5,641 results match your criteria nonpregnant women


An Empirically Derived Definition of Metabolically Healthy Obesity Based on Risk of Cardiovascular and Total Mortality.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218505. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.

Importance: People classified by a priori definitions as having metabolically healthy obesity have frequently been found to be at increased risk of mortality, compared with individuals with metabolically healthy normal weight, suggesting these definitions may be insufficient.

Objectives: To systematically derive a new definition of metabolic health (MH) and investigate its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and total mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In a cohort study using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), a representative survey using complex multistage probability sampling, anthropometric factors, biomarkers, and blood pressure (BP) associated with total and CVD mortality among participants with obesity were identified with Cox proportional hazards regression. Read More

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Population pharmacodynamic modeling of intramuscular and oral dexamethasone and betamethasone effects on six biomarkers with circadian complexities in Indian women.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis was performed for extensive data for differing dosage forms and routes for dexamethasone (DEX) and betamethasone (BET) in 48 healthy nonpregnant Indian women in a partial and complex cross-over design. Single doses of 6 mg dexamethasone phosphate (DEX-P), betamethasone phosphate (BET-P), or 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and acetate (BET-PA) were administered orally (PO) or intramuscularly (IM) where each woman enrolled in a two-period cross-over study. Plasma concentrations collected over 96 h were described with a two-compartment model with differing PO and IM first-order absorption inputs. Read More

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Hospital Admissions from the Emergency Department and Subsequent Critical Care Interventions for Influenza during Pregnancy.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective:  The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether obstetrical patients were more likely to be admitted from the emergency department (ED) for influenza compared with nonpregnant women, and (2) require critical care interventions once admitted.

Study Design:  Using data from the 2006 to 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, ED encounters for influenza for women aged 15 to 54 years without underlying chronic medical conditions were identified. Women were categorized as pregnant or nonpregnant using billing codes. Read More

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Evaluation of Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women Using Automated Immunoassays.

Clin Chem 2021 Apr;67(5):772-780

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Health System, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Introduction: Automated free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays are widely available, but professional guidelines discourage their use in pregnant women due to theoretical under-recoveries attributed to increased thyroid hormone binding capacity and instead advocate the use of total T4 (TT4) or free thyroxine index (FTI). The impact of this recommendation on the classification of thyroid status in apparently euthyroid pregnant patients was evaluated.

Methods: After excluding specimens with thyroid autoantibody concentrations above reference limits, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, TT4, and T-uptake were measured on the Roche Cobas® platform in remnant clinical specimens from at least 147 nonpregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women at each trimester. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnant Women: Neuroimmune-Endocrine Changes at the Maternal-Fetal Interface.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Apr 28:1-21. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Immunopharmacology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rajasthan, Brazil.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has devastating effects on the population worldwide. Given this scenario, the extent of the impact of the disease on more vulnerable individuals, such as pregnant women, is of great concern. Although pregnancy may be a risk factor in respiratory virus infections, there are no considerable differences regarding COVID-19 severity observed between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Read More

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Acute dental pain elevates salivary oxytocin in women: a risk factor during pregnancy.

Gen Dent 2021 May-Jun;69(3):73-77

Irreversible pulpitis is an acute, brief, and painful condition. Oxytocin, cortisol, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) are released by the body in response to pain and emotional stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of salivary cortisol, sIgA, and oxytocin among patients with irreversible pulpitis. Read More

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Reproductive Health Care for Incarcerated Pregnant, Postpartum, and Nonpregnant Individuals.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Abstract: Obstetrician-gynecologists and other women's health care practitioners can support efforts to improve health care for incarcerated pregnant, postpartum, and nonpregnant individuals. The majority of incarcerated women are parents and are of reproductive age, which has important implications for their reproductive health care needs. The legacies of racism and resulting racialized medical outcomes shape inequities in reproductive health for all people, including those who are incarcerated. Read More

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Response to Letter to the Editor "Therapeutic Alternative to Transfusion in Nonpregnant Women With Iron Deficiency Anemia Caused by Uterine Blood Loss".

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr;60(4):566-567

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

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Therapeutic Alternative to Transfusion in Nonpregnant Women With Iron Deficiency Anemia Caused by Uterine Blood Loss.

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr;60(4):565-566

PBM Group, Hospital La Paz, Institute for Health Research, Madrid, Spain; Blood and Tissue Bank of Navarra, Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea, Pamplona, Spain.

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Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (T.T.S., T.R.M., P.L. Moro, L.P., P.L. Marquez, C.K.O., C.L., B.C.Z., J.M.G.), and the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (S.W.M.), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Division of Birth Defects and Infant Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (S.Y.K., V.K.B., C.J.G., D.M.M.-D.), the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (T.O., K.T.C., S.R.E., A.N.S.), the World Trade Center Health Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R.L.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (K.T.C.) - all at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta; and the Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (M.A., A.M.-J.).

