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Brain volumetry in fetuses that deliver very preterm: An MRI pilot study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Mar 29;30:102650. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Infants born preterm are at increased risk of neurological complications resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The exact mechanism and the impact of antenatal factors has not been fully elucidated, although antenatal infection/inflammation has been implicated in both the aetiology of preterm birth and subsequent neurological sequelae. It is therefore hypothesized that processes driving preterm birth are affecting brain development in utero. Read More

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Evaluation of 3,4,4,9-trichlorocarbanilide to zebrafish developmental toxicity based on transcriptomics analysis.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;278:130349. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Triclocarban (TCC), considered an endocrine-disrupting, persistent, and bioaccumulating organic matter, has attracted a great deal of attention for its pollution and health risks. However, studies on its toxicological mechanism, especially for embryo development are limited. This article explores the cardiac developmental toxicity induced in zebrafish embryos after exposure to different TCC concentrations. Read More

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Desmopressin effects on bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery on patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar 31;42(5):103024. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: In this study we aimed to determine whether Desmopressin (DDAVP) can alter bleeding and improves surgeon visual field and decrease operation time or lessen use of anesthesiology medication in a clinical trial study.

Method: This study is a randomized clinical trial using the permuted block randomization method. 44 patients were enrolled in study and divided into two equal intervention-control groups. Read More

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Sustainable Border Control Policy in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Math Modeling Study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 7:102044. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

American Airlines, 1 Skyview Drive, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Background: Imported COVID-19 cases, if unchecked, can jeopardize the effort of domestic containment. We aim to find out what sustainable border control options for different entities (e.g. Read More

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Bifunctional Spatiotemporal Metasurfaces for Incident Angle-Tunable and Ultrafast Optically Switchable Electromagnetically Induced Transparency.

Small 2021 Apr 10:e2006489. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Beijing Interdisciplinary Research Center, National University of Defense Technology, Beijing, 100010, China.

Advances in tunable metamaterials/metasurfaces facilitates their utilization in novel optical components, and lead to many breakthroughs in light tailoring by giving birth to diverse spatiotemporal dynamics. In the ascendant field of terahertz (THz) photonics, the ultrafast modulation is the fundamental process of technological advancements in high-speed wireless communications, sensing, and imaging. However, the current research efforts have been mainly devoted to studies of single functionality under the control of one stimulus, which has plateaued in terms of innovative new features. Read More

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Switching from conventional therapy to burosumab injection has the potential to prevent nephrocalcinosis in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Hospital, Japan Community Healthcare Organization (JCHO), Osaka, Japan.

Objectives: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is a congenital fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23-related metabolic bone disease that is treated with active vitamin D and phosphate as conventional therapies. Complications of these therapies include nephrocalcinosis (NC) caused by excessive urine calcium and phosphate concentrations. Recently, an anti-FGF23 antibody, burosumab, was developed and reported to be effective in poorly-controlled or severe XLH patients. Read More

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Remodeling of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) lipidome under a stimulated scenario of Arctic warming.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Arctic warming associated with global climate change poses a significant threat to populations of wildlife in the Arctic. Since lipids play a vital role in adaptation of organisms to variations in temperature, high-resolution mass spectrometry based lipidomics can provide insights into adaptive responses of organisms to a warmer environment in the Arctic and help to illustrate potential novel roles of lipids in the process of thermal adaption. In this study, we studied an ecologically and economically important species-Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), with a detailed multi-tissue analysis of the lipidome in response to chronic shifts in temperature by use of a validated lipidomics workflow. Read More

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A Reliable Method for Chin Augmentation by Mechanical Micronization of Lipoaspirates.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Plastic and Aesthetic Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, No. 23 Youzheng Street, Nangang District, Harbin, 150000, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Desire for improved aesthetic contour of the lower third of the face has resulted in an increase in chin augmentation. Although many fillers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), autologous fat and stromal vascular fraction gel (SVF-gel), have been used to improve facial morphology, chin augmentation requires fillers that provide greater support.

