26,964 results match your criteria normal monocytes

Abnormal Macrophage Polarization in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 9;2021:9913382. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Hematology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: This study is aimed at assessing the subsets of bone marrow macrophages in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and exploring the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of MDS.

Methods: Thirty-eight newly diagnosed MDS patients were enrolled in the Department of Hematology of General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from June 2015 to June 2016. Bone marrow monocytes and macrophage subsets (M1/M2) were detected in patients with MDS and normal controls by flow cytometry. Read More

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N6-Methyladenosine Related Long Non-Coding RNAs and Immune Cell Infiltration in the Tumor Microenvironment of Gastric Cancer.

Biol Proced Online 2021 Aug 1;23(1):15. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 1 Minde Road, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Aim: To illustrate the influence of N6-methyladenosine long non-coding RNAs and immune cell infiltration in gastric cancer.

Methods: We downloaded workflow-type data and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. The relationship of lncRNA and m6A was identified. Read More

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Cross-tissue single-cell landscape of human monocytes and macrophages in health and disease.

Immunity 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1015, Equipe Labellisée-Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Villejuif, France.

Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) encompass dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages (MoMac), which exhibit antimicrobial, homeostatic, and immunoregulatory functions. We integrated 178,651 MNPs from 13 tissues across 41 datasets to generate a MNP single-cell RNA compendium (MNP-VERSE), a publicly available tool to map MNPs and define conserved gene signatures of MNP populations. Next, we generated a MoMac-focused compendium that revealed an array of specialized cell subsets widely distributed across multiple tissues. Read More

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Adamts18 Deficiency Causes Spontaneous SMG Fibrogenesis in Adult Mice.

J Dent Res 2021 Jul 29:220345211029270. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics (Ministry of Education and Shanghai), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland (also known as Küttner tumor) is characterized by concomitant swelling of the submandibular glands secondary to strong lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis. The pathogenesis of this disease has been unclear, but it is associated with immune disorders. ADAMTS18 is a member of the ADAMTS superfamily of extracellular proteinases. Read More

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An herbal preparation ameliorates heart failure with preserved ejection fraction by alleviating microvascular endothelial inflammation and activating NO-cGMP-PKG pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 20;91:153633. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Chinese Medicine Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tianjin 300193, China.; Hubei Key Laboratory of Economic Forest Germplasm Improvement and Resources Comprehensive Utilization, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous disease presenting a substantial challenge to clinicians. Currently, there is no safe and efficacious HFpEF treatment. In this study, we reported a standardized herbal medicinal product, QiShenYiQi (QSYQ), that can be used in the treatment of HFpEF. Read More

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Gene expression during THP-1 differentiation is influenced by vitamin D3 and not vibrational mechanostimulation.

PeerJ 2021 14;9:e11773. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Health and Life Sciences, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom.

Background: In injury or infection, monocytes migrate into the affected tissues from circulation and differentiate into macrophages which are subsequently involved in the inflammatory responses. Macrophage differentiation and activation have been studied in response to multiple chemokines and cytokines. However, mechanical, and physical stimuli can also influence macrophage differentiation, activation, cytokine production, and phagocytic activity. Read More

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Analysis of immune cell components and immune-related gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Transl Med 2021 Jul 26;19(1):319. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, 1266 Fujin Road, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, P.R. China.

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by severe loss of pancreatic β cells. Immune cells are key mediators of β cell destruction. This study attempted to investigate the role of immune cells and immune-related genes in the occurrence and development of T1DM. Read More

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Comparative immunogenicity of decellularized wild type and alpha 1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pig lungs.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 15;276:121029. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA. Electronic address:

Decellularized pig lungs recellularized with human lung cells offer a novel approach for organ transplantation. However, the potential immunogenicity of decellularized pig lungs following exposure to human tissues has not been assessed. We found that exposure of native lungs from wildtype and transgenic pigs lacking alpha (1,3)-galactosyltransferase (α-gal KO) to sera from normal healthy human volunteers demonstrated similar robust IgM and IgG immunoreactivity, comparably decreased in decellularized lungs. Read More

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[ biological safety study of porous zinc oxide/hydroxyapatite composite materials].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;35(7):847-854

Department of Orthopedics, the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming Yunnan, 650032, P.R.China.

Objective: To evaluate the biological safety of porous zinc oxide (ZnO)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite materials.

Methods: The porous ZnO/HA composite materials and porous HA materials were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technology. First, the materials were characterized, including scanning electron microscopy to observe the material structure, degradation experiments to detect the degradation rate of the materials, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer to detect the concentration of Zn dissolved out of the composite material degradation. Read More

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The Effects of Interferons on Allogeneic T Cell Response in GVHD: The Multifaced Biology and Epigenetic Regulations.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:717540. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Penn State Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. This beneficial effect is derived mainly from graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated by alloreactive T cells. However, these alloreactive T cells can also induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication after allo-HSCT. Read More

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Oxyresveratrol-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Inhibit Oxygen Free Radical Production by Human Monocytes: Role in Nanoparticle Biocompatibility.

