66,142 results match your criteria nucleotide coenzymes


sp. nov. isolated from refrigerated dry-aged beef.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jun;71(6)

Department of Safety and Quality of Meat, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food, E.-C.-Baumann Straße 20, D-95326 Kulmbach, Germany.

A polyphasic approach was applied to investigate the diversity of microbiota that evolved during cold storage beef ripening. Isolate V4/DAB/S4/2a with a unique BOX-rep-PCR fingerprint profile revealed more than 99 % nucleotide identities upon pairwise comparisons of 16S rDNA sequences from the type strains DSM 101070, DSM 108989, DSM 26521 and DSM 29166, placing it within the / branch of the genus . Additional based comparison revealed DSM 101070 as the nearest relative, with 98. Read More

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Increased Cuticle Waxes by Overexpression of WSD1 Improves Osmotic Stress Tolerance in and .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 13;22(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

To ensure global food security under the changing climate, there is a strong need for developing 'climate resilient crops' that can thrive and produce better yields under extreme environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, and high temperature. To enhance plant productivity under the adverse conditions, we constitutively overexpressed a bifunctional () gene, which plays a critical role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis stem and leaf tissues. The qRT-PCR analysis showed a strong upregulation of transcripts by mannitol, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, particularly in shoots. Read More

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Tissue Imaging and Quantification Relying on Endogenous Contrast.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;3233:257-288

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

Cell-matrix interactions play an important role in regulating a variety of essential processes in multicellular organisms, and are closely associated with numerous diseases. Modified interactions have major effects upon key features of both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM), and a thorough understanding of changes in these features can lead to critically important insights of diseases as well as the identification of effective therapeutic targets. Here, we summarize recent advances in quantitative, optical imaging of cellular metabolism and ECM spatial organization using endogenous sources of contrast. Read More

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The evolutionary stages of the complexity of biological catalysts mark and clarify the phases of the origin of the genetic code: A model for the origin of the reading frame with codons from proto-mRNAs with different frames.

Biosystems 2021 May 27:104449. Epub 2021 May 27.

The Ionian School, Genetic Code and tRNA Origin Laboratory, Via Roma 19, 67030, Alfedena, L'Aquila, Italy; Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources, National Research Council, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

I analyse the origin of the genetic code in the light of the evolution of biological catalysts. I discuss the rudimentary forms that the genetic code assumed in the presence of a catalysis performed by ions or by low molecular weight molecules, such as nucleotide coenzymes. However, it is only with the advent of a mixed polymer made of RNA and peptides - covalently linked - that the genetic code took on a clearer form. Read More

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[Cloning and functional verification of carboxyl CoA ligases(AeCCLs) in Arnebia euchroma].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(9):2182-2189

Guangdong Provincial Research Center on Good Agricultural Practice & Comprehensive Agricultural Development Engineering Technology of Cantonese Medicinal Materials, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University Guangzhou 510006, China State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Carboxyl CoA ligases(CCLs) is an important branch of adenylate synthetase gene family, which mainly has two-step catalytic reactions. Firstly, in the presence of adenosine triphosphate, it can catalyze the pyrophosphorylation of carboxylateswith diffe-rent structures to form corresponding acyl adenosine monophosphate intermediates. Secondly, adenosine monophosphate was replaced by free electrons in the mercaptan group of enzyme A or other acyl receptors by nucleophilic attack to form thioesters. Read More

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[The forensic implications of the relationship between the proteolytic enzymes activity and the changes in NADH and FAD fluorescence intensity in skeletal muscle when determining the time of death (experimental study)].

Sud Med Ekspert 2021 ;64(3):24-28

Medical Institute of the Russian Peoples Friendship University, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: Evaluation of the relationship between the activity of proteolytic enzymes (cathepsin D and calpains) and the dynamics of the fluorescence intensity of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the rats' skeletal muscles in relation to the time of death. The proteolytic activity of enzymes in rat skeletal muscle was determined at the postmortem time points corresponding to the most significant changes in the dynamics of coenzymes NADH and FAD fluorescence intensity. The proteolytic enzymes activity was found to be low during the period of increasing intensity of NADH fluorescence observed within 3 hours after death. Read More

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sp. nov, associated with leaf spot disease of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 May;71(5)

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, PR China.

