6,903 results match your criteria norovirus


Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids of Infectious Norovirus from Vomit Samples.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Aug;27(8):2212-2214

A typical clinical symptom of human norovirus infection is projectile vomiting. Although norovirus RNA and viral particles have been detected in vomitus, infectivity has not yet been reported. We detected replication-competent norovirus in 25% of vomit samples with a 13-fold to 714-fold increase in genomic equivalents, confirming infectious norovirus. Read More

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Assessing the Efficacy of Small Molecule Inhibitors in aMouse Model of Persistent Norovirus Infection.

Bio Protoc 2018 May 5;8(9):e2831. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Human norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, resulting in estimated mortality of ~210,000 each year, of whom most are children under the age of five. However, norovirus can infect people of all age groups. There is a risk of prolonged infection in children, the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. Read More

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Misinformation making a disease outbreak worse: outcomes compared for influenza, monkeypox, and norovirus.

Simulation 2020 Apr;96(4):365-374

Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, UK.

Health misinformation can exacerbate infectious disease outbreaks. Especially pernicious advice could be classified as "fake news": manufactured with no respect for accuracy and often integrated with emotive or conspiracy-framed narratives. We built an agent-based model that simulated separate but linked circulating contagious disease and sharing of health advice (classified as useful or harmful). Read More

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The prevalence and levels of enteric viruses in groundwater of private wells in rural Alberta, Canada.

Water Res 2021 Jul 10;202:117425. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Alberta Precision Laboratories, 2B4.58 Walter Mackenzie Centre, 8440 - 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2J2, Canada; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, TRW 2D01 Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6, Canada.

The prevalence and levels of enteric viruses in untreated groundwater of private wells used for drinking and/or agricultural practices in rural Alberta were studied using the qPCR panel assay, integrated cell culture with qPCR and cell culture in the volume of 500 liters per sample through serial sampling. Seven viruses were assessed including adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, reovirus and JC virus. Five viruses were detected with an overall positive detection rate of 6. Read More

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Predicted Norovirus Resurgence in 2021-2022 Due to the Relaxation of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions Associated with COVID-19 Restrictions in England: A Mathematical Modelling Study.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Background: To reduce the coronavirus disease burden in England, along with many other countries, the Government implemented a package of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) that have also impacted other transmissible infectious diseases such as norovirus. It is unclear what future norovirus disease incidence is likely to look like upon lifting these restrictions.

Methods: Here we use a mathematical model of norovirus fitted to community incidence data in England to project forward expected incidence based on contact surveys that have been collected throughout 2020-2021. Read More

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Imported human norovirus in travelers, Shanghai port, China 2018: An epidemiological and whole genome sequencing study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Jul 13;43:102140. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Shanghai International Travel Healthcare Center, Shanghai Customs District PR China, Shanghai, 200335, China. Electronic address:

Background: Global mobility of the population has accelerated spread of the Human Norovirus (HuNoV), with long-distance travel in enclosed spaces increasing the opportunity for viral outbreaks. However, surveillance of HuNoV transmission is still lacking, especially in cross-border transportation.

Method: From 533 self-reported patients, 83 swab samples (15. Read More

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Application of Virome Capture Sequencing in Shellfish Sold at Retail Level in Singapore.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

During the period from late 2019 to early 2020, we performed a foodborne virus detection from shellfish collected in Singapore at retail level. Multiple human enteric viruses were included as our targets including human noroviruses (NoVs) GI and GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and Rotavirus (RoV). Twenty-three out of the 60 shellfish samples (38. Read More

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A prospective observational study describing severity of acquired diarrhea among U.S. military and Western travelers participating in the Global Travelers' Diarrhea Study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Jul 12:102139. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most common illnesses affecting modern-day travelers, including military personnel. Previous work has shown that afflicted travelers may alter their itineraries and be confined to bed rest due to symptoms, and military personnel may become incapable of completing operational requirements. Examination of signs, symptoms, and severity of diarrheagenic pathogens can inform clinical diagnosis and prioritization of future surveillance and research activities. Read More

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Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Norovirus GII.1[Pg] Strain Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis, Determined Using Long-Read Sequencing.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 15;10(28):e0040121. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Molecular Biology, Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, USA.