Molecules 2021 Jul 18;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Medicine, Section of General Pathology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Oxyresveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from the plant Roxb, has been reported to be an antioxidant and an oxygen-free radical scavenger. We investigated whether oxyresveratrol affects the generation of superoxide anion (O) by human monocytes, which are powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) producers. We found that oxyresveratrol inhibited the O production induced upon stimulation of monocytes with β-glucan, a well known fungal immune cell activator. Read More

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Role of macrophages and phagocytes in orchestrating normal and pathologic hematopoietic niches.

Exp Hematol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Mater Research Institute, University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia.

The bone marrow (BM) contains a mosaic of niches specialized in supporting different maturity stages of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells such as hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid progenitors. Recent advances in BM imaging and conditional gene knockout mice have revealed that niches are a complex network of cells of mesenchymal, endothelial, neuronal, and hematopoietic origins, together with local physicochemical parameters. Within these complex structures, phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells, all of which are of hematopoietic origin, have been found to be important in regulating several niches in the BM, including hematopoietic stem cell niches, erythropoietic niches, and niches involved in endosteal bone formation. Read More

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Hemopexin as an acute phase protein regulates the inflammatory response against bacterial infection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 21;187:166-178. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Institute of Modern Aquaculture Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, Guangzhou 510631, PR China. Electronic address:

Hemopexin, a high affinity heme-binding protein is widely involved in variety physiological and pathological processes. It is an important acute phase response protein, and is important in regulating the inflammatory response. In this study, the open reading frame of Nile tilapia hemopexin (OnHpx) gene was amplified. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid suppresses host pyroptosis by blocking Gasdermin D cleavage.

EMBO J 2021 Jul 22:e108249. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China.

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that causes dysfunctions in multiple human cells and tissues. Studies have looked at the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells mediated by the viral spike protein and human receptor ACE2. However, less is known about the cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Read More

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Qing-Luo-Yin Alleviated Monocytes/Macrophages-Mediated Inflammation in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis by Disrupting Their Interaction with (Pre)-Adipocytes Through PPAR-γ Signaling.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 16;15:3105-3118. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, 241000, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Chinese herbal formula Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY) has been successfully used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment for decades. It exhibits notable immune and metabolism regulatory properties. Thereby, we investigated its effects on the interplay between (pre)-adipocytes and monocytes/macrophages under adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) circumstances. Read More

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Transcriptome sequencing and multi-plex imaging of prostate cancer microenvironment reveals a dominant role for monocytic cells in progression.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 22;21(1):846. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Prostate cancer is caused by genomic aberrations in normal epithelial cells, however clinical translation of findings from analyses of cancer cells alone has been very limited. A deeper understanding of the tumour microenvironment is needed to identify the key drivers of disease progression and reveal novel therapeutic opportunities.

Results: In this study, the experimental enrichment of selected cell-types, the development of a Bayesian inference model for continuous differential transcript abundance, and multiplex immunohistochemistry permitted us to define the transcriptional landscape of the prostate cancer microenvironment along the disease progression axis. Read More

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Regulation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Adipocytes by Macrophages Activated by Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide.

Anticancer Res 2021 Aug;41(8):4071-4076

Research Institute for Healthy Living, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Background/aim: Increased expression of inflammatory cytokine genes through cell interactions in tissues may cause chronic inflammation, leading to the development of lifestyle-related diseases. Since the activation of inflammatory cytokine genes in monocytes/macrophages by co-culturing with cancer cells or adipocytes was suppressed by pre-treatment with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we hypothesized that low-dose LPS-activated macrophages may regulate the expression of immune response-related genes in other cells.

Materials And Methods: Phorbol myristate acetate-treated human monocytes (THP-1) were activated by LPS. Read More

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Analysis of Hub Genes and the Mechanism of Immune Infiltration in Stanford Type a Aortic Dissection.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 2;8:680065. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Stanford type A aortic dissection (AAD) is a catastrophic disease. An immune infiltrate has been found within the aortic wall of dissected aortic specimens. The recall and activation of macrophages are key events in the early phases of AAD. Read More

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F-ASEM Imaging for Evaluating Atherosclerotic Plaques Linked to α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 1;9:684221. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fu Wai Hospital, Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory procedure alongside with lipid efflux disorder and foam cell formation. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a gated-calcium transmembrane channel widely expressed in neuron and non-neuron cells, such as monocytes and macrophages, activated T cells, dendritic cells, and mast cells. F-ASEM is an inhibitor targeted to α7nAChR that had been successfully applied in nervous system diseases. Read More

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Transcriptomes of an Array of Chicken Ovary, Intestinal, and Immune Cells and Tissues.

Front Genet 2021 30;12:664424. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, United States.