Methods: The elastic and viscous moduli of SVF-gel and Coleman fat were assessed in vitro by rheological testing, whereas their elasticity were evaluated in vivo by ultrasonic elastography. Read More

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Invasive placebos in research on peripheral nerve blocks: a follow-up study.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Children's Anaesthesia, Women's and Children's Hospital Adelaide, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: The Serious Harm and Morbidity "SHAM" grading system has previously been proposed to categorize the risks associated with the use of invasive placebos in peripheral nerve block research. SHAM grades range from 0 (no potential complications, eg, using standard analgesia techniques as a comparator) through to 4 (risk of major complications, eg, performing a sub-Tenon's block and injecting normal saline). A study in 2011 found that 52% of studies of peripheral nerve blocks had SHAM grades of 3 or more. Read More

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Traumatic Spinal Injury: Preliminary Results of Respiratory Function, Voice and Quality of Life.

J Voice 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Adjunct Professor, Speech Therapy Course, Ceilândia Campus of the University of Brasilia; Department where the study was conducted: Ceilândia Campus of the University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, Center for Voice Studies - CEV.

Objectives: Assess respiratory muscle strength, voice and the quality of life of patients with traumatic cervical and thoracic spinal cord injury.

Methods: Preliminary analytical case control study of 28 adult men, aged between 18 and 65 years, divided into two groups: a research group consisting of 14 patients with cervical and thoracic spinal cord injury, and control group (CG) with 14 noninjured individuals. The subjects had their maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures measured, underwent voice handicap index-10 assessment, had their voices recorded for auditory perception analysis, using the voice deviation and GRBASI scales, and for acoustic analysis, based on extraction of the parameters selected and completed a quality-of-life questionnaire (WHOQOL-bref protocol). Read More

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Preliminary analysis of whether mosquitoes can carry and transmit African swine fever.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 9;17(1):152. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, 225009, Yangzhou, China.

Background: Mosquitoes are important insect vectors, but whether they can carry and transmit African swine fever virus (ASFV) in large-scale pig farms in China is unknown.

Results: In this study, probe-based qPCR analysis was performed on mosquitoes from five pig farms with ASF virus (ASFV). Analysis of ASFV in 463 mosquitoes yielded negative cycle threshold (CT) value), and detection remained negative after mixing samples from all five pig farms. Read More

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Maternal overweight but not paternal overweight before pregnancy is associated with shorter newborn telomere length: evidence from Guangxi Zhuang birth cohort in China.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 9;21(1):283. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, No. 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Background: Telomere length (TL) is variable at birth and is inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. A growing number of evidences suggested that a higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI results in adverse offspring health outcomes, especially shorter newborn TL. However, a newborn's genetic endowment is equally derived from both parents, the association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn TL has been rarely discussed. Read More

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MOF@MnO2 nanocomposites prepared by in situ method and recyclable cholesterol oxidase-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers for cholesterol determination.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong, CHINA.

In this work, through in situ growth of MnO2 nanosheets on the surface of terbium metal-organic frameworks (Tb-MOFs), the MOF@MnO2 nanocomposites are prepared and the fluorescence of Tb-MOFs is quenched significantly by MnO2. Additionally, the hybrid nanoflowers are self-assembled by cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and copper phosphate (Cu3(PO4)2•3H2O). Then a new strategy for cholesterol determination is developed based on MOF@MnO2 nanocomposites and hybrid nanoflowers. Read More

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Inverse modeling framework for characterizing patient-specific microstructural changes in the pulmonary arteries.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Mar 27;119:104448. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Microstructural changes in the pulmonary arteries associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not well understood and characterized in humans. To address this issue, we developed and applied a patient-specific inverse finite element (FE) modeling framework to characterize mechanical and structural changes of the micro-constituents in the proximal pulmonary arteries using in-vivo pressure measurements and magnetic resonance images. The framework was applied using data acquired from a pediatric PAH patient and a heart transplant patient with normal pulmonary arterial pressure, which serves as control. Read More

