2,285 results match your criteria nonessential proteins


Cross-Species Complementation of Nonessential Yeast Genes Establishes Platforms for Testing Inhibitors of Human Proteins.

Genetics 2020 Mar;214(3):735-747

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Given the broad utility of humanized yeast to model and study human biology, a reference set of human genes that can replace cognate yeast genes and operate in yeast is needed. Hamza et al. present. Read More

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Functional Interactions of Ribosomal Intersubunit Bridges in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1329-1339

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, 51010 Estonia.

Ribosomes of Archaea and Eukarya share higher homology with each other than with bacterial ribosomes. For example, there is a set of 35 r-proteins that are specific only for archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes. Three of these proteins-eL19, eL24, and eL41-participate in interactions between ribosomal subunits. Read More

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December 2019

Functional Interactions of Ribosomal Intersubunit Bridges in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1329-1339

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, 51010 Estonia.

Ribosomes of Archaea and Eukarya share higher homology with each other than with bacterial ribosomes. For example, there is a set of 35 r-proteins that are specific only for archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes. Three of these proteins-eL19, eL24, and eL41-participate in interactions between ribosomal subunits. Read More

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December 2019

Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy, and Food Sources of Protein and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Findings of the EsNuPI Study.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 24;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain.

Diet in the first years of life is an important factor in growth and development. Dietary protein is a critical macronutrient that provides both essential and nonessential amino acids required for sustaining all body functions and procedures, providing the structural basis to maintain life and healthy development and growth in children. In this study, our aim was to describe the total protein intake, type and food sources of protein, the adequacy to the Population Reference Intake (PRI) for protein by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) by the Institute of Medicine (IoM). Read More

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Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism in Chickens.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1285:109-131

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Both poultry meat and eggs provide high-quality animal protein [containing sufficient amounts and proper ratios of amino acids (AAs)] for human consumption and, therefore, play an important role in the growth, development, and health of all individuals. Because there are growing concerns about the suboptimal efficiencies of poultry production and its impact on environmental sustainability, much attention has been paid to the formulation of low-protein diets and precision nutrition through the addition of low-cost crystalline AAs or alternative sources of animal-protein feedstuffs. This necessitates a better understanding of AA nutrition and metabolism in chickens. Read More

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Amino Acids in Swine Nutrition and Production.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1285:81-107

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins in animals, including swine. With the development of new analytical methods and biochemical research, there is a growing interest in fundamental and applied studies to reexamine the roles and usage of amino acids (AAs) in swine production. In animal nutrition, AAs have been traditionally classified as nutritionally essential (EAAs) or nutritionally nonessential (NEAAs). Read More

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Contributions of the Four Essential Entry Glycoproteins to HSV-1 Tropism and the Selection of Entry Routes.

mBio 2021 03 2;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) encode up to 16 envelope proteins, four of which are essential for entry. However, whether these four proteins alone are sufficient to dictate the broad cellular tropism of HSV-1 and the selection of different cell type-dependent entry routes is unknown. To begin addressing this, we previously pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), lacking its native glycoprotein G, with only the four essential entry glycoproteins of HSV-1: gB, gH, gL, and gD. Read More

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A Mycobacterial Systems Resource for the Research Community.

mBio 2021 03 2;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA

Functional characterization of bacterial proteins lags far behind the identification of new protein families. This is especially true for bacterial species that are more difficult to grow and genetically manipulate than model systems such as and To facilitate functional characterization of mycobacterial proteins, we have established a Mycobacterial Systems Resource (MSR) using the model organism This resource focuses specifically on 1,153 highly conserved core genes that are common to many mycobacterial species, including , in order to provide the most relevant information and resources for the mycobacterial research community. The MSR includes both biological and bioinformatic resources. Read More

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Postruminal protein supply upregulates hepatic lysine oxidation and ornithine transcarbamoylase in lactating dairy cattle.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 21;104(4):4251-4259. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Novus International Inc., Saint Charles, MO 63304. Electronic address:

Metabolizable protein supply is a limiting factor for milk production in dairy cows, and the availability of AA is a function of the quantity of the metabolizable protein available and of hepatic AA catabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of postruminal protein infusion on key genes for ureagenesis and AA catabolism. Six multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated crossover design. Read More

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Desmethyl butenolides are optimal ligands for karrikin receptor proteins.