Two Gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria strains were isolated from leaf spot disease of . Strain hsmgli-8 has 99.86 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to LY10J, and the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to 58 (97. Read More

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Nicotinamide riboside attenuates age-associated metabolic and functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2665. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biomedical Manufacturing Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

With age, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo changes in function, including reduced regenerative potential and loss of quiescence, which is accompanied by a significant expansion of the stem cell pool that can lead to haematological disorders. Elevated metabolic activity has been implicated in driving the HSC ageing phenotype. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside (NR), a form of vitamin B3, restores youthful metabolic capacity by modifying mitochondrial function in multiple ways including reduced expression of nuclear encoded metabolic pathway genes, damping of mitochondrial stress and a decrease in mitochondrial mass and network-size. Read More

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Optical Redox Imaging Differentiates Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Subtypes.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:253-258

Britton Chance Laboratory of Redox Imaging, Department of Radiology and Johnson Research Foundation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly diverse group of cancers with limited treatment options, responsible for about 15% of all breast cancers. TNBC cells differ from each other in many ways such as gene expression, metabolic activity, tumorigenicity, and invasiveness. Recently, many research and clinical efforts have focused on metabolically targeted therapy for TNBC. Read More

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Potential Biomarker for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Invasiveness by Optical Redox Imaging.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:247-251

Britton Chance Laboratory of Redox Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Predicting tumor metastatic potential remains a challenge in cancer research and in clinical diagnosis. Cancer invasion to neighboring tissues is a significant event in cancer progression to metastasis. Optical redox imaging (ORI) is based on detecting the endogenous fluorescence signals of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Read More

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Aspergillus niger uses the peroxisomal CoA-dependent β-oxidative genes to degrade the hydroxycinnamic acids caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 5;105(10):4199-4211. Epub 2021 May 5.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aromatic compounds are important molecules which are widely applied in many industries and are mainly produced from nonrenewable sources. Renewable sources such as plant biomass are interesting alternatives for the production of aromatic compounds. Ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, a precursor for vanillin and p-vinyl phenol, respectively, can be released from plant biomass by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Read More

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The pentose phosphate pathway in industrially relevant fungi: crucial insights for bioprocessing.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 5;105(10):4017-4031. Epub 2021 May 5.

Christian Doppler Laboratory for Optimized Expression of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Bioscience Engineering, TU Wien, Gumpendorfer Str. 1a, A-1060, Vienna, Austria.

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is one of the most targeted pathways in metabolic engineering. This pathway is the primary source of NADPH, and it contributes in fungi to the production of many compounds of interest such as polyols, biofuels, carotenoids, or antibiotics. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the PPP are still not fully known. Read More

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Structures of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domain suggest the basis of substrate selectivity.

Nat Commun 2021 05 4;12(1):2511. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are important enzymes for the assembly of complex peptide natural products. Within these multi-modular assembly lines, condensation domains perform the central function of chain assembly, typically by forming a peptide bond between two peptidyl carrier protein (PCP)-bound substrates. In this work, we report structural snapshots of a condensation domain in complex with an aminoacyl-PCP acceptor substrate. Read More

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Role of PGC-1α in the Mitochondrial NAD Pool in Metabolic Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 42415, Korea.

Mitochondria play vital roles, including ATP generation, regulation of cellular metabolism, and cell survival. Mitochondria contain the majority of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which an essential cofactor that regulates metabolic function. A decrease in both mitochondria biogenesis and NAD is a characteristic of metabolic diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) orchestrates mitochondrial biogenesis and is involved in mitochondrial NAD pool. Read More

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Identification of Compounds with Potential Therapeutic Uses from Sweet Pepper ( L.) Fruits and Their Modulation by Nitric Oxide (NO).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 25;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Group of Antioxidant, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, 18008 Granada, Spain.

Plant species are precursors of a wide variety of secondary metabolites that, besides being useful for themselves, can also be used by humans for their consumption and economic benefit. Pepper ( L.) fruit is not only a common food and spice source, it also stands out for containing high amounts of antioxidants (such as vitamins C and A), polyphenols and capsaicinoids. Read More

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Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Recombinant Human 3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, via J.H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy.

The human enzyme D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (hPHGDH) catalyzes the reversible dehydrogenation of 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG) into 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate (PHP) using the NAD/NADH redox cofactor, the first step in the phosphorylated pathway producing L-serine. We focused on the full-length enzyme that was produced in fairly large amounts in cells; the effect of pH, temperature and ligands on hPHGDH activity was studied. The forward reaction was investigated on 3PG and alternative carboxylic acids by employing two coupled assays, both removing the product PHP; 3PG was by far the best substrate in the forward direction. Read More

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Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase as a Key Molecule of the Aging/Senescence Process.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 2;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan.

Aging is a phenomenon underlined by complex molecular and biochemical changes that occur over time. One of the metabolites that is gaining strong research interest is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD, whose cellular level has been shown to decrease with age in various tissues of model animals and humans. Administration of NAD precursors, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR), to supplement NAD production through the NAD salvage pathway has been demonstrated to slow down aging processes in mice. Read More

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A Pegylated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide PEG Complex to Boost Immunogenic and Therapeutic Effects in a Liver Cancer Model.

Nanotheranostics 2021 22;5(4):405-416. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

CNRS, UMR 7244, NBD-CSPBAT, Laboratoire de Chimie, Structures et Propriétés de Biomatériaux et d'Agents Thérapeutiques Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, France.

