11,879 results match your criteria normal testicular

Multiple lesions contribute to infertility in males lacking autoimmune regulator (AIRE).

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, College of Natural Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Electronic address:

Male factors, including those of autoimmune origin, contribute to approximately 50% of infertility cases in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying autoimmune male infertility are poorly understood. Deficiency in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) impairs central immune tolerance because of diminished expression of self-antigens in the thymus. Read More

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HAART exacerbates testicular damage and impaired spermatogenesis in anti-Koch-treated rats via dysregulation of lactate transport and glutathione content.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Jun 9;103:96-107. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Reproductive Biology and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Oasis of Grace Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective anti-retroviral cocktail. Similarly, anti-Koch is highly potent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, these drugs have been shown to impair male fertility. Read More

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Testicular shear wave elastography in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic individuals: a prospective case-control study.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Andrology and Urogynecology Clinic, Santa Maria Terni Hospital, University of Perugia, Viale Tristano di Jannuccio 1 Terni, Perugia, Italy.

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the testicular stiffness by ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) both in men with oligo-astheno-teratozospermia (OAT) and in control group. The secondary objective was to identify a possible correlation between semen quality with testicular stiffness.

Methods: This was a prospective case-control study. Read More

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Integrating miRNA and mRNA Profiling to Assess the Potential miRNA-mRNA Modules Linked With Testicular Immune Homeostasis in Sheep.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:647153. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Beyond its well-known role in spermatogenesis and androgen production, mammalian testes are increasingly recognized as an immune-privileged organ for protecting autoantigenic germ cells, especially meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells, from systemic immune responses. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation in mammals, including sheep, are far from known. In this study, we searched for the genes associated with testicular immune privilege and assessed their possible modulating mechanisms by analyzing systematic profiling of mRNAs and miRNAs on testicular tissues derived from prepubertal and postpubertal Tibetan sheep acquired by RNA sequencing. Read More

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Genetic and epigenetic modifications of F1 offspring's sperm cells following in utero and lactational combined exposure to nicotine and ethanol.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12311. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

It is well established that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy and lactation affects the intrauterine programming of F1 offspring. However, despite the co-use of alcohol and nicotine is a common habit, the effects of exposure to both substances on the reproductive system of F1 male offspring and the underlying mechanisms of developmental programming have not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine pre- and postnatal concurrent exposure to these substances on genetic and epigenetic alterations of sperm cells as well as testis properties of F1 offspring compared with exposure to each substance alone. Read More

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Can the Body Mass Index Predict Varicocele Recurrence Post-Intervention?

Cureus 2021 May 7;13(5):e14892. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Ministry of National Guard - Health Affairs, Riyadh, SAU.

Purpose In this study, we investigated the association between the body mass index (BMI) and varicocele recurrence post-intervention in our local Saudi population. We also explored the association between recurrence and other predictors such as age, laterality, indication for surgery, type of intervention, clinical grade, testicular delivery, and method of ligation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including all patients who had microscopic varicocelectomy surgery or radiographic embolization for varicoceles over a five-year period. Read More

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Testicular germ cell-specific lncRNA, , is required for complete expression of Y chromosome genes and a normal offspring sex ratio.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.

Heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) regulates the transcription of the male-specific region of the mouse Y chromosome long arm (MSYq) multicopy genes only in testes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue specificity remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the testicular germ cell-specific long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), , displays a characteristic spatiotemporal expression pattern in the nuclei of round and elongating spermatids. -knockout male mice produced sperm with abnormal head morphology and exhibited reduced fertility accompanied by a female-biased sex ratio in offspring. Read More

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Revised manuscript R2, clean version are serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D reduced following orchiectomy in testicular cancer patients?

Basic Clin Androl 2021 Jun 10;31(1):14. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Urology, Testis Cancer Unit, Asklepios Klinik Altona, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 1, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The testis represents one place where the progenitor of vitamin D is converted into its active form. Loss of one testis was suggested to result in reduced vitamin D serum levels. Vitamin D deficiency would represent a significant health problem in the long-term course of patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) since most of them survive. Read More

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Potentiating response of D- Ribose-L-Cysteine on Sodium arsenateinduced hormonal imbalance, spermatogenesis impairments and histomorphometric alterations in adult male Wistar rat.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Human Anatomy Department, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State.

Objective: Reproductive toxicity is an important health challenge, mostly associated with exposure to several environmental toxicants. Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic compound naturally present in the environment. This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary supplements of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine against sodium arsenate-induced testicular toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Read More

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Methylation gene is associated with overall survival in patients with seminoma.

Oncol Rep 2021 05 9;45(5). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Affiliated Hospital of Putian University, Putian, Fujian 351100, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to explore and verify the potential mechanism of seminoma progression. Data on 132 RNA‑seq and 156 methylation sites from stage II/III and I seminoma specimens were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. An initial filter of |fold‑change| >2 and false discovery rate <0. Read More

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Diagnostic and prognostic impact of Cytokeratin 19 expression analysis in human tumors: A tissue microarray study of 13,172 tumors.

