8,959 results match your criteria nuclear shape

A spatial model of YAP/TAZ signaling reveals how stiffness, dimensionality, and shape contribute to emergent outcomes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May 14;118(20). Epub 2021 May 14.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093

YAP/TAZ is a master regulator of mechanotransduction whose functions rely on translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to diverse physical cues. Substrate stiffness, substrate dimensionality, and cell shape are all input signals for YAP/TAZ, and through this pathway, regulate critical cellular functions and tissue homeostasis. Yet, the relative contributions of each biophysical signal and the mechanisms by which they synergistically regulate YAP/TAZ in realistic tissue microenvironments that provide multiplexed input signals remain unclear. Read More

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Altered nuclear architecture in blood cells from Huntington's disease patients.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

CompuMAINE Lab, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA.

Background: Cell nuclear architecture has been explored in cancer and laminopathies but not in neurodegenerative disorders. Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to neuronal death. Chromosome-wide changes in gene expression have been reported in HD, not only in the brain but also in peripheral blood cells, but whether this translates into nuclear and chromosome architecture alterations has not yet been studied. Read More

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Nuclear Lamin A/C Expression Is a Key Determinant of Paclitaxel Sensitivity.

Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136

Paclitaxel is a key member of the Taxane (Taxol/paclitaxel, docetaxel/taxotere) family of successful drugs used in the current treatment of several solid tumors, including ovarian cancer. The molecular target of Taxol/paclitaxel has been identified as tubulin, and paclitaxel binding alters the dynamics and thus stabilizes microtubule bundles. Traditionally, the anti-cancer mechanism of paclitaxel has been thought to originate from its interfering with the role of microtubules in mitosis, resulting in mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Read More

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Improved genome assembly and pan-genome provide key insights on eggplant domestication and breeding.

Plant J 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

ENEA, Casaccia Res Ctr, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123, Rome, Italy.

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important horticultural crop and one of the most widely grown vegetables from the Solanaceae family. It was domesticated from a wild, prickly progenitor carrying small, round, non-anthocyanic fruits. Read More

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Assessment of Single-and Double-Strand Breaks in DNA Induced by Auger Electrons of Radioisotopes Used in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

J Med Phys 2020 Oct-Dec;45(4):240-248. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Most of the radionuclides that are used for diagnostic purposes emit Auger electrons and can thus cause damage to the DNA molecule on a nanometer scale. Therefore, the nanodosimetric calculation of these radioisotopes is necessary to achieve better understanding on their effects.

Aim: The aim of this study was to calculate the mean number of DNA strand breaks (single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks) caused by direct and indirect effects for six widely used Auger electron-emitting diagnostic radioisotopes, including I, I, Tc, Ga, Tl, In and two therapeutic radioisotopes of I(beta + Auger + CK emitter) and At(alpha + Auger + CK emitter). Read More

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February 2021

Ultrasmall Downconverting Nanoparticle for Enhanced Cerenkov Imaging.

Nano Lett 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, United States.

Cerenkov imaging provides an opportunity to expand the application of approved radiotracers and therapeutic agents by utilizing them for optical approaches, which opens new avenues for nuclear imaging. The dominating Cerenkov radiation is in the UV/blue region, where it is readily absorbed by human tissue, reducing its utility . To solve this problem, we propose a strategy to shift Cerenkov light to the more penetrative red-light region through the use of a fluorescent down-conversion technique, based upon europium oxide nanoparticles. Read More

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Spatial-frequency features of radiation produced by a step-wise tapered undulator.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 26;28(Pt 3):769-777. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

European XFEL, Hamburg, Germany.