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is engaged in several metabolic diseases. Its main role is being a cofactor essential for the activity of many flavoproteins, which play a crucial role in electron transport pathways in living systems. The aim of this study was to apply a pegylated flavins formulation named FAD-PEG diacide complex as theranostic pathway in cancer therapy. Read More

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Association of whole mtDNA, an NADPH G11914A variant, and haplogroups with high physical performance in an elite military troop.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 26;54(6):e10317. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Physical performance is a multifactorial and complex trait influenced by environmental and hereditary factors. Environmental factors alone have been insufficient to characterize all outstanding phenotypes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled the investigation of whole nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences, increasing our ability to understand interindividual variability in physical performance. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from water of crater lake.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China.

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, flagellated, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, named B2R-29, was isolated from water collected from a crater lake on Da Hinggan mountain, PR China. Strain B2R-29 was oxidase- and catalase-positive. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain B2R-29 clearly belonged to the family , class and showed the highest similarity to EM1 (97. Read More

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Mitochondrial NADP(H) generation is essential for proline biosynthesis.

Science 2021 05 22;372(6545):968-972. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and its reduced form (NADPH) regulate reductive metabolism in a subcellularly compartmentalized manner. Mitochondrial NADP(H) production depends on the phosphorylation of NAD(H) by NAD kinase 2 (NADK2). Deletion of in human cell lines did not alter mitochondrial folate pathway activity, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, or mitochondrial oxidative stress, but rather led to impaired cell proliferation in minimal medium. Read More

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sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from marine sediment in the East China Sea.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Li Dak Sum Yip Yio Chin Kenneth Li Marine Biopharmaceutical Research Center, College of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315800, PR China.

A Gram-stain-negative, ovoid-shaped, motile and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated ZQ172, was isolated from marine sediment sampled on Zhoushan Island located in the East China Sea. Strain ZQ172 grew optimally at temperatures of 25-30 °C, at NaCl concentration of 2.0 % (w/v) and at pH 7. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater stream.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as IMCC34836, was isolated from a freshwater stream. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain IMCC34836 was most closely related to HW001 (of the family ) with 95.6 % sequence similarity and formed a robust clade with HW001. Read More

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Autofluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for predicting the induced damages to other organs due to liver fibrosis.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Aug 24;257:119741. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Biophotonics and Imaging, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

When our liver does not work well, it can induce damage to other organs causing their dysfunction. With this background, we aim to study the effect of liver fibrosis on other organs such as heart, lungs, kidney and spleen by assessing the variations in the inherent emission property of the tissue, using fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence emission spectra from excised organs of liver fibrosis induced rats were collected at excitation wavelengths 320 and 410 nm. Read More

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A novel ratiometric fluorescent probe from a hemicyanine derivative for detecting NAD(P)H in a cell microenvironment.

Anal Methods 2021 04 23;13(14):1681-1686. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhoukou 466001, P. R. China.

In this paper, a fluorescent compound derived from coumarin and hemicyanine was synthesized and characterized. Herein, we present the fluorescence properties of the probe. Fluorescence selectivity experiments revealed that it exhibited higher ratiometric fluorescence response activity toward NAD(P)H than other commonly coexisting compounds in the cell microenvironment, in accord with the fluorescence shift from red to blue. Read More

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Computationally-guided exchange of substrate selectivity motifs in a modular polyketide synthase acyltransferase.

Nat Commun 2021 04 13;12(1):2193. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Polyketides, one of the largest classes of natural products, are often clinically relevant. The ability to engineer polyketide biosynthesis to produce analogs is critically important. Acyltransferases (ATs) of modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the installation of malonyl-CoA extenders into polyketide scaffolds. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from stream water in the Republic of Korea.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Department of Life Science, Graduate School, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16227, Republic of Korea.

A novel bacterial strain, EJ-4, isolated from stream water collected at Seo-ho in Suwon, Republic of Korea, was characterized based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain EJ-4 belonged to the genus . The isolate is Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic, rod-shaped and forms pale yellow colonies on trypticase soy agar. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from blood of an immunocompromised patient.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultative aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as MKL-01 and isolated from the blood of immunocompromised patient, was genotypically and phenotypically characterized. The colonies were found to be creamy yellow and convex. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome sequences revealed that strain MKL-01 was most closely related to LMG 5886, present within a large cluster in the genus . Read More

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Creating enzymes and self-sufficient cells for biosynthesis of the non-natural cofactor nicotinamide cytosine dinucleotide.

Nat Commun 2021 04 9;12(1):2116. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian, PR China.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form are indispensable cofactors in life. Diverse NAD mimics have been developed for applications in chemical and biological sciences. Nicotinamide cytosine dinucleotide (NCD) has emerged as a non-natural cofactor to mediate redox transformations, while cells are fed with chemically synthesized NCD. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from charcoal.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Institut für Mikrobiologie, Veterinärmedizinische Universität, A-1210 Wien, Austria.

A beige-pigmented, oxidase-positive bacterial isolate, Wesi-4, isolated from charcoal in 2012, was examined in detail by applying a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of the isolates were rod shaped and Gram-stain negative. Examination of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed highest sequence similarities to the type strains of and (both 97. Read More

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