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Evaluating the results of long tubular bone distraction with an advanced rod monolateral external fixator for achondroplasia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14727. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pediatrician Surgery, NSC Astana Medical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

The work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed distraction system based on the rod external monolateral fixation mechanisms by comparing it with the classical technique of long tubular bones distraction based on the circular multi-axial system. The study included patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia. The experimental group consisted of 14 patients who underwent surgical limb lengthening by the rod monolateral external fixator with a distraction system developed by the authors. Read More

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Relative Traffic Tolerance of Warm-Season Grasses and Suitability for Grazing by Equine.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Aug 7;103:103244. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, The University of Maryland, College Park, MD. Electronic address:

Warm season wear-tolerant turfgrasses, such as those used on golf courses and athletic fields, may be valuable forages on equine operations because of their potential to remain viable during heavy hoof traffic. Crabgrass may also be suitable as it thrives in conditions where other grasses have limited success. The objective of this study was to assess the relative traffic tolerance and nutritional composition of five warm-season (WS) turfgrass cultivars of bermudagrass and zoysiagrass and one WS forage-type crabgrass. Read More

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Impaired generation of mature neurons due to extended expression of Tlx by repressing Sox2 transcriptional activity.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Xenotransplantation, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

As a master regulator of the dynamic process of adult neurogenesis, timely expression and regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Tailless (Tlx) is essential. However, there is no study yet to directly investigate the essential role of precise spatiotemporal expressed Tlx. Here, we generated a conditional gain of Tlx expression transgenic mouse model, which allowed the extended Tlx expression in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny by mating with a TlxCreER mouse line. Read More

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Icariin Promotes Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells In Vitro and in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Stem Cells Int 2021 23;2021:9974625. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for treating AD. Icariin (ICA) is the main active component in , a traditional Chinese herb. Read More

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Immunological Responses to Transgene-Modified Neural Stem Cells After Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:697203. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Guangdong, China.

Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for stroke. Researchers have frequently carried out genetic modification or gene editing of stem cells to improve survival or therapeutic function. However, NSC transplantation carries the risk of immune rejection, and genetic modification or gene-editing might further increase this risk. Read More

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Hydroxyapatite Nanorods Function as Safe and Effective Growth Factors Regulating Neural Differentiation and Neuron Development.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 11:e2100895. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, P. R. China.

Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the slow spontaneous differentiation of NSCs often hampers their application in neural repair. Although some biological growth factors accelerate the differentiation of NSCs, their high cost, short half-life, and unpredictable behavior in vivo, as well as the complexity of the operation, hinder their clinical use. Read More

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Sesamol-loaded stearic acid-chitosan nanomicelles mitigate the oxidative stress-stimulated apoptosis and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in motor neuronal of the spinal cord through NF-ĸB signaling pathway.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 29;186:23-32. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China. Electronic address:

As natural potential antioxidants suffer from low cellular uptake, the development of drug-loaded nanoplatforms may provide useful information about the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, sesamol (SM)-loaded stearic acid (SA) -chitosan (CS) nanomicelles were fabricated and well-characterized. Afterwards, the neuroprotective effects of [email protected] nanomicelles against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in NSC-34 cells was assessed by different cellular and molecular pathways. Read More

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Neural stem cell delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus in newly diagnosed malignant glioma: a first-in-human, phase 1, dose-escalation trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Malignant glioma is the most common and lethal primary brain tumour, with dismal survival rates and no effective treatment. We examined the safety and activity of NSC-CRAd-S-pk7, an engineered oncolytic adenovirus delivered by neural stem cells (NSCs), in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma.

Methods: This was a first-in-human, open-label, phase 1, dose-escalation trial done to determine the maximal tolerated dose of NSC-CRAd-S-pk7, following a 3 + 3 design. Read More

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Green Tea Polyphenol Catechins Inhibit Coronavirus Replication and Potentiate the Adaptive Immunity and Autophagy-Dependent Protective Mechanism to Improve Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Life Science, School of Life Science, College of Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan.

Effective antiviral therapeutics are urgently required to fight severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Because polyphenol catechins could confer antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial activities, we assessed the therapeutic effects of catechins against SARS-CoV replication in Vero E6 cells, the preventive effect of catechins on CD25/CD69/CD94/CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes-mediated adaptive immunity, and the protective effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. We found that catechins containing 32. Read More

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease as a Phenotype of Bronchiectasis for Long-Term Clinical Presentation and Treatment.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 5;57(6). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan.

Bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexist, although the causality is not currently clear. Currently, the clinical influence of COPD on patients with major bronchiectasis over time has not yet been investigated. This retrospective study recruited consecutive patients with bronchiectasis from outpatient clinic between January 2006 and December 2007. Read More

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DNA glycosylases for 8-oxoguanine repair in Staphylococcus aureus.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jun 18;105:103160. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

SB RAS Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, 8 Lavrentieva Ave., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia; Center for Advanced Biomedical Research, Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. Electronic address:

GO system is part of base excision DNA repair and is required for the correct repair of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), one of the most abundant oxidative lesions. Due to the ability of 8-oxoG to mispair with A, this base is highly mutagenic, and its repair requires two enzymes: Fpg that removes 8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:C pairs, and MutY that excises the normal A from 8-oxoG:A mispairs. Here we characterize the properties of putative GO system DNA glycosylases from Staphylococcus aureus, an important human opportunistic pathogen that causes hospital infections and presents a serious health concern due to quick spread of antibiotic-resistant strains. Read More

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TDP-43 Mutation Affects Stress Granule Dynamics in Differentiated NSC-34 Motoneuron-Like Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:611601. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43 are frequently reported in motor neurons of ALS patients. TDP-43 has also been shown to associate with stress granules (SGs), a complex of proteins and mRNAs formed in response to stress stimuli that temporarily sequester mRNA translation. Read More

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Combination of Melatonin and Small Molecules Improved Reprogramming Neural Cell Fates via Autophagy Activation.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Kamphaeng Phet 6 Road, Lak Si, Bangkok, 10210, Thailand.

Reprogramming cell fates towards mature cell types are a promising cell supply for treating degenerative diseases. Recently, transcription factors and some small molecules have turned into impressive modulating elements for reprogramming cell fates. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, has neuroprotective functions including neural stem cell (NSC) proliferative and differentiative modulation in both embryonic and adult brain. Read More

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Electroacupuncture promotes the recovery of rats with spinal cord injury by suppressing the Notch signaling pathway via the H19/EZH2 axis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):844

Second Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing event with an extremely poor prognosis. In our preliminary studies, electroacupuncture (EA) was found to promote the repair of SCI, which was closely related to the Notch signaling pathway. Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesized that EA protects against SCI by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway and sought to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Read More

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Helicobacter pylori regulates ILK to influence autophagy through Rac1 and RhoA signaling pathways in gastric epithelial cells.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 17;158:105054. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 264003, China. Electronic address:

The ability of Helicobacter pylori to manipulate host autophagy is an important pathogenic mechanism. We found an inverse correlation between the expression of ILK and the autophagy marker protein LC3B in H. pylori-positive human samples, H. Read More

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[Tumor necrosis factor α inhibits the migration of human oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(7):585-589

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515; Laboratory of Pediatrics, The Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the impact of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on the migration ability of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) derived from human adult neural stem cells (NSCs) for transplantation therapy. Methods Flow cytometry was performed to detect the expressions of platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 1 (ST8SIA1/A2B5) in human OPCs. OPCs were cultured and incubated with 0, 10, 100, 200 ng/mL TNF-α for 18 hours. Read More

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A randomized controlled trial of enhancing hypoxia-mediated right cardiac mechanics and reducing afterload after high intensity interval training in sedentary men.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 15;11(1):12564. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Heart Failure Center, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan.

Hypoxic exposure increases right ventricular (RV) afterload by triggering pulmonary hypertension, with consequent effects on the structure and function of the RV. Improved myocardial contractility is a critical circulatory adaptation to exercise training. However, the types of exercise that enhance right cardiac mechanics during hypoxic stress have not yet been identified. Read More

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Differential susceptibility of rat primary neurons and neural stem cells to PFOS and PFOA toxicity.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Oct 11;349:61-68. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 114 18, Sweden.

Per and polifluorinated substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous and persistent contaminants. Studies have indicated that fetuses and infants can be exposed to these chemicals in utero and through breastfeeding. Despite this, limited data about their effects on brain development are available. Read More

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October 2021

Intranasally Administered L-Myc-Immortalized Human Neural Stem Cells Migrate to Primary and Distal Sites of Damage after Cortical Impact and Enhance Spatial Learning.

Stem Cells Int 2021 22;2021:5549381. Epub 2021 May 22.

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

As the success of stem cell-based therapies is contingent on efficient cell delivery to damaged areas, neural stem cells (NSCs) have promising therapeutic potential because they inherently migrate to sites of central nervous system (CNS) damage. To explore the possibility of NSC-based therapy after traumatic brain injury (TBI), isoflurane-anesthetized adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) of moderate severity (2.8 mm deformation at 4 m/s) or sham injury (i. Read More

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Anti-IgE therapy inhibits chemotaxis, proliferation and transformation of circulating fibrocytes in patients with severe allergic asthma.

Respirology 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Pulmonary Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background And Objective: Circulating fibrocytes act as precursors of myofibroblasts, contribute to airway remodelling in chronic asthma and migrate to injured tissues by expressing CXCR4 and CCR7. Anti-IgE therapy improves severe allergic asthma (SAA) control and airway remodelling in T2-high SAA. The effects of anti-IgE therapy on fibrocyte activities were investigated in this study. Read More

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Development of next-generation tumor-homing induced neural stem cells to enhance treatment of metastatic cancers.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27588, USA.