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Not giving up: Testosterone promotes persistence against a stronger opponent.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 1;128:105214. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 140225 Düsseldorf, Germany; Mauritius Hospital Meerbusch, Strümper Straße 111, 40670 Meerbusch, Germany. Electronic address:

Recent research suggests that when we lack a sense of control, we are prone to motivational failures and early quitting in competitions. Testosterone, on the other hand, is thought to boost competitiveness. Here we investigate the interaction between these factors, testing the testosterone's potential to enhance persistence in a competition against a stronger opponent, depending on experimentally manipulated perceived control. Read More

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Conserved fatty acid profiles and lipid metabolic pathways in a tropical reef fish exposed to ocean warming - An adaptation mechanism of tolerant species?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 26;782:146738. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

CESAM - Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Edifício ECOMARE, Estrada do Porto de Pesca Costeira, 3830-565 Gafanha da Nazaré, Portugal; Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Seestrasse 79, 6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.

Climate warming is causing rapid spatial expansion of ocean warm pools from equatorial latitudes towards the subtropics. Sedentary coral reef inhabitants in affected areas will thus be trapped in high temperature regimes, which may become the "new normal". In this study, we used clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris as model organism to study reef fish mechanisms of thermal adaptation and determine how high temperature affects multiple lipid aspects that influence physiology and thermal tolerance. Read More

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Evaluation of an automatic method for detection of defects in linear and curvilinear ultrasound transducers.

Phys Med 2021 Apr 6;84:33-40. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Purpose: The high incidence of defective ultrasound transducers in clinical practice has been shown in several studies. Recently, a novel method using only stored images for automatic detection of defective transducers was presented. The method makes it possible to remotely monitor many transducers at the same time and send a notification when a defective transducer is found. Read More

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Time-based investigation of urinary metabolic markers for Type 2 diabetes: Metabolomics approach for diabetes management.

Biofactors 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Diabetes is considered one of the most important health emergencies worldwide and Egypt has 8.2 million diabetic patients according to the International Diabetes Federation report in 2017. The objective of this study was to monitor the time-course variation in the metabolic profile of diabetic rats to detect urinary metabolic biomarkers using the metabolomics approach. Read More

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Evaluation of Postoperative Quality of Life After Pancreatic Surgery and Determination of Influencing Risk Factors.

Pancreas 2021 Mar;50(3):362-370

From the Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck.

Objectives: The postoperative quality of life (QoL) after pancreatic surgery is frequently impaired. The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL after pancreatic surgery and its influencing risk factors. Furthermore, an age-adjusted comparison with the normal population of Germany was performed. Read More

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Relations among positivity, positive affect in school, and learning flow in elementary school students: A longitudinal mediation model.

Br J Educ Psychol 2021 Apr 9:e12418. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Learning flow is an optimal learning experience representing full engagement in one's studies. The belief-affect-engagement model and control-value theory suggest that positivity would be a motivator of learning flow, while positive affect in school would be a mediator of the relation between positivity and learning flow.

Aims: The current research aimed to examine (1) the longitudinal relations among positivity, positive affect in school, and learning flow, and (2) the mediational role of positive affect in school between positivity and learning flow. Read More

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Intervention factors associated with environmental stressors resulting from cross-provincial transfers by coal resource-based enterprises.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Business, Jiangsu Normal University, No. 101 Shanghai Road, Copper Mt. District, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.

The environmental stressors associated with the cross-provincial transfer of coal resource-based enterprises (CREs) have become a critical concern for the green, sustainable, and high-quality development of resource-rich areas in central and western regions. This study referred to socioeconomic statistics and carried out an interview survey, literature review, and systematic analysis to clarify the mechanism underlying environmental stressors arising from the cross-provincial transfer of CREs. The intervention factors associated with such environmental stressors were identified, and the study conducted an empirical analysis of relevant data related to the coal-resources industry in three central and western provinces in China for the period 1997-2016. Read More

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Changes in Incidence and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Mainland China, 2005-2016.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215302. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Importance: The World Health Organization End TB (Tuberculosis) Strategy aims to decrease the global incidence and mortality of TB by 90% and 95%, respectively, as of 2035.

