10,830 results match your criteria nonpregnant

Resynchronizing the first eligible estrus in dairy cattle after a prior insemination and fertility of the prior insemination after gonadotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone treatments.

Theriogenology 2021 Apr 30;170:54-66. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506-0201, United States.

The hypothesis of this study tested whether application of designed treatments to synchronize estrus in nonpregnant previously inseminated lactating dairy cows increased the proportion of nonpregnant cows in estrus before early pregnancy diagnosis on Day 32 after the previous insemination (Day 0) and increase fertility of the pretreatment insemination. A progesterone insert (CIDR) and GnRH were applied to cows after insemination to resynchronize the returning estrus of cows that failed to conceive on Day 0. The combination of GnRH (Day 14) and a CIDR insert (d 17 through 24) in experiment 1 (n = 347 cows) did not increase (P = 0. Read More

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Vitamin D status in Armenian women: a stratified cross-sectional cluster analysis.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Vitamin D plays a critical role in skeletal development and maintenance, thus sufficiency is an important goal for public health programs. Given the absence of foods fortified in vitamin D in Armenia, we hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency would be widespread.

Methods: We conducted a random modified cluster model survey of vitamin D status of women in the country. Read More

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Evaluation of uterine scar healing by transvaginal ultrasound in 607 nonpregnant women with a history of cesarean section.

BMC Womens Health 2021 May 13;21(1):199. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 1665 Kong Jiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: Caesarean scar defect (CSD) seriously affects female reproductive health. In this study, we aim to evaluate uterine scar healing by transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in nonpregnant women with cesarean section (CS) history and to build a predictive model for cesarean scar defects is very necessary.

Methods: A total of 607 nonpregnant women with previous CS who have transvaginal ultrasound measurements of the thickness of the lower uterine segment. Read More

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Immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines in Pregnant and Lactating Women.

JAMA 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Pregnant women are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 but have been excluded from the phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trials. Data on vaccine safety and immunogenicity in these populations are therefore limited.

Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in pregnant and lactating women, including against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Read More

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Biochemical markers for pregnancy in the spent culture medium of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

Biol Reprod 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

The present study aimed to identify biomarkers to assess the quality of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos in the culture media. IVP embryos on Day (D) 5 of development were transferred to individual drops, where they were maintained for the last 48 h of culture. Thereafter, the medium was collected and the embryos were transferred to the recipients. Read More

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Baseline Hemoglobin, Hepcidin, Ferritin, and Total Body Iron Stores are Equally Strong Diagnostic Predictors of a Hemoglobin Response to 12 Weeks of Daily Iron Supplementation in Cambodian Women.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: The WHO recommends daily iron supplementation for all women in areas where the population-level anemia prevalence is ≥40%, despite the fact that hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is generally considered to be a poor prognostic indicator of iron status.

Objectives: In this secondary analysis, we investigated the predictive power of ten baseline hematological biomarkers towards a 12-week Hb response to iron supplementation.

Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial of daily iron supplementation in 407 nonpregnant Cambodian women (18-45 years) who received 60 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate for 12 weeks. Read More

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The Inclusion of Folic Acid in Weekly Iron-Folic Acid Supplements Confers no Additional Benefit on Anemia Reduction in Nonpregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Malaysia.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Food, Nutrition, and Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Weekly iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements are recommended for all menstruating women in countries where anemia prevalence is ≥20%; however, it is unknown whether the inclusion of folic acid in weekly IFA supplements reduces anemia.

Objectives: We examined whether the inclusion of folic acid in weekly IFA supplements conferred any benefit on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, anemia reduction, or iron status [ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)], over iron alone.

Methods: In this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Malaysia, n = 311 nonpregnant women (18-45 y old) received 60 mg Fe with either 0, 0. Read More

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Association between measures of adiposity and blood pressure levels in adult Cameroonians.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;4(2):e259. Epub 2021 May 3.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit Medical Research Council Cape Town South Africa.

Introduction: Several anthropometric measurements are variably recommended to assess adiposity in routine practice, with less agreement on their comparative performance. We assessed and compared the relationship of seven anthropometric measures of adiposity-waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), Body Mass Index (BMI), Ponderal Index (PI), Conicity Index (C index), A Body Shape Index (ABSI), and Body Roundness Index (BRI)-with blood pressure (BP) levels and prevalent hypertension in adult Cameroonians.

Methods: Data were collected as Cameroon's contribution to the global May Measurement Month 2017(MMM17) survey. Read More

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Pregnancy and delivery considerations during COVID-19.

Cleve Clin J Med 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Director, Pre-Anesthesia Consultation Clinics, Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Pregnant women are also affected by COVID-19, with infection rates similar to nonpregnant women. Labor and delivery by a women with COVID-19 presents unique challenges for ensuring the safety of the mother, fetus, and newborn as well as the safety of clinicians and other healthcare personnel. In this article, we present perinatal obstetric anesthetic management strategies derived from the best available evidence to provide guidance in caring for the obstetric patient with COVID-19. Read More

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An Empirically Derived Definition of Metabolically Healthy Obesity Based on Risk of Cardiovascular and Total Mortality.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218505. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.

