27,038 results match your criteria novel locomotion


Different generalization of fast and slow visuomotor adaptation across locomotion and pointing tasks.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.

Sensorimotor adaptation can involve multiple learning processes with different time courses, and these processes may have different patterns of transfer. In this study, we tested how slow learning and fast learning transfer across tasks, and the specificity of transfer. We tested two natural goal-directed tasks: pointing and walking toward a visible target. Read More

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Simulating the evolution of bipedalism and the absence of static bipedal hexapods.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, Shanghai, 201210, CHINA.

In nature, very few animals locomote on two legs. Static bipedalism can be found in four limbed and five limbed animals like dogs, cats, birds, monkeys and kangaroos, but it cannot be seen in hexapods or other multi-limbed animals. In this paper, we present a simulation with a novel perspective on the evolution of static bipedalism, with a virtual creature evolving its body and controllers, and we apply an evolutionary algorithm to explore the locomotion transition from octapods to bipods. Read More

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Maneuverable gait selection for a novel fish-inspired robot using a CMAES-assisted workflow.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Polytechnic School, Arizona State University, Technology Center, 6075 Innovation Way West, Room 152, Mesa, Arizona, 85212, UNITED STATES.

Among underwater vehicles, fish-inspired designs are often selected for their efficient gaits; these designs, however, remain limited in their maneuverability, especially in confined spaces. This paper presents a new design for a fish-inspired robot with two degree-of-freedom pectoral fins and a single degree-of-freedom caudal fin. This robot has been designed to operate in open-channel canals in the presence of external disturbances. Read More

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A Novel Framework for Quantifying Accuracy and Precision of Event Detection Algorithms in FES-Cycling.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 3;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (Inria), Camin Team, 34090 Montpellier, France.

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique used in rehabilitation, allowing the recreation or facilitation of a movement or function, by electrically inducing the activation of targeted muscles. FES during cycling often uses activation patterns which are based on the crank angle of the pedals. Dynamic changes in their underlying predefined geometrical models (e. Read More

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Development of a Self-Powered Piezo-Resistive Smart Insole Equipped with Low-Power BLE Connectivity for Remote Gait Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

The evolution of low power electronics and the availability of new smart materials are opening new frontiers to develop wearable systems for medical applications, lifestyle monitoring, and performance detection. This paper presents the development and realization of a novel smart insole for monitoring the plantar pressure distribution and gait parameters; indeed, it includes a piezoresistive sensing matrix based on a Velostat layer for transducing applied pressure into an electric signal. At first, an accurate and complete characterization of Velostat-based pressure sensors is reported as a function of sizes, support material, and pressure trend. Read More

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Dynamically Tunable Friction via Subsurface Stiffness Modulation.

Front Robot AI 2021 1;8:691789. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Currently soft robots primarily rely on pneumatics and geometrical asymmetry to achieve locomotion, which limits their working range, versatility, and other untethered functionalities. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to achieve locomotion for soft robots through dynamically tunable friction to address these challenges, which is achieved by subsurface stiffness modulation (SSM) of a stimuli-responsive component within composite structures. To demonstrate this, we design and fabricate an elastomeric pad made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is embedded with a spiral channel filled with a low melting point alloy (LMPA). Read More

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Omnidirectional Walking Pattern Generator Combining Virtual Constraints and Preview Control for Humanoid Robots.

Front Robot AI 2021 1;8:660004. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Humanoids and Human Centered Mechatronics (HHCM), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Italy.