Hum Pathol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

To evaluate cytokeratin 19 expression in normal and cancerous tissues, 15,977 samples from 122 tumor types and 608 samples of 76 normal tissue types were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In normal tissues, CK19 expression occurred in epithelial cells of most glandular organs but was strictly limited to the basal cell layer of non-keratinizing squamous epithelium and absent in the skin. CK19 expression in ≥90% of cases was seen in 34% of the tumor entities including the adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (99. Read More

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Dysregulation of Notch-FGF signaling axis in germ cells results in cystic dilation of the rete testis in mice.

J Cell Commun Signal 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of OB/GYN and Women's Health, MDR Building, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 511 South Floyd Street, Louisville, KY, 40292, USA.

Numb (Nb) and Numb-like (Nbl) are functionally redundant adaptor proteins that critically regulate cell fate and morphogenesis in a variety of organs. We selectively deleted Nb and Nbl in testicular germ cells by breeding Nb/Nbl floxed mice with a transgenic mouse line Tex101-Cre. The mutant mice developed unilateral or bilateral cystic dilation in the rete testis (RT). Read More

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A Family With Novel X-Linked Recessive Homozygous Mutation in (c.628_629 del, p.1210fs∗) in Kallmann Syndrome Associated Unilateral Ptosis: Case Report and Literature Review.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2021 May-Jun;7(3):216-219. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Student Research Committee, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Alborz, Iran.

Objective: Kallmann syndrome (KS) may be accompanied by anosmia or hyposmia and midline defects. We present an overweight 16-year-old boy with a lack of puberty, anosmia, congenital right eye ptosis, and normal intellectual function.

Methods: Testicular ultrasonography was performed. Read More

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February 2021

E-Cadherin expression in human tumors: a tissue microarray study on 10,851 tumors.

Biomark Res 2021 Jun 5;9(1):44. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The E-Cadherin gene (CDH1, Cadherin 1), located at 16q22.1 encodes for a calcium-dependent membranous glycoprotein with an important role in cellular adhesion and polarity maintenance.

Methods: To systematically determine E-Cadherin protein expression in normal and cancerous tissues, 14,637 tumor samples from 112 different tumor types and subtypes as well as 608 samples of 76 different normal tissue types were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format. Read More

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Historical trends for the standards in scrotal ultrasonography: What was, what is and what will be normal.

Andrology 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Endocrinology Unit, Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Ultrasonography (US) is the gold standard imaging method for scrotal investigation. Colour-Doppler US (CDUS), contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and sonoelastography (SE) allow sonographers to assess size, echotexture, vascular features and stiffness of the scrotal organs and abnormalities. Scrotal US has been used to investigate male reproductive health, scrotal pain, masses and trauma. Read More

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Therapeutic Uses of Bacterial Subunit Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 05 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada.

The B subunit pentamer verotoxin (VT aka Shiga toxin-Stx) binding to its cellular glycosphingolipid (GSL) receptor, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb) mediates internalization and the subsequent receptor mediated retrograde intracellular traffic of the AB5 subunit holotoxin to the endoplasmic reticulum. Subunit separation and cytosolic A subunit transit via the ER retrotranslocon as a misfolded protein mimic, then inhibits protein synthesis to kill cells, which can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome clinically. This represents one of the most studied systems of prokaryotic hijacking of eukaryotic biology. Read More

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Interactive Effects of Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors on Testicular Function among Healthy Adult Men: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 5;18(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Center for Healthcare Industry Innovation, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

Recently, the role of lifestyle factors in testicular function has developed into a growing area of interest. Based on cross-sectional data on 3283 Taiwanese men, we investigated whether interactive effects of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were associated with testicular function. The men were recruited from a private screening institute between 2009 and 2015. Read More

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Riboflavin recovery of spermatogenic dysfunction via a dual inhibition of oxidative changes and regulation of the PINK1-mediated pathway in arsenic-injured rat model.

A Olfati E Tvrda

Physiol Res 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Young Researchers and Elites Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) poisoning and associated potential lesions are of a global concern. Inversely, riboflavin (vitamin B2, VB2) as a component of flavoproteins could play a vital role in the spermatogenic enzymatic reactions. Thus, this research aimed to explore potential beneficial roles of VB2 during As(2)O(3)-injured-toxicity. Read More

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Responses and coping methods of different testicular cell types to heat stress: overview and perspectives.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jun;41(6)

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shaanxi Centre of Stem Cells Engineering and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P.R. China.

To facilitate temperature adjustments, the testicles are located outside the body cavity. In most mammals, the temperature of the testes is lower than the body temperature to ensure the normal progression of spermatogenesis. Rising temperatures affect spermatogenesis and eventually lead to a decline in male fertility or even infertility. Read More

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SEPTIN12 c.474 G > A polymorphism as a risk factor in teratozoospermic patients.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Molecular Biology Genetics, İstanbul Medeniyet University, İstanbul, Turkey.