Engineered tumor-homing neural stem cells (NSCs) have shown promise in treating cancer. Recently, we transdifferentiated skin fibroblasts into human-induced NSCs (hiNSC) as personalized NSC drug carriers. Here, using a SOX2 and spheroidal culture-based reprogramming strategy, we generated a new hiNSC variant, hiNeuroS, that was genetically distinct from fibroblasts and first-generation hiNSCs and had significantly enhanced tumor-homing and antitumor properties. Read More

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Hyperbaric oxygen suppressed tumor progression through the improvement of tumor hypoxia and induction of tumor apoptosis in A549-cell-transferred lung cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12033. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Tumor cells have long been recognized as a relative contraindication to hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) since HBOT might enhance progressive cancer growth. However, in an oxygen deficit condition, tumor cells are more progressive and can be metastatic. HBOT increasing in oxygen partial pressure may benefit tumor suppression. Read More

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Neural stem cell transplantation alleviates functional cognitive deficits in a mouse model of tauopathy.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):152-162

Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.

The mechanisms of the transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease remain poorly understood. In this study, NSCs were transplanted into the hippocampal CA1 region of the rTg (tau P301L) 4510 mouse model, a tauopathy model that is thought to reflect the tau pathology associated with Alzheimer's disease. The results revealed that NSC transplantation reduced the abnormal aggregation of tau, resulting in significant improvements in the short-term memory of the tauopathy model mice. Read More

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January 2022

Peptide-guided JC polyomavirus-like particles specifically target bladder cancer cells for gene therapy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 4;11(1):11889. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University and Clinical Laboratory, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., Taichung City, 40201, Taiwan.

The ultimate goal of gene delivery vectors is to establish specific and effective treatments for human diseases. We previously demonstrated that human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) virus-like particles (VLPs) can package and deliver exogenous DNA into susceptible cells for gene expression. For tissue-specific targeting in this study, JCPyV VLPs were conjugated with a specific peptide for bladder cancer (SPB) that specifically binds to bladder cancer cells. Read More

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Human-Induced Neural and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Combined with a Curcumin Nanoconjugate as a Spinal Cord Injury Treatment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Neuronal and Tissue Regeneration Laboratory, Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, 46012 Valencia, Spain.

We currently lack effective treatments for the devastating loss of neural function associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we evaluated a combination therapy comprising human neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-NSC), human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and a pH-responsive polyacetal-curcumin nanoconjugate (PA-C) that allows the sustained release of curcumin. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PA-C treatment protected iPSC-NSC from oxidative damage in vitro, while MSC co-culture prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in iPSC-NSC. Read More

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Expression of Reprogramming Factor OCT4 Ameliorates Myelination Deficits and Induces Striatal Neuroprotection in Huntington's Disease.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 10;12(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

White matter atrophy has been shown to precede the massive loss of striatal GABAergic neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). This study investigated the effects of expression of reprogramming factor octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) on neural stem cell (NSC) niche activation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and induction of cell fate specific to the microenvironment of HD. R6/2 mice randomly received adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9)-OCT4, AAV9-Null, or phosphate-buffered saline into both lateral ventricles at 4 weeks of age. Read More

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Simvastatin Enhances the Chondrogenesis But Not the Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Hyaluronan Microenvironment.

Biomedicines 2021 May 17;9(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80701, Taiwan.

Directing adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) toward chondrogenesis is critical for ADSC-based articular cartilage regeneration. Simvastatin (SIM) was reported to promote both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs by upregulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). We previously found that ADSC chondrogenesis is initiated and promoted in a hyaluronan (HA) microenvironment (HAM). Read More

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Neural Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Regulate Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through miR-9-Hes1 Axis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:601600. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Translational Neurodegeneration and Regenerative Therapy, Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Exosomes, a key element of the central nervous system microenvironment, mediate intercellular communication via horizontally transferring bioactive molecules. Emerging evidence has implicated exosomes in the regulation of neurogenesis. Recently, we compared the neurogenic potential of exosomes released from primary mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocyte-reprogrammed NSCs, and observed diverse neurogenic potential of those two exosome populations . Read More

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Splitting the Difference: Heterogeneous Soil Moisture Availability Affects Aboveground and Belowground Reserve and Mass Allocation in Trembling Aspen.

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:654159. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

When exploring the impact of resource availability on perennial plants, artificial treatments often apply conditions homogeneously across space and time, even though this rarely reflects conditions in natural systems. To investigate the effects of spatially heterogeneous soil moisture on morphological and physiological responses, trembling aspen () saplings were used in a split-pot experiment. Following the division of the root systems, saplings were established for a full year and then subjected to either heterogeneous (portion of the root system exposed to non-lethal drought) or homogeneous (whole root system exposed to non-lethal drought or well-watered) treatments. Read More

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Neural stem cells derived from human midbrain organoids as a stable source for treating Parkinson's disease: Midbrain organoid-NSCs (Og-NSC) as a stable source for PD treatment.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 28:102086. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Successful clinical translation of stem cell-based therapy largely relies on the scalable and reproducible preparation of donor cells with potent therapeutic capacities. In this study, midbrain organoids were yielded from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to prepare cells for Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) isolated from midbrain organoids (Og-NSCs) expanded stably and differentiated into midbrain-type dopamine(mDA) neurons, and an unprecedentedly high proportion expressed midbrain-specific factors, with relatively low cell line and batch-to-batch variations. Read More

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