New Phytol 2021 05 10;230(3):1003-1016. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, 6009, Australia.

Strigolactones and karrikins are butenolide molecules that regulate plant growth. They are perceived by the α/β-hydrolase DWARF14 (D14) and its homologue KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), respectively. Plant-derived strigolactones have a butenolide ring with a methyl group that is essential for bioactivity. Read More

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ATG7 is dispensable for LC3-PE conjugation in thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages.

Autophagy 2021 Jan 18:1-6. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Medical University of Graz , Graz, Austria.

Thioglycolate-elicited macrophages exhibit abundant conjugation of LC3 with PE (LC3-II). Among other autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, it is proposed that, like in yeast, both ATG5 and ATG7 are essential for LC3 conjugation. Using -deficient ( ) and macrophages, we provide evidence that loss of ATG5 but not of ATG7 resulted in LC3-II depletion. Read More

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January 2021

Assessing amino acid uptake and metabolism in mammary glands of lactating dairy cows intravenously infused with methionine, lysine, and histidine or with leucine and isoleucine.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Mar 15;104(3):3032-3051. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24060. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of jugular infusions of 2 groups of AA on essential AA (EAA) transport and metabolism by mammary glands. Four Holstein cows in second lactation (66 ± 10 d in milk) were used in 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were jugular infusions of saline; Met, Lys, and His (MKH); Ile and Leu (IL); or MKH plus IL (MKH+IL). Read More

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Signal Recognition Particle Suppressor Screening Reveals the Regulation of Membrane Protein Targeting by the Translation Rate.

mBio 2021 01 12;12(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China

The signal recognition particle (SRP) is conserved in all living organisms, and it cotranslationally delivers proteins to the inner membrane or endoplasmic reticulum. Recently, SRP loss was found not to be lethal in either the eukaryote or the prokaryote In , the role of SRP in mediating inner membrane protein (IMP) targeting has long been studied. However, the essentiality of SRP remains a controversial topic, partly hindered by the lack of strains in which SRP is completely absent. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular cloning, the characterization of metallothionein and catalase, and the evaluation of testicular toxicity of Cd in the Chinese fire-bellied newt (Cynops orientalis).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 4;208:111731. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

College of Life and Environmental Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and a nonessential metal. Cd can attack a wide range of organs, such as the liver, kidney, lung, ovary, testis, brain, and muscle in vertebrates. Among these organs, the testis might be the most sensitive organ to Cd toxicity. Read More

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January 2021

"Non-Essential" Proteins of HSV-1 with Essential Roles In Vivo: A Comprehensive Review.

Viruses 2020 12 23;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

Viruses encode for structural proteins that participate in virion formation and include capsid and envelope proteins. In addition, viruses encode for an array of non-structural accessory proteins important for replication, spread, and immune evasion in the host and are often linked to virus pathogenesis. Most virus accessory proteins are non-essential for growth in cell culture because of the simplicity of the infection barriers or because they have roles only during a state of the infection that does not exist in cell cultures (i. Read More

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December 2020

Bud23 promotes the final disassembly of the small subunit Processome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 11;16(12):e1009215. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

The first metastable assembly intermediate of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit (SSU) is the SSU Processome, a large complex of RNA and protein factors that is thought to represent an early checkpoint in the assembly pathway. Transition of the SSU Processome towards continued maturation requires the removal of the U3 snoRNA and biogenesis factors as well as ribosomal RNA processing. While the factors that drive these events are largely known, how they do so is not. Read More

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December 2020

[Generation and evaluation of a recombinant myxomavirus expressing the VP60 protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2020 Oct;36(10):2083-2091

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, China.

