3,381 results match your criteria nuclear disaster


The potential of radiation sterilized and banked tissue allografts for management of nuclear casualties.

Cell Tissue Bank 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Defence Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Jodhpur, India.

Processed and radiation sterilized allograft tissues that can be banked for use on demand are a precious therapeutic resource for the repair or reconstruction of damaged or injured tissues. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, amniotic membrane and bioengineered skin can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, and treatment of spinal and joint injuries. Read More

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Assessing the potential of partial root zone drying and mulching for improving the productivity of cotton under arid climate.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture & Environment, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Water scarcity constrains global cotton production. However, partial root-zone drying (PRD) and mulching can be used as good techniques to save water and enhance crop production, especially in arid regions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mulching for water conservation in an arid environment under PRD and to further assess the osmotic adjustment and enzymatic activities for sustainable cotton production. Read More

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Orotracheal tube versus supraglottic devices in biological, chemical and radiological disasters: meta-analysis in manikin-based studies.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 23;74(5):e20200313. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: To compare the mean time of orotracheal intubation and insertion of supraglottic airway devices, considering healthcare providers wearing waterproof overall, gloves, boots, eye protection and mask at the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear context in simulation setting.

Methods: Six databases were searched. The selected studies were put in a pool of results using a random-effects meta-analysis, with standardized mean differences and calculation of 95% confidence intervals. Read More

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Corrigendum to "A multicenter study of radiation doses to the eye lenses of medical staff performing non-vascular imaging and interventional radiology procedures in Japan" [Physica Medica 74 (2020) 83-91].

Phys Med 2021 Jul 26;88:262-263. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Human Resources Development Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

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How to overcome the difficulty of talking about the experience of a nuclear disaster.

Authors:
Ryoko Ando

Ann ICRP 2021 Jul 27:1466453211015397. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

NPO Fukushima Dialogue, Tabitomachi, Iwaki City 974-0151, Japan.

At the ICRP International Conference on Recovery After Nuclear Accidents Session 3.4 Forum on the Transmission of Experience held in December 2020, a panel discussion took place on the topic, 'How to overcome the difficulty to talk about the experience of nuclear accidents?'. The facilitator was Ryoko Ando (NPO Fukushima Dialogue) and the following six people participated as panelists: Atsushi Chiba (teacher at Fukushima Prefectural Asaka High School), Yoshiko Aoki (NPO Group of Storytellers About 311 in Tomioka), Miku Endo (Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster Memorial Museum), Kenji Shiga (former Director of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum), Thierry Schneider (Centre d'étude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucléaire), and Noboru Takamura (Director of Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster Memorial Museum, Nagasaki University). Read More

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Assessing the impact of large-scale farmland abandonment on the habitat distributions of frog species after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

Oecologia 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Health and Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan.

Rice paddies function as wetlands; therefore, abandoned paddy fields cause a loss of habitats for aquatic species, such as amphibians. Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, paddy fields around the plant were abandoned and rapidly dried. To identify the impact of large-scale abandonment of paddy fields on the habitats of frogs, we investigated changes in the distributions of four frogs that breed in paddy fields using niche modeling and field surveys. Read More

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R&D of JAEA for the decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station.

Authors:
Koichi Noda

Ann ICRP 2021 Jul 27:1466453211010892. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Japan Atomic Energy Agency Fukushima Research and Development Division, Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan; e-mail:

This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been contributing actively to the environmental recovery of Fukushima and the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station from a technical aspect, through a wide range of research and development (R&D) activities including fundamental research and applicational technology development. JAEA has been conducting R&D such as the characterisation of fuel debris, and treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes based on the 'Mid-and-Long-Term Roadmap' authorised by the Japanese Government. Read More

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Lead exposure is associated with functional and microstructural changes in the healthy human brain.