Importance: People classified by a priori definitions as having metabolically healthy obesity have frequently been found to be at increased risk of mortality, compared with individuals with metabolically healthy normal weight, suggesting these definitions may be insufficient.

Objectives: To systematically derive a new definition of metabolic health (MH) and investigate its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and total mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In a cohort study using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), a representative survey using complex multistage probability sampling, anthropometric factors, biomarkers, and blood pressure (BP) associated with total and CVD mortality among participants with obesity were identified with Cox proportional hazards regression. Read More

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Population pharmacodynamic modeling of intramuscular and oral dexamethasone and betamethasone effects on six biomarkers with circadian complexities in Indian women.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis was performed for extensive data for differing dosage forms and routes for dexamethasone (DEX) and betamethasone (BET) in 48 healthy nonpregnant Indian women in a partial and complex cross-over design. Single doses of 6 mg dexamethasone phosphate (DEX-P), betamethasone phosphate (BET-P), or 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and acetate (BET-PA) were administered orally (PO) or intramuscularly (IM) where each woman enrolled in a two-period cross-over study. Plasma concentrations collected over 96 h were described with a two-compartment model with differing PO and IM first-order absorption inputs. Read More

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Hospital Admissions from the Emergency Department and Subsequent Critical Care Interventions for Influenza during Pregnancy.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective:  The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether obstetrical patients were more likely to be admitted from the emergency department (ED) for influenza compared with nonpregnant women, and (2) require critical care interventions once admitted.

Study Design:  Using data from the 2006 to 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, ED encounters for influenza for women aged 15 to 54 years without underlying chronic medical conditions were identified. Women were categorized as pregnant or nonpregnant using billing codes. Read More

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A case of successful pregnancy in a septate uterus after discharge of decidual tissue in the second trimester.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 11;9(4):2382-2384. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Perinatal Center for Maternity and Neonates Yokohama City University Medical Center Yokohama Japan.

In pregnant patients with a divided uterine cavity, the decidual tissue on the nonpregnant side may be discharged prior to the delivery of the fetus. The pregnancy can continue if the uterine contractions and vaginal bleeding are controlled and the fetus is not in distress. Read More

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Evaluation of Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women Using Automated Immunoassays.

Clin Chem 2021 Apr;67(5):772-780

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Health System, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Introduction: Automated free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays are widely available, but professional guidelines discourage their use in pregnant women due to theoretical under-recoveries attributed to increased thyroid hormone binding capacity and instead advocate the use of total T4 (TT4) or free thyroxine index (FTI). The impact of this recommendation on the classification of thyroid status in apparently euthyroid pregnant patients was evaluated.

Methods: After excluding specimens with thyroid autoantibody concentrations above reference limits, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, TT4, and T-uptake were measured on the Roche Cobas® platform in remnant clinical specimens from at least 147 nonpregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women at each trimester. Read More

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Pseudocyesis Leading to Folie-à-Deux.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Apr 24;12(2):419-423. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Pseudocyesis or false belief of pregnancy is the emergence of classical manifestations of pregnancy-nausea, breast enlargement and pigmentation, abdominal distention, amenorrhea, and labor pains-in a nonpregnant woman. It is a multifactorial disease and its development is influenced by many different elements such as neuroendocrine, social, psychodynamic, and cultural issues. "Folie-à-deux," is shared psychotic disorder, describes a syndrome in which delusion is transferred to another person who is more susceptible. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnant Women: Neuroimmune-Endocrine Changes at the Maternal-Fetal Interface.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Apr 28:1-21. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Immunopharmacology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rajasthan, Brazil.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has devastating effects on the population worldwide. Given this scenario, the extent of the impact of the disease on more vulnerable individuals, such as pregnant women, is of great concern. Although pregnancy may be a risk factor in respiratory virus infections, there are no considerable differences regarding COVID-19 severity observed between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Read More

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Acute dental pain elevates salivary oxytocin in women: a risk factor during pregnancy.

Gen Dent 2021 May-Jun;69(3):73-77

Irreversible pulpitis is an acute, brief, and painful condition. Oxytocin, cortisol, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) are released by the body in response to pain and emotional stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of salivary cortisol, sIgA, and oxytocin among patients with irreversible pulpitis. Read More

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Reproductive Health Care for Incarcerated Pregnant, Postpartum, and Nonpregnant Individuals.


Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Abstract: Obstetrician-gynecologists and other women's health care practitioners can support efforts to improve health care for incarcerated pregnant, postpartum, and nonpregnant individuals. The majority of incarcerated women are parents and are of reproductive age, which has important implications for their reproductive health care needs. The legacies of racism and resulting racialized medical outcomes shape inequities in reproductive health for all people, including those who are incarcerated. Read More

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Response to Letter to the Editor "Therapeutic Alternative to Transfusion in Nonpregnant Women With Iron Deficiency Anemia Caused by Uterine Blood Loss".

