methods in Streptomyces rimosus, a Producer of Oxytetracycline.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:303-330

Chair of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Food Safety, Department of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Streptomyces rimosus is used for production of the broad-spectrum antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). S. rimosus belongs to Actinomyces species, a large group of microorganisms that produce diverse set of natural metabolites of high importance in many aspects of our life. Read More

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January 2021

Experimental Analysis of Solar Powered Disinfection Tunnel Mist Spray System for Coronavirus Prevention in Public and Remote Places.

Mater Today Proc 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Al- Falah University, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

There is a pressing need to accelerate the development of advanced technologies to prevent Coronavirus in large gatherings. The present system is an integration of tunnel disinfectant spray system and solar setup which utilises the solar energy to power a pump which pushes the required amount of chemical mixture into the nozzles of the spray system in order to eliminate any incoming virus or bacteria on the clothes of a particular person without wetting it. Data was gathered for a mall in New Delhi related to occupancy levels before and after lockdown. Read More

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Diversity and characterization of bacterial communities of five co-occurring species at a hydrothermal vent on the Tonga Arc.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 10;11(9):4481-4493. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Genome Editing Research Center Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology Daejeon Korea.

Host-symbiont relationships in hydrothermal vent ecosystems, supported by chemoautotrophic bacteria as primary producers, have been extensively studied. However, the process by which densely populated co-occurring invertebrate hosts form symbiotic relationships with bacterial symbionts remains unclear. Here, we analyzed gill-associated symbiotic bacteria (gill symbionts) of five co-occurring hosts, three mollusks ("" , . Read More

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Molecular diagnosis for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: lessons learnt from the Ghana experience.

Ghana Med J 2020 Dec;54(4 Suppl):77-85

Department of Virology, University of Ghana, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana.

Background: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 is currently causing a worldwide pandemic. The first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded in Ghana on March 12, 2020. Since then, the country has been combatting countrywide community spread. Read More

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December 2020

Positioning the Model Bacterial Organelle, the Carboxysome.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) confine a diverse array of metabolic reactions within a selectively permeable protein shell, allowing for specialized biochemistry that would be less efficient or altogether impossible without compartmentalization. BMCs play critical roles in carbon fixation, carbon source utilization, and pathogenesis. Despite their prevalence and importance in bacterial metabolism, little is known about BMC "homeostasis," a term we use here to encompass BMC assembly, composition, size, copy-number, maintenance, turnover, positioning, and ultimately, function in the cell. Read More

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Functional and Comparative Analysis of Centromeres Reveals Clade-Specific Genome Rearrangements in and a Chromosome Number Change in Related Species.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Molecular Mycology Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, India

The thermotolerant multidrug-resistant ascomycete rapidly emerged since 2009 causing systemic infections worldwide and simultaneously evolved in different geographical zones. The molecular events that orchestrated this sudden emergence of the killer fungus remain mostly elusive. Here, we identify centromeres in and related species, using a combined approach of chromatin immunoprecipitation and comparative genomic analyses. Read More

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2020 List of human papillomavirus assays Suitable for primary cervical cancer screening.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Only clinically validated HPV assays can be accepted in cervical cancer screening.

Objectives: To update the list of high-risk HPV assays that fulfil the 2009 international validation criteria (Meijer-2009).

Data Sources: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, references from selected studies; published in January 2014-August 2020. Read More

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Lipid Diversity in Clostridia.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 May 8:158966. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Electronic address:

Studies of the lipidomes of twenty-one species of clostridia have revealed considerable diversity. Even among those species now defined as Clostridium sensu stricto, which are related to Clostridium butyricum, the type species, lipid analysis has shown that a number of distinct clades have characteristic polar lipids. All species of Clostridium sensu stricto have phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin which are present as all acyl or alk-1'-enyl acyl (plasmalogen) species. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and evaluation of the incidence of cryptococcosis in Finland 2004-2018.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 May 11:1-7. Epub 2021 May 11.

HUS Diagnostic Center, HUSLAB, Clinical Microbiology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Cryptococcosis is one of the major causes of mortality among HIV patients worldwide. Though most often associated with late stage HIV infection/AIDS, a significant number of cases occur in other immunocompromised patients such as solid organ transplant recipients and patients with hematological malignancies. Immunocompromised patients are a heterogeneous group and their number increases constantly. Read More

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Fulvic Acid-Mediated Interfacial Reactions on Exposed Hematite Facets during Dissimilatory Iron Reduction.

Langmuir 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

National-Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, P. R. China.