High-throughput sequencing is one of the approaches used for the detection of foodborne pathogens such as noroviruses. Long-read sequencing has advantages over short-read sequencing in speed, read length, and lower fragmentation bias, which makes it a potential powerful tool for the fast detection and identification of viruses. Using Nanopore sequencing technology, we were able to successfully recover a nearly complete genome sequence of a human norovirus GII. Read More

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Broadly cross-reactive human antibodies that inhibit genogroup I and II noroviruses.

Nat Commun 2021 07 14;12(1):4320. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

The rational development of norovirus vaccine candidates requires a deep understanding of the antigenic diversity and mechanisms of neutralization of the virus. Here, we isolate and characterize a panel of broadly cross-reactive naturally occurring human monoclonal IgMs, IgAs and IgGs reactive with human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup I or II (GI or GII). We note three binding patterns and identify monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize at least one GI or GII HuNoV strain when using a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assay. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of norovirus among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Tianjin, China, 2018-2020.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 14;21(1):682. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Digestion, Tianjin Children's Hospital (Children's Hospital of Tianjin University), No.238 Longyan Road, Beichen District, Tianjin, 300134, China.

Background: Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children worldwide. Epidemiological analysis with respect to the virus strains is limited in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, patterns, and molecular characteristics of NoV infection among children with AGE in China. Read More

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Macrophage inflammatory state influences susceptibility to lysosomal damage.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Macrophages possess mechanisms for reinforcing the integrity of their endolysosomes against damage. This property, termed inducible renitence, was previously observed in murine macrophages stimulated with LPS, peptidoglycan, IFNγ, or TNFα, which suggested roles for renitence in macrophage resistance to infection by membrane-damaging pathogens. This study analyzed additional inducers of macrophage differentiation for their ability to increase resistance to lysosomal damage by membrane-damaging particles. Read More

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Genome-wide analyses of human noroviruses provide insights on evolutionary dynamics and evidence of coexisting viral populations evolving under recombination constraints.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 13;17(7):e1009744. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Viral Products, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Over 30 different genotypes, mostly from genogroup I (GI) and II (GII), have been shown to infect humans. Despite three decades of genome sequencing, our understanding of the role of genomic diversification across continents and time is incomplete. Read More

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Corrigendum to: The Clinical and Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis in the United States.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Public Health Informatics, Computational, and Operations Research, City University of New York, New York City, New York, USA.

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Does high adherence to contact precautions lead to low in-hospital transmission of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in the endemic setting?

J Hosp Infect 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases & Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Conflicting results have been published on the impact of contact precautions (CP) on reduction of transmission of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDROs) in the endemic setting. Ambiguous definitions coupled with low adherence partly explain these differences.

Aim: We prospectively monitored the level of adherence to CP and aimed to relate it to in-hospital transmission of MDROs. Read More

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Evolution of the interactions between GII.4 noroviruses and histo-blood group antigens: Insights from experimental and computational studies.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 12;17(7):e1009745. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

The Sixth Laboratory, National Vaccine and Serum Institute, Beijing, China.

Norovirus (NoV) is the major pathogen causing the outbreaks of the viral gastroenteritis across the world. Among the various genotypes of NoV, GII.4 is the most predominant over the past decades. Read More

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Gut Microbiota in Mexican Children With Acute Diarrhea: An Observational Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Aug;40(8):704-709

From the Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Department, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría.

Background: Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. This study aimed to identify the main pathogens associated with acute diarrhea and to describe changes in gut microbiota in Mexican children.

Methods: This single-center observational study included 30 children (6 months to 5 years old) with acute diarrhea who were referred to the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría of Mexico City and 15 healthy volunteers (control group). Read More

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Global projections of temperature-attributable mortality due to enteric infections: a modelling study.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 Jul;5(7):e436-e445

Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Mortality due to enteric infections is projected to increase because of global warming; however, the different temperature sensitivities of major enteric pathogens have not yet been considered in projections on a global scale. We aimed to project global temperature-attributable enteric infection mortality under various future scenarios of sociodemographic development and climate change.

Methods: In this modelling study, we generated global projections in two stages. Read More

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Development and application of an adsorption-direct extraction method for recovering nucleic acids of enteric viruses and host-specific Bacteroidales from groundwater.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jul 7:AEM0071021. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Wako, Japan.