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr;60(4):566-567

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

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Therapeutic Alternative to Transfusion in Nonpregnant Women With Iron Deficiency Anemia Caused by Uterine Blood Loss.

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr;60(4):565-566

PBM Group, Hospital La Paz, Institute for Health Research, Madrid, Spain; Blood and Tissue Bank of Navarra, Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea, Pamplona, Spain.

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Current Key Challenges in Managing Maternal Sepsis.

J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2021 Apr-Jun 01;35(2):132-141

Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (Ms Roberts); and Clinical Concepts in Obstetrics, LLC, Brentwood, Tennessee (Drs Baird and Martin).

Sepsis resulting from maternal infection is the second leading cause of pregnancy-related death. Although screening and initial care of a septic nonpregnant patient is standardized in nonpregnant adults, many challenges exist for early recognition and management of sepsis and septic shock in the obstetric population. Because most sepsis research excludes pregnant patients, there are many challenges that contribute to a lack of standardized approach to maternal sepsis. Read More

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Ultraearly Thrombolysis by an Anesthesiologist in a Mobile Stroke Unit A prospective, controlled intervention study.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

The Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Acute stroke treatment in mobile stroke units (MSU) is feasible and reduces time-to-treatment, but the optimal staffing model is unknown. We wanted to explore if integrating thrombolysis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in an anesthesiologist-based emergency medical services (EMS) reduces time-to-treatment and is safe.

Methods: A nonrandomized, prospective, controlled intervention study. Read More

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Calcium signaling cascades differentially regulate PGF-induced myometrial contractions in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Smooth Muscle and Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, 281001, India.

This study unravels the differential involvement of calcium signaling pathway(s) in PGF-induced contractions in myometrium of nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant buffaloes. Compared to the myometrium of pregnant animals, myometrium of NP buffaloes was more sensitive to PGF as manifested by changes in mean integral tension (MIT) and tonicity. In the presence of nifedipine, myometrial contraction to PGF was significantly attenuated in both NP and pregnant uteri; however, mibefradil and NNC 55-0396 produced inhibitory effects only in uterus of pregnant animals, thus suggesting the role of extracellular Ca influx through nifedipine-sensitive L-type Ca-channels both in NP and pregnant, but T-type Ca channels seem to play a role only during pregnancy. Read More

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Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (T.T.S., T.R.M., P.L. Moro, L.P., P.L. Marquez, C.K.O., C.L., B.C.Z., J.M.G.), and the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (S.W.M.), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Division of Birth Defects and Infant Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (S.Y.K., V.K.B., C.J.G., D.M.M.-D.), the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (T.O., K.T.C., S.R.E., A.N.S.), the World Trade Center Health Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R.L.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (K.T.C.) - all at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta; and the Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (M.A., A.M.-J.).

Background: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy.

Methods: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons.

Results: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Read More

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Awareness, acceptability, and intention to initiate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among pregnant women.

AIDS Care 2021 Apr 19:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Women's Health Research, MedStar Health Research Institute (MHRI), Washington, DC, USA.

HIV prevention is critically important during pregnancy, however, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is underutilized. We conducted a survey of pregnant and non-pregnant women in a high HIV prevalence community in Washington D.C. Read More

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The influence of mode of delivery, anthropometric indices, and infant's sex on the maternal and cord blood orexin-A levels: A cohort study.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Orexin as an adipokin hormone plays an important role in appetite regulation, energy metabolism, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The main source of orexin secretion in nonpregnant and pregnant women is adipose tissue and placenta, respectively. This research was conducted to evaluate the association between orexin-A level and the mode of delivery, anthropometric indices, and sex of the infant. Read More

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Management of maternal COVID-19: considerations for anesthesiologists.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jun;34(3):246-253

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe updates to pragmatic recommendations that were published during the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge, including the current thinking about whether pregnancy worsens the severity of COVID-19.

Recent Findings: Although a majority of pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic, pregnancy puts women at higher risk of severe COVID-19 and adverse birth outcomes. Pregnant and recently pregnant women are more likely to be admitted to intensive care units and receive mechanical ventilation than nonpregnant patients with COVID-19, although preexisting maternal comorbidities are significant risk factors. Read More

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Risk of Symptomatic Kidney Stones During and After Pregnancy.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Rationale & Objective: There are several well-known anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy that could contribute to kidney stone formation, but evidence that they increase the risk of kidney stones during pregnancy is lacking. We determined whether there was an increased risk of a first-time symptomatic kidney stone during and after pregnancy.

Study Design: A population-based matched case-control study. Read More

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The risk of clinical complications and death among pregnant women with COVID-19 in the Cerner COVID-19 cohort: a retrospective analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 16;21(1):305. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 375 Chipeta Way, Ste A, Salt Lake City, UT, 84108, USA.

Background: Pregnant women are potentially a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks such as COVID-19, because of physiologic immune suppression in pregnancy. However, data on the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 among pregnant women, compared to nonpregnant women, are sparse and inconclusive. We sought to assess the impact of pregnancy on COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality, with particular attention to the impact of pre-existing comorbidity. Read More

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