Objective: To characterize the recent epidemiological trend of pulmonary TB (PTB) in mainland China based on the national surveillance data.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study collected demographic and clinical data of all patients reported in the national Tuberculosis Information Management System of China from January 1, 2005, to November 21, 2016. Read More

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Uncovering the Bone-Muscle Interaction and Its Implications for the Health and Function of Older Adults (the Wellderly Project): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 9;10(4):e18777. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Bone and muscle are closely linked anatomically, biochemically, and metabolically. Acute exercise affects both bone and muscle, implying a crosstalk between the two systems. However, how these two systems communicate is still largely unknown. Read More

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[Deletion polymorphism of GSTT1 gene and lipid peroxidation hyperactivation in menopausal insomnia].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):93-97

Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems, Irkutsk, Russia.

Objective: A comparative analysis of the parameters of lipid peroxidation - antioxidant defense system in menopausal women with- and without insomnia, depending on the polymorphism.

Material And Methods: The study included 181 menopausal Caucasian women (ethnic group - Russians), who according to the results of the clinical-anamnestic examinations were divided into insomnia group (=120, age 53.68±4. Read More

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January 2021

The functional hierarchy of the task-positive networks indicates a core control system of top-down regulation in visual attention.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):43-53

Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, 100872 Beijing, P. R. China.

The cingulo-opercular network (CON), dorsal attention network (DAN), and ventral attention network (VAN) are prominently activated during attention tasks. The function of these task-positive networks and their interplay mechanisms in attention is one of the central issues in understanding how the human brain manipulates attention to better adapt to the external environment. This study aimed to clarify the CON, DAN, and VAN's functional hierarchy by assessing causal interactions. Read More

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Broad and dynamic neurochemical alterations in the brain of alcoholic rats.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):33-41

Molecular Medical Laboratory, Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, 400016 Chongqing, P. R. China.

Ethanol is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages. As ethanol consumption increases from zero to very high, it is still unknown which metabolites are present at different times and which are essential to normal functioning. In this article, we used an intermittent-access 20% ethanol drinking paradigm to make Wistar male rats voluntarily drink large amounts of ethanol for 10, 20, 30, and 50 days, respectively. Read More

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[Expression of cyclophilin A in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its effect on cell proliferation and invasion].

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(2):164-169

Dept. of Stomatology, Wuhan University People,s Hospital, Wuhan 430060, China.

Objectives: To investigate the expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explore the effect of downregulating the expression of CyPA gene on the proliferation and invasion of SCC-25 cells.

Methods: A total of 77 cases of patients with OSCC were selected. The expression levels of CyPA proteins in OSCC and adjacent normal tissues were evaluated. Read More

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Immunohistochemical analysis of ghrelin expression in various types of adrenal tumors.

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: Ghrelin, originally isolated from the endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is also expressed in many peripheral tissues, including normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumors. It was shown that ghrelin stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of adrenocortical cells. In the current study, we compared ghrelin expression at the protein level in various adrenal tumors. Read More

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Sex differences in noradrenergic modulation of attention and impulsivity in rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100048, China.

Rationale: Noradrenaline (NE) is closely related to attentive performance and impulsive control. However, the potential sex differences regarding attention and impulsivity under the noradrenergic modulation have been largely neglected. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate whether male and female rats exhibit differential responses to NE-related drugs during the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRT). Read More

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Control and benchmarking of a 7-DOF robotic arm using Gazebo and ROS.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 23;7:e383. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Computer Science, University of York, York, UK.

The robot controller plays an important role in controlling the robot. The controller mainly aims to eliminate or suppress the influence of uncertain factors on the control robot. Furthermore, there are many types of controllers, and different types of controllers have different features. Read More

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