A scheme to generate wide-bandwidth radiation using a step-wise tapered undulator with a segmented structure is proposed. This magnetic field configuration allows to broaden the undulator harmonic spectrum by two orders of magnitude, providing 1 keV bandwidth with spectral flux density exceeding 10 photons s mm (0.1% bandwidth) at 5 keV on the sample. Read More

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Development of genistein-loaded gold nanoparticles and their antitumor potential against prostate cancer cell lines.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 27;124:112078. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković" - National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

Soy isoflavone genistein (Gen) exerts beneficial effects against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, its use as a chemoprevention/therapeutic agent is largely limited due to its low bioavailability. In this study we synthesized two variants of a new delivery system, genistein-gold nanoparticles conjugates Gen@AuNPs1 and Gen@AuNPs2, by an environmentally friendly method, using a dual role of Gen to reduce Au and stabilize the formed AuNPs, with no additional component. Read More

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Data Processing Optimization in Untargeted Metabolomics of Urine Using Voigt Lineshape Model Non-Linear Regression Analysis.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is well-established to address questions in large-scale untargeted metabolomics. Although several approaches in data processing and analysis are available, significant issues remain. NMR spectroscopy of urine generates information-rich but complex spectra in which signals often overlap. Read More

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The N terminus of Orai1 couples to the AKAP79 signaling complex to drive NFAT1 activation by local Ca entry.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom;

To avoid conflicting and deleterious outcomes, eukaryotic cells often confine second messengers to spatially restricted subcompartments. The smallest signaling unit is the Ca nanodomain, which forms when Ca channels open. Ca nanodomains arising from store-operated Orai1 Ca channels stimulate the protein phosphatase calcineurin to activate the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Read More

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Morphometric analysis of nuclear symmetry in urothelial carcinoma for predicting tumor recurrence.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Urothelial carcinoma is the ninth most common cancer in the world. Cytological analysis of the urine is used for screening, as well as for cases suspected for neoplasia of the urinary tract. However, the sensitivity of urine cytology examination is low. Read More

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Dynamic Nuclear Structure Emerges from Chromatin Cross-Links and Motors.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(15):158101

Department of Physics and BioInspired Syracuse, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, USA.

The cell nucleus houses the chromosomes, which are linked to a soft shell of lamin protein filaments. Experiments indicate that correlated chromosome dynamics and nuclear shape fluctuations arise from motor activity. To identify the physical mechanisms, we develop a model of an active, cross-linked Rouse chain bound to a polymeric shell. Read More

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Geometrically defined environments direct cell division rate and subcellular YAP localization in single mouse embryonic stem cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9269. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Zoological Institute, Cell- and Neurobiology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 4, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Mechanotransduction via yes-associated protein (YAP) is a central mechanism for decision-making in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Nuclear localization of YAP is tightly connected to pluripotency and increases the cell division rate (CDR). How the geometry of the extracellular environment influences mechanotransduction, thereby YAP localization, and decision-making of single isolated mESCs is largely unknown. Read More

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Vibrational Spectral Analysis of Natisite (NaTiSiO) and its Structure Evolution in Water and Sulfuric Acid Solutions.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Natisite (NaTiSiO) is a layered sodium titanosilicate containing TiO square pyramids. The structure evolution of natisite in water and acid solutions is the basis for its potential applications. With NaSiO as the silicon source, natisite with the shape of the square sheet was selectively prepared from the hydrothermal method with 14. Read More

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Cashew Gum Polysaccharide Nanoparticles Grafted with Polypropylene Glycol as Carriers for Diclofenac Sodium.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratório de Química de Polímeros, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICB2, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, GO, Brazil.

This investigation focuses on the development and optimization of cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) nanoparticles grafted with polypropylene glycol (PPG) as carriers for diclofenac sodium. The optimization of parameters affecting nanoparticles formulation was performed using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). It was demonstrated that the best formulation was achieved when 10 mg of CGP was mixed with 10 μL of PPG and homogenized at 22,000 rpm for 15 min. Read More

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One-Stage Formation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal and Spatially Ordered Arrays of Self-Assembled Ge(Si) Nanoislandson Pit-Patterned Silicon-On-Insulator Substrate.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

A new approach to improve the light-emitting efficiency of Ge(Si) quantum dots (QDs) by the formation of an ordered array of QDs on a pit-patterned silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate is presented. This approach makes it possible to use the same pre-patterned substrate both for the growth of spatially ordered QDs and for the formation of photonic crystal (PhC) in which QDs are embedded. The periodic array of deep pits on the SOI substrate simultaneously serves as a template for spatially ordering of QDs and the basis for two-dimensional PhCs. Read More

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SiLiF Neutron Counters to Monitor Nuclear Materials in the MICADO Project.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania, Italy.