This paper presents a novel omnidirectional walking pattern generator for bipedal locomotion combining two structurally different approaches based on the virtual constraints and the preview control theories to generate a flexible gait that can be modified on-line. The proposed strategy synchronizes the displacement of the robot along the two planes of walking: the zero moment point based preview control is responsible for the lateral component of the gait, while the sagittal motion is generated by a more dynamical approach based on virtual constraints. The resulting algorithm is characterized by a low computational complexity and high flexibility, requisite for a successful deployment to humanoid robots operating in real world scenarios. Read More

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Adverse social experiences in adolescent rats result in persistent sex-dependent effects on alcohol-seeking behavior.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jul 17;45(7):1468-1478. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Institute of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that women with prior exposure to adverse childhood experiences are more susceptible to heavy drinking and other health-related behaviors. Yet, preclinical studies investigating sex-dependent effects of adolescent adverse social experiences (ASEs) on later alcohol-seeking behavior are lacking. This is mainly due to the unavailability of valid animal models and a shortage of studies that compare effects in males and females. Read More

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Topological Data Analysis of Locomotion and Behavior.

Front Artif Intell 2021 29;4:668395. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

We apply topological data analysis to the behavior of , a widely studied model organism in biology. In particular, we use topology to produce a quantitative summary of complex behavior which may be applied to high-throughput data. Our methods allow us to distinguish and classify videos from various environmental conditions and we analyze the trade-off between accuracy and interpretability. Read More

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Multi-Level Evolution for Robotic Design.

Front Robot AI 2021 29;8:684304. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Multi-level evolution (MLE) is a novel robotic design paradigm which decomposes the design problem into layered sub-tasks that involve concurrent search for appropriate materials, component geometry and overall morphology. This has a number of advantages, mainly in terms of quality and scalability. In this paper, we present a hierarchical approach to robotic design based on the MLE architecture. Read More

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Efficient bipedal locomotion on rough terrain via compliant ankle actuation with energy regulation.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Computer Science, Middle East Technical University Faculty of Engineering, Balgat 06531 Ankara, Ankara, Ankara, 06800, TURKEY.

Legged locomotion enables robotic platforms to traverse on rough terrain, which is quite challenging for other locomotion types, such as in wheeled and tracked systems. However, this benefit - moving robustly on rough terrain - comes with an inherent drawback due to the higher cost of transport in legged robots. The ultimate need for energy efficiency motivated the utilization of passive dynamics in legged locomotion. Read More

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Novel insights on the role of spexin as a biomarker of obesity and related cardiometabolic disease.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Spexin (SPX) is a 14-amino acid neuropeptide, discovered recently using bioinformatic techniques. It is encoded by the Ch12:orf39 gene that is widely expressed in different body tissues/organs across species, and secreted into systemic circulation. Recent reports have highlighted a potentially important regulatory role of SPX in obesity and related comorbidities. Read More

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Theoretical and experimental analyses of a legged piezoelectric bending actuator with shoe soles made of polyimide composites.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):055002

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Precision and Micro-Manufacturing Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China.

Friction materials form a critical component of piezoelectric actuators, and wear of the material affects output and service life of the actuator. This paper examines the influence of polyimide (PI) composites when used as a friction material on the performance of a legged piezoelectric bending actuator. We design and manufacture demountable shoe soles, made of a novel PI-based friction material, for an actuator. Read More

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Ivermectin-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube enhanced the locomotor activity and neuropathic pain by modulating M1/M2 macrophage and decrease oxidative stress in rat model of spinal cord injury.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 14;7(6):e07311. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Tuebingen, Germany.

Since the inflammation and oxidative stress is the main pathophysiological pathway of neural damage in spinal cord injury (SCI), we tried to evaluate the role of ivermectin (IVM) combined with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in the treatment settings of SCI and its underlying mechanism. Wistar rats with T9 vertebra laminectomy in five groups of: sham-operated, vehicle, IVM (0.1 mg/kg), IVM-MWCNT (0. Read More

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Myoelectric control of robotic lower limb prostheses: a review of electromyography interfaces, control paradigms, challenges and future directions.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

UNC/NCSU Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, EBIII 1412, Raleigh, 27695-7115, UNITED STATES.