In this study, the adsorption-elution method was modified to concentrate viral particles in water samples and investigate the contamination of groundwater with norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII), rotavirus A (RVA), and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). The mean recovery rate of a murine norovirus strain, which was inoculated into groundwater samples collected from a deep well, was the highest (39%) when the viral RNA was directly extracted from the membrane instead of eluting the adsorbed viral particles. This adsorption-direct extraction method was applied to groundwater samples (20 L) collected from deep wells used for public drinking water supply (N = 22) and private wells (N = 9). Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Immunochromatographic Tests for the Detection of Norovirus in Stool Specimens: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jul 7:e0046721. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups and constitute a major health and economic burden worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for the detection of norovirus in stool specimens, which has not been performed previously. In this systematic review and meta-analysis (registered on PROSPERO, CRD42020186911), we searched Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for all studies published up to 16 May 2020. Read More

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What's new in travelers' diarrhea: Updates on epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment, and long-term consequences.

J Travel Med 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

University of Nevada, Reno-School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA.

Background: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common clinical syndrome affecting travelers. This narrative review summarizes key discoveries reported in the last two years related to TD and suggests areas for future research.

Methods: A PubMed literature search was conducted for novel data in TD research published between 12/01/2018 and 12/01/2020. Read More

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Gut microbiota signature of pathogen-dependent dysbiosis in viral gastroenteritis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 6;11(1):13945. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks, Genomic Diversity and Evolution: An Overview.

Authors:
M K Khan M M Alam

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Jul;30(3):863-873

Dr Mohammad Kamruzzaman Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh 2206, Bangladesh; Doctoral students at the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Norovirus, often called winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups all over the world. It was discovered in 1972; belong to the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae. Based on genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis, the family Caliciviridae is divided into four genera- Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus and Lagovirus. Read More

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Associations of infection control measures and norovirus outbreak outcomes in healthcare settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Background: Although most norovirus outbreaks in high-income countries occur in healthcare facilities, information on associations between control measures and outbreak outcomes in these settings are lacking.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of published papers to assess associations between norovirus outbreak control measures and outcomes in hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs), globally. Using regression analyses stratified by setting (hospital/LTCF), we compared durations, attack rates and case counts for outbreaks in which control measures were reportedly implemented to those in which they were not. Read More

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Comparative study of the geographical spread of genogroup II porcine norovirus and human norovirus.

J Microbiol 2021 Jul 1;59(7):644-650. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Livestock pigs and porcine norovirus could be candidate tools for future studies on the geographic isolation of norovirus. In this study, we provide the first evidence for geographic isolation of the host as a determinant of the distribution of subgenotypes of the porcine norovirus genogroup II (GII) genotype 11. Environmental water samples were collected from peri-urban streams and estuaries in South Korea between 2014 and 2020. Read More

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Norovirus VPg Binds RNA through a Conserved N-Terminal K/R Basic Patch.

Viruses 2021 Jun 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

The viral protein genome-linked (VPg) of noroviruses is a multi-functional protein that participates in essential roles during the viral replication cycle. Predictive analyses indicate that murine norovirus (MNV) VPg contains a disordered N-terminal region with RNA binding potential. VPg proteins were expressed with an N-terminal spidroin fusion protein in insect cells and the interaction with RNA investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) against a series of RNA probes (pentaprobes) representing all possible five nucleotide combinations. Read More

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Protein Secondary Structure Affects Glycan Clustering in Native Mass Spectrometry.

Life (Basel) 2021 Jun 11;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology (HPI), 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Infection by the humannoroviruses (hNoV), for the vast majority of strains, requires attachment of the viral capsid to histo blood group antigens (HBGAs). The HBGA-binding pocket is formed by dimers of the protruding domain (P dimers) of the capsid protein VP1. Several studies have focused on HBGA binding to P dimers, reporting binding affinities and stoichiometries. Read More

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New Variants of Squash Mosaic Viruses Detected in Human Fecal Samples.

Microorganisms 2021 Jun 22;9(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias and Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, SP, Brazil.

Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) is a phytovirus that infects great diversity of plants worldwide. In Brazil, the SqMV has been identified in the states of Ceará, Maranhão, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, and Tocantins. The presence of non-pathogenic viruses in animals, such as phytoviruses, may not be completely risk-free. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of Public RNA-Sequencing Data from Human Intestinal Enteroid (HIEs) Infected with Enteric RNA Viruses Identifies Universal and Virus-Specific Epithelial Responses.

Viruses 2021 Jun 3;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has a significant disease burden on society. Noroviruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses are important viral causes of AGE but are relatively understudied enteric pathogens. Recent developments in novel biomimetic human models of enteric disease are opening new possibilities for studying human-specific host-microbe interactions. Read More

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