Background: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy.

Methods: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons.

Results: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Read More

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Awareness, acceptability, and intention to initiate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among pregnant women.

AIDS Care 2021 Apr 19:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Women's Health Research, MedStar Health Research Institute (MHRI), Washington, DC, USA.

HIV prevention is critically important during pregnancy, however, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is underutilized. We conducted a survey of pregnant and non-pregnant women in a high HIV prevalence community in Washington D.C. Read More

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The influence of mode of delivery, anthropometric indices, and infant's sex on the maternal and cord blood orexin-A levels: A cohort study.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Orexin as an adipokin hormone plays an important role in appetite regulation, energy metabolism, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The main source of orexin secretion in nonpregnant and pregnant women is adipose tissue and placenta, respectively. This research was conducted to evaluate the association between orexin-A level and the mode of delivery, anthropometric indices, and sex of the infant. Read More

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Management of maternal COVID-19: considerations for anesthesiologists.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jun;34(3):246-253

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe updates to pragmatic recommendations that were published during the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge, including the current thinking about whether pregnancy worsens the severity of COVID-19.

Recent Findings: Although a majority of pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic, pregnancy puts women at higher risk of severe COVID-19 and adverse birth outcomes. Pregnant and recently pregnant women are more likely to be admitted to intensive care units and receive mechanical ventilation than nonpregnant patients with COVID-19, although preexisting maternal comorbidities are significant risk factors. Read More

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Risk of Symptomatic Kidney Stones During and After Pregnancy.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Rationale & Objective: There are several well-known anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy that could contribute to kidney stone formation, but evidence that they increase the risk of kidney stones during pregnancy is lacking. We determined whether there was an increased risk of a first-time symptomatic kidney stone during and after pregnancy.

Study Design: A population-based matched case-control study. Read More

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The risk of clinical complications and death among pregnant women with COVID-19 in the Cerner COVID-19 cohort: a retrospective analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 16;21(1):305. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 375 Chipeta Way, Ste A, Salt Lake City, UT, 84108, USA.

Background: Pregnant women are potentially a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks such as COVID-19, because of physiologic immune suppression in pregnancy. However, data on the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 among pregnant women, compared to nonpregnant women, are sparse and inconclusive. We sought to assess the impact of pregnancy on COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality, with particular attention to the impact of pre-existing comorbidity. Read More

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Astragalus manna abortifacient risk and effects on sex hormones in BALB/c mice.

Biomedicine (Taipei) 2020 1;10(4):11-17. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: manna is used to treat different diseases. Because pregnant women tend to use and Iranian traditional medicine emphasizes the abortifacient potential of this plant, this study aimed to investigate manna abortifacient property and effects on estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH levels in BALB/c mice.

Method: This experimental study was conducted with 70 female BALB/c mice assigned to seven groups: Nonpregnant, untreated; nonpregnant, extract (400 mg/kg)-treated; pregnant, extract (400, 800 and 1200 mg/kg)-treated; and two pregnant control groups. Read More

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December 2020

Multicentre randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of favipiravir in adults with mild COVID-19.

BMJ Open 2021 04 14;11(4):e047495. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: A novel coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, caused an international outbreak of a respiratory illness, termed COVID-19 in December 2019. There is a lack of specific therapeutic agents based on evidence for this novel coronavirus infection; however, several medications have been evaluated as a potential therapy. Therapy is required to treat symptomatic patients and decrease the virus carriage duration to limit the communitytransmission. Read More

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Association of Patient Sex and Pregnancy Status With Naloxone Administration During Emergency Department Visits.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 05;137(5):855-863

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina; and the Center for Outcomes Research, Department of Surgery, the Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and the Division of Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: To evaluate the association of sex and pregnancy status with rates of naloxone administration during opioid overdose-related emergency department (ED) visits by using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample 2016 and 2017 data sets. Eligible records included men and women, 15-49 years of age, with an opioid overdose-related ED visit; records for women were stratified by pregnancy status (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision O codes). Read More

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Characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnancy compared with infected nonpregnant women.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Arash Women's Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To compare the clinical and paraclinical features and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study of pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age hospitalized between March and October 2020 in Tehran, Iran. Medical records were reviewed and women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR were included. Read More

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Pregnancy alters interleukin-1 beta expression and antiviral antibody responses during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the disease-causing pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, has resulted in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pregnant women are more susceptible to severe coronavirus disease 2019 and are at higher risk of preterm birth than uninfected pregnant women. Despite this evidence, the immunologic effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy remain understudied. Read More

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Role of arterial impairment in preeclampsia: should the paradigm shift?