In the framework of the MICADO (Measurement and Instrumentation for Cleaning And Decommissioning Operations) European Union (EU) project, aimed at the full digitization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste management, a set of 32 solid state thermal neutron detectors named SiLiF has been built and characterized. MICADO encompasses a complete active and passive characterization of the radwaste drums with neutrons and gamma rays, followed by a longer-term monitoring phase. The SiLiF detectors are suitable for the monitoring of nuclear materials and can be used around radioactive waste drums possibly containing small quantities of actinides, as well as around spent fuel casks in interim storage or during transportation. Read More

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RGD-Binding Integrins Revisited: How Recently Discovered Functions and Novel Synthetic Ligands (Re-)Shape an Ever-Evolving Field.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Clinical Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, 81675 Munich, Germany.

Integrins have been extensively investigated as therapeutic targets over the last decades, which has been inspired by their multiple functions in cancer progression, metastasis, and angiogenesis as well as a continuously expanding number of other diseases, e.g., sepsis, fibrosis, and viral infections, possibly also Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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Hybrid System for Local Drug Delivery and Magnetic Hyperthermia Based on SPIONs Loaded with Doxorubicin and Epirubicin.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 1;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, thus new solutions in anticancer therapies are highly sought after. In this work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated with anticancer drugs are synthesized and investigated as potential magnetic drug nanocarriers for local drug delivery and mild magnetic hyperthermia. We have obtained a hybrid system loaded with holmium and anticancer drugs and thoroughly studied it with respect to the size, morphology, surface modifications and magnetic properties, and interactions with the model of biological membranes, cytotoxicity. Read More

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Folding for the Immune Synapse: CCT Chaperonin and the Cytoskeleton.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:658460. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Immunology Service, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma Madrid (UAM), Instituto Investigacion Sanitaria-Instituto Princesa (IIS-IP), Madrid, Spain.

Lymphocytes rearrange their shape, membrane receptors and organelles during cognate contacts with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Activation of T cells by APCs through pMHC-TCR/CD3 interaction (peptide-major histocompatibility complex-T cell receptor/CD3 complexes) involves different steps that lead to the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and organelles and, eventually, activation of nuclear factors allowing transcription and ultimately, replication and cell division. Both the positioning of the lymphocyte centrosome in close proximity to the APC and the nucleation of a dense microtubule network beneath the plasma membrane from the centrosome support the T cell's intracellular polarity. Read More

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Post-seminal development and cryopreservation of endemic or endangered bromeliads.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 23;93(1):e20191133. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, UFRB, Centro, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.

Vriesea bahiana, Hohenbergia castellanosii and Encholirium spectabile are endemic Brazilian species that are considered endemic or endangered. Development of strategies to conserve these species is important to prevent irreversible genetic erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the post-seminal development and seed cryopreservation of three endemic or in danger of extinction bromeliad species in Brazil, to obtain a protocol that can safeguard the genetic variability of these species. Read More

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Valproic Acid-Induced Changes of 4D Nuclear Morphology in Astrocyte Cells.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Apr 28:mbcE20080502. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as valproic acid (VPA), have important clinical therapeutic and cellular reprogramming applications. They induce chromatin re-organization that is associated with altered cellular morphology. However, there is a lack of comprehensive characterization of VPA-induced changes of nuclear size and shape. Read More

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Rapid Discrimination of Extracellular Vesicles by Shape Distribution Analysis.

Anal Chem 2021 May 28;93(18):7037-7044. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047, Japan.