Commun Biol 2021 Jul 26;4(1):912. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Lead is a toxin known to harm many organs in the body, particularly the central nervous system, across an individual's lifespan. To date, no study has yet investigated the associations between body lead level and the microstructural properties of gray matter areas, and brain activity during attention-demanding tasks. Here, utilizing data of diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive measures among 920 typically developing young adults, we show greater hair lead levels are weakly but significantly associated with (a) increased working memory-related activity in the right premotor and pre-supplemental motor areas, (b) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter areas near the internal capsule, (c) lower mean diffusivity (MD) in the dopaminergic system in the left hemisphere and other widespread contingent areas, and (d) greater MD in the white matter area adjacent to the right fusiform gyrus. Read More

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Mental Health Consequences of the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Nuclear Disasters: A Scoping Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 13;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Disaster Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

Many individuals who were affected by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident continue to face a challenging recovery. We reviewed the long-term mental health consequences of three major nuclear power plant accidents: the Three Mile Island (TMI, 1979), Chernobyl (1986), and Fukushima (2011) nuclear disasters. We examined the relevant prospective cohort studies and before-and-after studies that covered more than two timepoints, searching four databases (PubMed, Ichushi, PsyArticles, and PTSDPub). Read More

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Long-term observation of mortality among inpatients evacuated from psychiatric hospitals in Fukushima prefecture following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14651. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Hikarigaoka-1, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

The debate regarding the need for hospital evacuation and the evacuation distance remains rather chaotic. Furthermore, the relationship between hospital evacuation and the prognoses of psychiatric inpatients has not yet been investigated. We aimed to reveal the association between the long-term prognosis of psychiatric inpatients evacuated immediately following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and their backgrounds. Read More

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Civilian walking blood bank emergency preparedness plan.

Transfusion 2021 07;61 Suppl 1:S313-S325

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: The current global pandemic has created unprecedented challenges in the blood supply network. Given the recent shortages, there must be a civilian plan for massively bleeding patients when there are no blood products on the shelf. Recognizing that the time to death in bleeding patients is less than 2 h, timely resupply from unaffected locations is not possible. Read More

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IRPA practical guidance for engagement with the public on radiation and risk.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Former President, International Radiation Protection Association, St Dennis, FRANCE.

The International Radiation Protection Association, IRPA, promotes the worldwide enhancement of professional competence, radiation protection culture and practice by providing benchmarks of good practice, as well as encouraging the application of the highest standards of professional conduct, skills and knowledge for the benefit of individuals and society. Enhancing public understanding of radiation and risk is highlighted by experiences from past emergencies, including the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011 and the following post-disaster recovery, as one of the most important challenges, and this challenge is common across almost all public interfaces regarding radiation and risk. To this end IRPA has been continuing a Task Group activity for Public Understanding since 2013. Read More

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Medical management: major lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident (the review).

J Radiol Prot 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Clinical, FSBI State Research Center Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow, RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

Thirty-five years have passed since the moment of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. It is quite a sufficient period to assess the correctness of the organization of medical care for victims, to summarize the results of monitoring the health status of various groups of persons involved in the accident, including its direct participants. Radiation from a massive source of relatively uniform gamma radiation and a heterogeneous source of beta radiation can cause a large number of affected people to develop ARS of varying severity, including non-curable forms of the disease ARS developed in 134 patients. Read More

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Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change.

Nature 2021 Jul 14;595(7867):388-393. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

General Coordination of Earth Science (CGCT), National Institute for Space Research (INPE), São José dos Campos, Brazil.

Amazonia hosts the Earth's largest tropical forests and has been shown to be an important carbon sink over recent decades. This carbon sink seems to be in decline, however, as a result of factors such as deforestation and climate change. Here we investigate Amazonia's carbon budget and the main drivers responsible for its change into a carbon source. Read More

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Team training and surgical crisis management.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Aug;124(2):216-220

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Team training and crisis management derive their roots from fundamental learning theory and the culture of safety that burgeoned forth from the industrial revolution through the rise of nuclear energy and aviation. The integral nature of telemedicine to many simulation-based activities, whether to bridge distances out of convenience or necessity, continues to be a common theme moving into the next era of surgical safety as newer, more robust technologies become available. Read More