Advanced robotic lower limb prostheses are mainly controlled autonomously. Although the existing control can assist cyclic motion in locomotion of amputee users, the function of these modern devices is still limited due to the lack of neuromuscular control (i.e. Read More

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Control of exploration, motor coordination and amphetamine sensitization by cannabinoid CB receptors expressed in medium spiny neurons.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Activation of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB R) modulates multiple behaviours, including exploration, motor coordination and response to psychostimulants. It is known that CB R expressed by either excitatory or inhibitory neurons mediates different behavioural responses to CB R activation, yet the involvement of CB R expressed by medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the neuronal subpopulation that expresses the highest level of CB R in the CNS, remains unknown. We report a new genetically modified mouse line that expresses functional CB R in MSN on a CB R knockout (KO) background (CB R mice). Read More

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PEAβ Triggers Cognitive Decline and Amyloid Burden in a Novel Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 30;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

Understanding the physiopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has improved substantially based on studies of mouse models mimicking at least one aspect of the disease. Many transgenic lines have been established, leading to amyloidosis but lacking neurodegeneration. The aim of the current study was to generate a novel mouse model that develops neuritic plaques containing the aggressive pyroglutamate modified amyloid-β (pEAβ) species in the brain. Read More

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A Novel Lightweight Wearable Soft Exosuit for Reducing the Metabolic Rate and Muscle Fatigue.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Shenzhen Institute of Adanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Wearable robotic devices have been proved to considerably reduce the energy expenditure of human walking. It is not only suitable for healthy people, but also for some patients who require rehabilitation exercises. However, in many cases, the weight of soft exosuits are relatively large, which makes it difficult for the assistant effect of the system to offset the metabolic consumption caused by the extra weight, and the heavy weight will make people uncomfortable. Read More

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Comparison of Laboratory and Daily-Life Gait Speed Assessment during ON and OFF States in Parkinson's Disease.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;21(12). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Accurate assessment of Parkinson's disease (PD) ON and OFF states in the usual environment is essential for tailoring optimal treatments. Wearables facilitate measurements of gait in novel and unsupervised environments; however, differences between unsupervised and in-laboratory measures have been reported in PD. We aimed to investigate whether unsupervised gait speed discriminates medication states and which supervised tests most accurately represent home performance. Read More

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Hydrophobic Tagging-Mediated Degradation of Transcription Coactivator SRC-1.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 15;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry and Division of Advanced Material Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Korea.

Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is a transcription coactivator playing a pivotal role in mediating a wide range of signaling pathways by interacting with related transcription factors and nuclear receptors. Aberrantly elevated SRC-1 activity is associated with cancer metastasis and progression, and therefore, suppression of SRC-1 is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, we developed a novel SRC-1 degrader for targeted degradation of cellular SRC-1. Read More

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Real-Time Human Recognition at Night via Integrated Face and Gait Recognition Technologies.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 24;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Informatics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Human recognition technology is a task that determines the people existing in images with the purpose of identifying them. However, automatic human recognition at night is still a challenge because of its need to align requirements with a high accuracy rate and speed. This article aims to design a novel approach that applies integrated face and gait analyses to enhance the performance of real-time human recognition in TIR images at night under various walking conditions. Read More

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Design, Sustainable Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Novel Dual α2A/5-HT7 Receptor Antagonist with Antidepressant-Like Properties.

Molecules 2021 Jun 23;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 30-688 Kraków, Poland.

The complex pathophysiology of depression, together with the limits of currently available antidepressants, has resulted in the continuous quest for alternative therapeutic strategies. Numerous findings suggest that pharmacological blockade of α-adrenoceptor might be beneficial for the treatment of depressive symptoms by increasing both norepinephrine and serotonin levels in certain brain areas. Moreover, the antidepressant properties of 5-HT receptor antagonists have been widely demonstrated in a large set of animal models. Read More

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User Local Coordinate-Based Accompanying Robot for Human Natural Movement of Daily Life.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;21(11). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Physical Therapy and Assistive Technology, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan.