A rapid and simple cancer detection method independent of cancer type is an important technology for cancer diagnosis. Although the expression profiles of biological molecules contained in cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered candidates for discrimination indexes to identify any cancerous cells in the body, it takes a certain amount of time to examine these expression profiles. Here, we report the shape distributions of EVs suspended in a solution and the potential of these distributions as a discrimination index to discriminate cancer cells. Read More

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Symmetry-Breaking Enhanced Herzberg-Teller Effect with Brominated Polyacenes.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 26;125(17):3589-3599. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Chemistry, American University, Washington, District of Columbia 20016, United States.

Molecular symmetry is vital to the selection rule of vibrationally resolved electronic transition, particularly when the nuclear dependence of electronic wave function is explicitly treated by including Franck-Condon (FC) factor, Franck-Condon/Herzberg-Teller (FC/HT) interference, and Herzberg-Teller (HT) coupling. Our present study investigated the light absorption spectra of highly symmetric tetracene, pentacene, and hexacene molecules of point-group , as well as their monobrominated derivatives with a lower symmetry. It was found that the symmetry-breaking monobromination allows more vibrational normal modes and their pairs to contribute to FC/HT interference and HT coupling, respectively. Read More

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Treatment Response Prediction using MRI-based Pre-, Post- and Delta-Radiomic Features and Machine Learning Algorithms in Colorectal Cancer.

Med Phys 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: We evaluate the feasibility of treatment response prediction using MRI-based pre-, post- and delta-radiomic features for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (nCRT).

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 53 LARC patients divided into a training set (Center#1, n=36) and external validation set (Center#2, n=17). T2-weighted (T2W) MRI were acquired for all patients, 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after nCRT. Read More

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Ongoing repair of migration-coupled DNA damage allows planarian adult stem cells to reach wound sites.

Elife 2021 Apr 23;10. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Mechanical stress during cell migration may be a previously unappreciated source of genome instability, but the extent to which this happens in any animal in vivo remains unknown. We consider an in vivo system where the adult stem cells of planarian flatworms are required to migrate to a distal wound site. We observe a relationship between adult stem cell migration and ongoing DNA damage and repair during tissue regeneration. Read More

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A machine learning approach to distinguish between knees without and with osteoarthritis using MRI-based radiomic features from tibial bone.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, CA, 3000, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Our aim was to assess the ability of semi-automatically extracted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomic features from tibial subchondral bone to distinguish between knees without and with osteoarthritis.

Methods: The right knees of 665 females from the population-based Rotterdam Study scanned with 1.5T MRI were analyzed. Read More

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Chain dynamics and crystalline network structure of poly[-3-hydroxybutyrate--4-hydroxybutyrate] as revealed by solid-state NMR.

Soft Matter 2021 Apr;17(15):4195-4203

National Synchrotron Radiation Lab and Anhui Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Film, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

The chain dynamics and crystalline network structure of poly[R-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate] (P(3HB-co-4HB)) were systematically investigated by the combination of various solid-state NMR techniques. High-resolution 13C cross-polarization (CP) and direct-polarization (DP) MAS with selective recycle delay times were first used to check the presence or absence of the 4HB unit in the crystalline domain. The results show that the 4HB unit is excluded from the crystalline domain. Read More

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Threshold dose rates for the cytogenetic effects in crested hairgrass populations from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 6;416:125817. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, 109 km, 49020 Obninsk, Russia.

An assessment of cytogenetic effects in crested hairgrass (Koeleria gracilis Pers.) populations was carried out within the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan) where combat radioactive substances were tested in 1953-1957. Current levels of radioactive contamination within this site are varied by orders of magnitude, while soil characteristics and heavy metal pollution are similar. Read More

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Genetic perturbation of PU.1 binding and chromatin looping at neutrophil enhancers associates with autoimmune disease.

Nat Commun 2021 04 16;12(1):2298. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Human Genetics, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.

Neutrophils play fundamental roles in innate immune response, shape adaptive immunity, and are a potentially causal cell type underpinning genetic associations with immune system traits and diseases. Here, we profile the binding of myeloid master regulator PU.1 in primary neutrophils across nearly a hundred volunteers. Read More

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