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Vagus nerve stimulation modulates arachidonic acid production in the mesenteric lymph following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Acute Critical Care and Disaster Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan (K.N., Y.O.) Department of Acute Critical Care and Disaster Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital of Medicine, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan (K.N., K.M., A.S., J.A., Y.O.) Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan (S.D., A.W., N.I., T.K.) Emergency Medicine and Acute Care Surgery, Matsudo City General Hospital, Chiba, Japan (M.Y.) Emergency and Critical Care Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, 2-1-10 Nishiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8567, Japan (M.K.) Department of Comprehensive Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan (K.Y.) Department of Surgery, Riverside University Health System Medical Center, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, CA 92354, USA (R.C).

Background: Inflammatory lipid mediators in mesenteric lymph (ML), including arachidonic acid (AA), are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) after hemorrhagic shock. A previous study suggested vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could relieve shock-induced gut injury and abrogate ML toxicity, resulting in the prevention of MOD. However, the detailed mechanism of VNS in lymph toxicity remains unclear. Read More

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Visualizing drivers of gender health disparities: Ongoing participatory action research following the 2011 disaster in Japan.

Authors:
Mieko Yoshihama

Soc Sci Med 2021 Aug 18;283:114133. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

University of Michigan School of Social Work1080 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1106, USA. Electronic address:

As part of an ongoing participatory action research project initiated following the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster to improve disaster policies and responses, this study examines social factors and processes that affect women's well-being in and after disasters. Using PhotoVoice methodology, the project has engaged women affected by the Great East Japan Disaster in participatory assessment and analysis over the last ten years. Begun in three sites in June 2011, the project is currently operating in seven locations: four in the coastal areas affected by the tsunami in the Iwate and Miyagi prefectures; two in Fukushima Prefecture; and one in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, where the largest number of out-of-prefecture evacuees reside. Read More

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Association between Psychosocial Factors and Oral Symptoms among Residents in Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 4;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

Oral health is closely related to subjective general health and systemic diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors related to oral symptoms and their worsening in relation to psychosocial factors after the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this study, 64,186 residents aged 15-101 years old, who experienced the earthquake on 11 March 2011, were surveyed regarding their oral symptoms; psychological factors, such as post-traumatic reactions and psychological distress; and social factors such as evacuation, work change, and loss of a close person; history of systemic diseases; and lifestyle. Read More

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Disruption of Child Environments and Its Psychological Consequences After the Fukushima Disaster: a Narrative Review Based on the Ecological Systems Model.

Curr Psychiatry Rep 2021 07 1;23(8):49. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Disaster Psychiatry, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: A high prevalence of clinically significant mental health problems was found in children affected by the Fukushima disaster in Japan. We reviewed the literature on child mental health to examine how disasters impacted children in Fukushima.

Recent Findings: Children's environments, such as family and peer systems, were disrupted by radiation concerns and evacuation. Read More

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Terrorism-Related Chemical, Biological, Radiation, and Nuclear Attacks: A Historical Global Comparison Influencing the Emergence of Counter-Terrorism Medicine.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Aug 30;36(4):399-402. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Director, BIDMC Disaster Medicine Fellowship; Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MassachusettsUSA.

Background: Terrorist attacks are growing in complexity, increasing concerns around the use of chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) agents. This has led to increasing interest in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) as a Disaster Medicine (DM) sub-specialty. This study aims to provide the epidemiology of CBRN use in terrorism, to detail specific agents used, and to develop training programs for responders. Read More

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Introgression dynamics from invasive pigs into wild boar following the March 2011 natural and anthropogenic disasters at Fukushima.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jun 30;288(1953):20210874. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Symbiotic Systems Science and Technology, Fukushima University, Fukushima City, Fukushima, Japan.