Considering the trend of aging societies, accompanying technology can help frail, elderly individuals participate in daily activities. The ideal accompanying robot should accompany the user in a proper position according to the activity scenarios and context; the prerequisite is that the accompanying robot should quickly move to a designated position and closely maintain it regardless of the direction in which the user moves. This paper proposes a user local coordinate-based strategy to satisfy this need. Read More

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Adaptive Accumulation of Plantar Pressure for Ambulatory Activity Recognition and Pedestrian Identification.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 2;21(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Electrical Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.

In this paper, we propose a novel method for ambulatory activity recognition and pedestrian identification based on temporally adaptive weighting accumulation-based features extracted from categorical plantar pressure. The method relies on three pressure-related features, which are calculated by accumulating the pressure of the standing foot in each step over three different temporal weighting forms. In addition, we consider a feature reflecting the pressure variation. Read More

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Design and experimental evaluation of the novel undulatory propulsors for biomimetic underwater robots.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 26;16(5). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Southwest Petroleum University, No.8 Xindu Avenue, Chengdu, 610500, People's Republic of China.

Inspired by wide and elongated fins of aquatic species, robotic undulatory propulsors are developed to achieve advanced maneuverability. Through biological observation, undulatory fins are typically comprised of more than 100 fin rays to propagate continuous and diverse propulsive waves for agile locomotion. Due to practical engineering restrictions, most robotic undulatory propulsors are characterized by limit number of long fin rays which intersect flexible fin surfaces as backbones and partition them into multiple membrane-like segments. Read More

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Vapor exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) slows locomotion of the Maine lobster (Homarus americanus).

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Aug 29;207:173222. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute; La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Rationale: Despite a long history of use in synaptic physiology, the lobster has been a neglected model for behavioral pharmacology. A restaurateur proposed that exposing lobster to cannabis smoke reduces anxiety and pain during the cooking process. It is unknown if lobster gill respiration in air would result in significant Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) uptake and whether this would have any detectable behavioral effects. Read More

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Identification of novel target molecules of -menthol.

Authors:
Toyoshi Umezu

Heliyon 2021 Jun 17;7(6):e07329. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Health and Environmental Risk Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan.

The present study used a binding assay to identify novel target biomolecules of -menthol ([-]-menthol) that promote mouse ambulation. Among 88 different ligands to specific biomolecules examined, 0.1 mM -menthol inhibited the binding of 13 ligands with relatively high inhibition rates. Read More

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2021 Frank Stinchfield Award: A novel cemented hip hemiarthroplasty infection model with real-time in vivo imaging in rats : an animal study.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7 Supple B):9-16

The Ottawa Hospital Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ottawa, Canada.

Aims: The aims of this study were to develop an in vivo model of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in cemented hip hemiarthroplasty, and to monitor infection and biofilm formation in real-time.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty via the posterior approach with pre- and postoperative gait assessments. Infection with was monitored with in vivo photoluminescent imaging in real-time. Read More

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Advancements in data analysis and visualisation techniques to support multiple single-subject analyses: an assessment of movement coordination and coordination variability.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 Jun;280:146-149

Centre for Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Technologies, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, United Kingdom.

Vector coding is a data analysis technique that quantifies inter-segmental coordination and coordination variability of human movement. The usual reporting of vector coding time-series data can be difficult to interpret when multiple trials are superimposed on the same figure. This study describes and presents novel data visualisations for displaying data from vector coding that supports multiple single- subject analyses. Read More

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Recumbent cycling to improve outcomes in people with hip fracture: a feasibility randomized trial.

BMC Geriatr 2021 06 29;21(1):394. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Physiotherapy Department, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia.

Background: Early mobilization after surgery is a key recommendation for people with hip fracture, however this is achieved by only 50% of people. Recumbent bike riding has been used in other populations with limited mobility and has potential to allow early exercise in people post hip fracture. The primary aim of this pilot trial was to demonstrate the feasibility of a trial protocol designed to determine the effect of early post-operative cycling in bed on outcomes in people with hip fracture. Read More

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