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 2;320(5):H2011-H2030. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Centro Universitario de Investigación, Innovación y Diagnóstico Arterial, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Republic University, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Preeclampsia is a worldwide pregnancy complication with serious short- and long-term maternal and neonatal consequences. Our understanding of preeclampsia pathophysiology has significantly evolved over the last decades with the recognition that impaired arterial function and structure may occur early in the course of pregnancy, preceding the clinic-humoral syndrome and driving long-term cardiovascular disease risk in the future of these patients. Although an early abnormal placentation may be the inciting event for a large proportion of cases, there is growing evidence that challenges the placental hypothesis in all affected women, since placental histopathology lesions thought to be characteristic are neither sensitive nor specific markers for the disorder. Read More

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Exploring the Use of Serum-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles as Liquid Biopsy to Study the Induction of Hepatic Cytochromes P450 and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Liver-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), prepared from small sets of banked serum samples using a novel two-step protocol, were deployed as liquid biopsy to study the induction of cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2D6) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) during pregnancy (nonpregnant (T0), first, second, and third (T3) trimester women; N = 3 each) and after administration of rifampicin (RIF) to healthy male subjects. Proteomic analysis revealed induction (mean fold-increase, 90% confidence interval) of sEV CYP3A4 after RIF 300 mg × 7 days (3.5, 95% CI = 2. Read More

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Prevalence of Hypertension Among Pregnant Women When Using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Pressure Guidelines and Association With Maternal and Fetal Outcomes.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Mar 1;4(3):e213808. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California.

Importance: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The impact of applying recent guideline definitions for nonpregnant adults to pregnant women is unclear.

Objective: To determine whether reclassification of hypertensive status using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline definition better identifies women at risk for preeclampsia or eclampsia and adverse fetal/neonatal events compared with the current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) definition of hypertension. Read More

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Malaria PK/PD and the Role Pharmacometrics Can Play in the Global Health Arena: Malaria Treatment Regimens for Vulnerable Populations.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Malaria is an infectious disease which disproportionately effects children and pregnant women. These vulnerable populations are often excluded from clinical trials resulting in one-size-fits-all treatment regimens based on those established for a nonpregnant adult population. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models can be used to optimize dose selection as they define the drug exposure-response relationship. Read More

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Vitamin A deficiency has declined in Malawi, but with evidence of elevated vitamin A in children.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr;113(4):854-864

Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Reduction of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in Malawi coincided with introduction of vitamin A-fortified staple foods, alongside continued biannual high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS).

Objective: We describe coverage of vitamin A interventions and vitamin A status in the 2015-2016 Malawi Micronutrient Survey.

Methods: Food samples and biospecimens were collected within a representative household survey across 105 clusters. Read More

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Extreme enhanced myometrial vascularity following cesarean scar pregnancy: a new diagnostic entity.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Mar 17:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Objective: To define, illustrate and to follow-up the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of a subset of the known enhanced myometrial vascularity (EMV): its extreme form, associated with cesarean scar pregnancies (CSP) and with some cases pf placenta accreta spectrum being at increased risk of significant bleeding complications. We also aim to provide guidance to the management of such cases.

Material And Methods: This is an IRB-approved retrospective observational study of thirteen patients with an extreme form of EMV complicating CSPs. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 on Mortality of Pregnant and Postpartum Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Pregnancy 2021 5;2021:8870129. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Based on what is known at this time, pregnant women are at an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mortality of pregnant and postpartum women, we performed a systematic review of available published literature on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Read More

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The effect of simulated gestational weight gain on balance, gait, and fear of falling.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2021 Feb;83(1):41-49

Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

The effects of pregnancy on balance with the eyes closed and maximum walking speed remain unclarified. The present study aimed to examine the effect of simulated gestational weight gain on balance, gait, and fear of falling in nulligravid women to enhance understanding of the impact of gestational weight gain. We prospectively evaluated the following outcomes in 24 healthy nulligravid women with and without a maternity-simulation jacket that simulated third-trimester pregnancy. Read More

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February 2021

Associations between Zinc and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Preschool Children and Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of Representative Survey Data from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) Project.

J Nutr 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Alimentation, Nutrition, Sante (E6), Qualisud, Université Montpellier, Université Avignon, CIRAD, Institut Agro, IRD, Université de la Reunion, Montpellier, France.

Background: Anemia is a worldwide concern. Nutritional deficiencies and inflammation are considered main contributors, but zinc deficiency has only recently been associated with anemia.

Objectives: In this study we assessed associations between zinc status and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anemia in preschool children 6-59 mo old (PSC) and nonpregnant women of reproductive age 15-49 y old (WRA) in population-based nutrition surveys. Read More

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Uptake and safety of community-based "screen-and-treat" with thermal ablation preventive therapy for cervical cancer prevention in rural Lilongwe, Malawi.

Int J Cancer 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Global Women's Health, University of North Carolina Project-Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Malawi has the highest invasive cervical cancer (ICC) mortality rate worldwide, and ICC is the leading cause of cancer death among women. In 2004, Malawi adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and ablative treatment with cryotherapy. However, screening coverage has remained low (<30%) and few women (<50%) who require ablative treatment receive it. Read More

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