While the chicken () is the most consumed agricultural animal worldwide, the chicken transcriptome remains understudied. We have characterized the transcriptome of 10 cell and tissue types from the chicken using RNA-seq, spanning intestinal tissues (ileum, jejunum, proximal cecum), immune cells (B cells, bursa, macrophages, monocytes, spleen T cells, thymus), and reproductive tissue (ovary). We detected 17,872 genes and 24,812 transcripts across all cell and tissue types, representing 73% and 63% of the current gene annotation, respectively. Read More

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Discovery and Validation of Key Biomarkers Based on Immune Infiltrates in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Genet 2021 1;12:658323. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

The Fifth Clinical Medical College of Anhui Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: As the most common neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to progressive loss of cognition and memory. Presently, the underlying pathogenic genes of AD patients remain elusive, and effective disease-modifying therapy is not available. This study explored novel biomarkers that can affect diagnosis and treatment in AD based on immune infiltration. Read More

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Low-Density Neutrophils in Healthy Individuals Display a Mature Primed Phenotype.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:672520. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human peripheral blood, comprising about 70% of all leukocytes. They are regarded as the first line of defense of the innate immune system, but neutrophils have also the ability of regulating the adaptive immune response. Recently, However, multiple phenotypes and functional states of neutrophils have been reported, particularly in inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Read More

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The Type I interferon antiviral gene program is impaired by lockdown and preserved by caregiving.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Previous research has linked perceived social isolation (loneliness) to reduced antiviral immunity, but the immunologic effects of the objective social isolation imposed by pandemic "shelter in place" (SIP) policies is unknown. We assessed the immunologic impact of SIP by relocating 21 adult male rhesus macaques from 2,000-m field cage communities of 70 to 132 other macaques to 2 wk of individual housing in indoor shelters. SIP was associated with 30% to 50% reductions in all circulating immune cell populations (lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes), down-regulation of Type I interferon (IFN) antiviral gene expression, and a relative up-regulation of CD16 classical monocytes. Read More

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CD206 Expression in Induced Microglia-Like Cells From Peripheral Blood as a Surrogate Biomarker for the Specific Immune Microenvironment of Neurosurgical Diseases Including Glioma.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:670131. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Targeting the unique glioma immune microenvironment is a promising approach in developing breakthrough immunotherapy treatments. However, recent advances in immunotherapy, including the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have not improved the outcomes of patients with glioma. A way of monitoring biological activity of immune cells in neural tissues affected by glioma should be developed to address this lack of sensitivity to immunotherapy. Read More

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Evaluation of Inflammatory Acute Phase Protein Level and Different Leukocyte Counts in Chronic Periodontitis Normolipidemic Patients after Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Apr 1;22(4):373-377. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics and Preventive Dentistry, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India, Phone: +91 9472373307, e-mail:

Aim And Objective: To evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on periodontal parameters, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level, total leukocyte count (TLC), and differential leukocyte count (DLC) in normolipidemic patients with generalized chronic periodontitis.

Materials And Methods: A total of 60 subjects (38 males and 22 females) between 20 and 55 years of age were included in this study. Twenty subjects with generalized chronic gingivitis were assigned group I. Read More

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Systems Immunology Analysis Reveals the Contribution of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tissues to the Immunopathogenesis of Severe COVID-19 Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:595150. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

As one of the current global health conundrums, COVID-19 pandemic caused a dramatic increase of cases exceeding 79 million and 1.7 million deaths worldwide. Severe presentation of COVID-19 is characterized by cytokine storm and chronic inflammation resulting in multi-organ dysfunction. Read More

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The role of IL-32 in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced trained immunity in infections caused by different Leishmania spp.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 11;158:105088. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Laboratório de Imunidade Natural (LIN), Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Cells of the innate immune system undergo long-term functional reprogramming in response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) exposure via a process called trained immunity, conferring nonspecific protection to unrelated infections. Here, we investigate whether BCG-induced trained immunity is able to protect against infections caused by different Leishmania spp., protozoa that cause cutaneous and mucosal or visceral lesions. Read More

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An variant links aberrant Rac1 function to early-onset skeletal fragility.

JBMR Plus 2021 Jul 7;5(7):e10509. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics Helsinki Finland.

Ras homologous guanosine triphosphatases (RhoGTPases) control several cellular functions, including cytoskeletal actin remodeling and cell migration. Their activities are downregulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Although RhoGTPases are implicated in bone remodeling and osteoclast and osteoblast function, their significance in human bone health and disease remains elusive. Read More

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Stromal fibroblasts shape the myeloid phenotype in normal colon and colorectal cancer and induce CD163 and CCL2 expression in macrophages.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 10;520:184-200. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 10, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for about 10% of cancer deaths worldwide. Colon carcinogenesis is critically influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) represent the major components of the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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Immunological aspects of follicle ovulation and corpus luteum formation in cattle.

Reproduction 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

T Fair, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Ovulation has been described as an inflammatory event, characterized by an influx of leukocytes into the ovulatory follicle and changes in the expression of immune factors in both the theca and granulosa tissue layers. Since information on this process is limited in cattle, our objective was to elucidate the contribution of the immune system to dominant follicle luteinization, ovulation and corpus luteum formation in cattle. Beef heifers (n=50) were oestrous synchronized, slaughtered and ovarian follicular or luteal tissue collected during a 96h window around ovulation. Read More

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