Teratozoospermia is a condition related to poor morphologically normal sperm count below the lower reference limit, which could hinder natural conception. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in sperm production and testicular function are proved to be risk factors, resulting in decreased sperm parameters and defects in sperm morphology. c. Read More

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Lycopene Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Testicular Injury by Inhibiting PROK2 Expression and Activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway in a Varicocele Adult Rat.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 8;2021:3471356. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250014, Shandong, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lycopene on hypoxia-induced testicular injury in rat model and explore the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Six-week-old male Wistar rats ( = 36) were randomly divided into three groups ( = 12/group): a normal group (NG, sham control), a varicocele group (VG), and a varicocele treated by lycopene group (VLG). Bilateral renal veins constriction was performed on rats in VG and VLG. Read More

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Primary Chemotherapy in a 47-Year-Old Patient with Giant Ulcerative and Necrotizing Nonseminomatous Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):681-689. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Testicular cancer is a rare disease; however, cure rates are high for all tumor stages. Mostly, the disease is diagnosed in an early (local) stage. We report the case of a 47-year-old male patient with a giant nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of chitosan-embedded vitamin C, E nanoparticles against cisplatin-induced gametogenic and androgenic toxicity in adult male rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310051, China.

Cisplatin, an anticancer drug used in treating various types of cancers, can cause reproductive toxicities during chemotherapy. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of normal vitamin C and E and vitamin C and E nanoparticles (embedded in chitosan) against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicities. Vitamins C, E, and their nanoparticles in this regard proved to be an effective therapy. Read More

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The Effect of Low-Molecular-Weight Allosteric Agonist of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor on Functional State of the Testes in Aging and Diabetic Rats.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 May 29;171(1):81-86. Epub 2021 May 29.

Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology and Neurochemistry, I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Human chorionic gonadotropin that is widely used for improving spermatogenesis. The effect of chorionic gonadotropin is mediated through luteinizing hormone receptor. Treatment with gonadotropin is associated with undesirable effects due to hyperactivation of testosterone production and luteinizing hormone receptor desensitization. Read More

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The role of scrotal ultrasonography from infancy to puberty.

Andrology 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Section of Medical Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Scrotal ultrasonography is an essential diagnostic tool in daily clinical practice. The availability of new-generation ultrasound machines characterized by clearly improved image quality, low health cost, and higher patient safety, represents only some characteristics of ultrasound investigation. The usefulness of scrotal ultrasonography is particularly evident in the period of life from infancy to puberty, during which males undergo important morphofunctional changes, and several pathological conditions may occur. Read More

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A Gender-Dependent Molecular Switch of Inflammation via MyD88/Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Interaction.

J Inflamm Res 2021 21;14:2149-2156. Epub 2021 May 21.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM 1052, CNRS 5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Introduction: Most Toll-like receptors and IL-1/IL-18 receptors activate a signaling cascade via the adaptor molecule MyD88, resulting in NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Females are less susceptible than males to inflammatory conditions, presumably due to protection by estrogen. The exact mechanism underlying this protection is unknown. Read More

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Granulomatous orchitis: case report and review of the literature.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211003773

Department of Urology, People's Hospital of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China.

We report the disease characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of granulomatous orchitis. A 38-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent swelling, pain, and discomfort in the right testicle of 3 days' duration. Unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the testis and scrotum revealed an oval mass in the right testis measuring approximately 17 mm in diameter, with clear borders and a target ring-like appearance from periphery to center. Read More

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The mechanisms and functions of microRNAs in mediating the fate determinations of human spermatogonial stem cells and Sertoli cells.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

The Key Laboratory of Model Animals and Stem Cell Biology in Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University School of Medicine, 371 Tongzipo Road, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China. Electronic address:

Human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and Sertoli cells might have the applications in reproduction and regenerative medicine. Abnormal spermatogenesis results in male infertility, which seriously affects human reproduction and health. Spermatogenesis depends on the epigenetic and genetic regulation of male germ cells and somatic cells. Read More

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Protective effects of quercetin against testis damage caused by cisplatin.

Biotech Histochem 2021 May 25:1-5. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Inönü University, Malatya, Turkey.

We investigated the effects of quercetin on cisplatin induced testicular toxicity using histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. We used four groups of Wistar albino male: control, quercetin, cisplatin, cisplatin + quercetin. We measured tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) biochemically. Read More

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Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on cadmium-induced testicular injury: A crucial role of antioxidant enzymes in male mice infertility.

Heliyon 2021 May 5;7(5):e06965. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine, Albaha University, Albaha, Saudi Arabia.

Infertility in men is referred to inability to achieve pregnancy in fertile females after at least one year of regular intercourse. The lack of oxygen in the environment may lead to an imbalance of testes production. Swiss mice were alienated into four groups 10 mice/each. Read More

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