Natural and anthropogenic disasters have the capability to cause sudden extrinsic environmental changes and long-lasting perturbations including invasive species, species expansion and influence evolution as selective pressures force adaption. Such disasters occurred on 11 March 2011, in Fukushima, Japan, when an earthquake, tsunami and meltdown of a nuclear power plant all drastically reformed anthropogenic land use. Using genetic data, we demonstrate how wild boar () have persevered against these environmental changes, including an invasion of escaped domestic pigs (). Read More

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Evaluation of the emergency medical system in an area following lifting of the mandatory evacuation order after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: A retrospective cross-sectional observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26466

Department of Radiation Health Management, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine.

Abstract: Following the lifting of the evacuation order due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the medical demand and emergency medical system (EMS) in the area where the evacuation orders were lifted have not been well-investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the emergency transportation in such areas and compare the differences with areas that had minimal impact.Using the local EMS transport records, the characteristics of patients who were transferred by an EMS vehicle in Minamisoma City were collected between July 12, 2016 and July 31, 2018, and were compared between former evacuation zones and outside the evacuation zones in the city. Read More

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RIG-I, a novel DAMPs sensor for myoglobin activates NF-κB/caspase-3 signaling in CS-AKI model.

Mil Med Res 2021 06 21;8(1):37. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Disaster Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the main life-threatening complication of crush syndrome (CS), and myoglobin is accepted as the main pathogenic factor. The pattern recognition receptor retinoicacid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) has been reported to exert anti-viral effects function in the innate immune response. However, it is not clear whether RIG-I plays a role in CS-AKI. Read More

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A Decade of Terrorism in the United States and the Emergence of Counter-Terrorism Medicine.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Aug 17;36(4):380-384. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Director, BIDMC Disaster Medicine Fellowship; Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MassachusettsUSA.

Background: The United States (US) is ranked 22nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While the global number of deaths from terrorism over the past five years is down, the number of countries affected by terrorism is growing and the health care repercussions remain significant. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a necessary sub-specialty, and this study aims to provide the epidemiological context over the past decade supporting this need by detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter and setting the stage for the development of training programs utilizing these data. Read More

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Understanding the role of wrongdoing in technological disasters: Utilizing ecofeminist philosophy to examine commemoration.

Stud Hist Philos Sci 2021 Jun 1;87:158-167. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Emergency Management & Disaster Science University of North Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Stemming from human accident, error, or neglect, technological disasters, such as chemical spills, toxic waste contamination, nuclear radiation, transportation accidents, and factory explosions, are products of the modern industrial complex. Toxic contamination of the land can permanently displace people from their homes and erase places from the landscape. Commemoration provides an opportunity to remember the past and celebrate culturally significant place attachments while contributing to the recovery process by aiding in community healing after devastating events. Read More

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Lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident -from a research perspective.

Authors:
Satoshi Tashiro

Ann ICRP 2021 Jun 10:1466453211015394. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City 734-8553, Japan; e-mail:

Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there has been a focus on the impact of low-dose radiation exposure due to nuclear disasters and radiology on human bodies. In order to study very low levels of impact on the human body from low-dose radiation exposure, a system with high detection sensitivity is needed. Until now, the most well-established biological radiation effect detection system in the field of emergency radiation medicine has been chromosomal analysis. Read More

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Comparison of dynamic flow interaction methods between pipe system and overland in urban flood analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12079. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research Center on Flood & Drought Disaster Reduction of the Ministry of Water Resources, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Yuyuantan South Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Urban flooding can be predicted by using different modeling approaches. This study considered different methods of modeling the dynamic flow interactions between pipe systems and surface flooding in urban areas. These approaches can be divided into two categories based on surface runoff collection units. Read More

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OsPUB41, a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, acts as a negative regulator of drought stress response in rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Jul 7;106(4-5):463-477. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Key Message: OsPUB41 plays a negative role in drought stress response through the mediation of OsUBC25 and interacts with OsCLC6, suggesting a putative substrate. The notable expansion of Plant U-Box E3 ligases (PUB), compared with those in mammals, implies that PUB proteins have evolved to perform plant-specific functions. OsPUB41, a potential ortholog of CMPG1, was recently reported to regulate the cell wall degrading enzyme (CWDE)-induced innate immune response in rice. Read More

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