J Vet Cardiol 2021 May 12;36:55-63. Epub 2021 May 12.
Anicura Istituto Veterinario Novara, Strada Provinciale 9, Granozzo con Monticello, Novara, 28060, Italy.
Introduction/objectives: The objective of the study was to provide echocardiographic reference intervals for English bulldogs (EBs) and to assess if age, sex, body weight (BW), and heart rate have an influence on echocardiographic variables.
Animals: We prospectively enrolled client-owned EBs that were considered healthy based on unremarkable history, normal physical examination, six-lead electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiography.
Materials And Methods: Breed-related reference intervals were provided, and associations between age, sex, BW, and heart rate and echocardiographic variables were tested using a multivariate analysis. Read More