Although the dual role of natural organic matter (NOM) as an electron shuttle and an electron donor for dissimilatory iron (Fe) reduction has been extensively investigated, the underlying interfacial interactions between various exposed facets and NOM are poorly understood. In this study, fulvic acid (FA), as typical NOM, was used and its effect on the dissimilatory reduction of hematite {001} and {100} by CN-32 was investigated. FA accelerates the bioreduction rates of hematite {001} and {100}, where the rate of hematite {100} is lower than that of hematite {001}. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Micropatterning Deters Early Bacterial Adherence and Can Eliminate Colonization.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

Developing strategies to prevent bacterial infections that do not rely on the use of drugs is regarded globally as an important means to stem the tide of antimicrobial resistance, as argued by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Mendelson, M.; Matsoso, M. P. Read More

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Design of a foundational sciences curriculum: Applying the ICAP framework to pharmacology education in integrated medical curricula.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 May;9(3):e00762

Department of Medical Education, Department of Oncology, Live Strong Cancer Institutes, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Expectations for physicians are rapidly changing, as is the environment in which they will practice. In response, preclerkship medical education curricula are adapting to meet these demands, often by reducing the time for foundational sciences. This descriptive study compares preclerkship pharmacology education curricular practices from seven allopathic medical schools across the United States. Read More

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Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination on the Back Surface of Worn Soft Contact Lenses.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Significance: The results of this study demonstrate that Smart Touch Technology packaging, which is designed to reduce and simplify contact lens handling before insertion, is effective in reducing the frequency of bacterial contamination of the back surface of contact lenses after short-term wear.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lens packaging type, chelating agent, and finger contamination on microbial contamination on the back surface of worn soft contact lenses.

Methods: Twenty-five subjects completed each contralateral lens wear comparison in this randomized study: Smart Touch Technology versus conventional blister packaging for (1) silicone hydrogel lenses with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and (2) hydrogel lenses without EDTA in the packaging, and (3) silicone hydrogel lenses without EDTA versus hydrogel lenses with EDTA both in Smart Touch Technology packaging. Read More

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In vitro reconstitution reveals major differences between human and bacterial cytochrome c synthases.

Elife 2021 May 11;10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States.

Cytochromes c are ubiquitous heme proteins in mitochondria and bacteria, all possessing a CXXCH (CysXxxXxxCysHis) motif with covalently attached heme. We describe the first in vitro reconstitution of cytochrome c biogenesis using purified mitochondrial (HCCS) and bacterial (CcsBA) cytochrome c synthases. We employ apocytochrome c and peptide analogs containing CXXCH as substrates, examining recognition determinants, thioether attachment, and subsequent release and folding of cytochrome c. Read More

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[Development of a luminescence real-time method for monitoring live bacteria during phage lysis].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1406-1414

State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

The toxin-producing bacterium Vibrio cholerae can cause severe diarrhea and has caused seven global pandemics. Traditional viable cell counts and phage plaques are commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of virulent phage clearance of V. cholerae, but these operations are time-consuming and labor-intensive, and difficult to provide real-time changes. Read More

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COVID-19 Pandemic: The Influence of Culture and Lessons for Collaborative Activities.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:875-889

Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Technology Innovation Center, Haid Research Institute, Guangdong Haid Group Co., Ltd., Guangzhou, China.

The rapid epidemiological shift from an epidemic/outbreak in Wuhan, China, to a global pandemic of COVID-19 in less than 3 months came with lessons the world's health system should learn to prepare for the future outbreaks. Since February 20, 2020, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 has been increased very slowly in the countries of East Asia, including Japan, South Korea, and China, when compared with those in the Western countries. This chapter begins with an overview of the impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers and public health facilities, followed by immediate global actions and research in response to the newly emerged pandemic. Read More

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Planococcus soli sp. nov., isolated from antarctic soil.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A novel bacterial strain, designated C23, was isolated from a soil sample obtained from King George Island, Antarctica. Phenotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses were performed on the new isolate. Strain C23 formed orange colonies on agar plates and was Gram-stain-positive. Read More

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Seasonal Dynamics of the Honey Bee Gut Microbiota in Colonies Under Subtropical Climate : Seasonal Dynamics of Honey Bee Gut Microbiota.

Microb Ecol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratorio de Microbiología Y Salud de Las Abejas, Departamento de Microbiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Avda. Italia 3318, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide invaluable benefits for food production and maintenance of biodiversity of natural environments through pollination. They are widely spread across the world, being adapted to different climatic conditions. To survive the winter in cold temperate regions, honey bees developed different strategies including storage of honey and pollen, confinement of individuals during the winter, and an annual cycle of colony growth and reproduction. Read More

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Distinctive in-planta acclimation responses to basal growth and acute heat stress were induced in Arabidopsis by cattle manure biochar.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9875. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Soil Chemistry, Plant Nutrition and Microbiology, Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, 7505101, Israel.

In-planta mechanisms of biochar (BC)-mediated improved growth were evaluated by examining oxidative stress, metabolic, and hormonal changes of Arabidopsis wild-type plants under basal or acute heat stress (-HS/ + HS) conditions with or without BC (+ BC/-BC). The oxidative stress was evaluated by using Arabidopsis expressing redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein in the plastids (pla-roGFP2). Fresh biomass and inflorescence height were greater in + BC(‒HS) plants than in the -BC(‒HS) plants, despite similar leaf nutrient levels, photosystem II (PSII) maximal efficiencies and similar oxidative poise. Read More

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The Role of Gut Microbiota in Modulatin Tumor Growth and Anticancer Agent Efficacy.

Mol Cells 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

An increasing number of studies have revealed an interaction between gut microbiota and tumors. The enrichment of specific bacteria strains in the intestines has been found to modulate tumor growth and influence the mechanisms of tumor treatment. Various bacteria are involved in modulating the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs currently used to treat patients with cancer, and they affect not only gastrointestinal tract tumors but also distant organ tumors. Read More

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