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and myxoma virus (MYXV), are two pathogens that have harmful effect on rabbit breeding and population decline of European rabbits in their native range, causing rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rabbit fever) and myxomatosis, respectively. The capsid protein VP60 of the RHDV represents the major antigenic protein. To develop a recombinant bivalent vaccine candidate that can simultaneously prevent these two diseases, we used the nonessential gene TK (thymidine kinase) of MYXV as the insertion site to construct a recombinant shuttle vector p7. Read More

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October 2020

Fragment-derived modulators of an industrial β-glucosidase.

Biochem J 2020 11;477(22):4383-4395

Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, U.K.

A fragment screen of a library of 560 commercially available fragments using a kinetic assay identified a small molecule that increased the activity of the fungal glycoside hydrolase TrBgl2. An analogue by catalogue approach and detailed kinetic analysis identified improved compounds that behaved as nonessential activators with up to a 2-fold increase in maximum activation. The compounds did not activate the related bacterial glycoside hydrolase CcBglA demonstrating specificity. Read More

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November 2020

Fusion peptide engineered "statically-versatile" titanium implant simultaneously enhancing anti-infection, vascularization and osseointegration.

Biomaterials 2021 01 9;264:120446. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Although antimicrobial titanium implants can prevent biomaterial-associated infection (BAI) in orthopedics, they display cytotoxicity and delayed osseointegration. Therefore, versatile implants are desirable for simultaneously inhibiting BAI and promoting osseointegration, especially "statically-versatile" ones with nonessential external stimulations for facilitating applications. Herein, we develop a "statically-versatile" titanium implant by immobilizing an innovative fusion peptide (FP) containing HHC36 antimicrobial sequence and QK angiogenic sequence via sodium borohydride reduction promoted Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC-SB), which shows higher immobilization efficiency than traditional CuAAC with sodium ascorbate reduction (CuAAC-SA). Read More

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January 2021

Glycine, the smallest amino acid, confers neuroprotection against D-galactose-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment by regulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the mouse brain.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Oct 15;17(1):303. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Life Sciences and Applied Life Science (BK 21plus), College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea.

Background: Glycine is the smallest nonessential amino acid and has previously unrecognized neurotherapeutic effects. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of glycine (Gly) against neuroapoptosis, neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and memory impairment resulting from D-galactose-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the onset of neurodegeneration in the brains of C57BL/6N mice.

Methods: After in vivo administration of D-galactose (D-gal; 100 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally (i/p); for 60 days) alone or in combination with glycine (1 g/kg/day in saline solution; subcutaneously; for 60 days), all of the mice were sacrificed for further biochemical (ROS/lipid peroxidation (LPO) assay, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry) after behavioral analyses. Read More

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October 2020

The Dual Role of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Alzheimer's Disease: From Pathophysiology to Pharmacotherapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 9;21(20). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related dementia and neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by Aβ and tau protein deposition impairing learning, memory and suppressing synaptic plasticity of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that there is a link between the glucose and glutamate alterations with age that down-regulates glucose utilization reducing glutamate levels in AD patients. Deviations in brain energy metabolism reinforce the development of AD by hampering glutamate levels in the brain. Read More

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October 2020

Identification of Host Genes That Influence the Bacteriophage Lambda (λ) T4 Exclusion (Rex) Phenotype.

Genetics 2020 12 8;216(4):1087-1102. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada

The T4r exclusion (Rex) phenotype is the inability of T4 mutant bacteriophage to propagate in hosts () lysogenized by bacteriophage lambda (λ). The Rex phenotype, triggered by T4 infection of a λ lysogen, results in rapid membrane depolarization imposing a harsh cellular environment that resembles stationary phase. Rex "activation" has been proposed as an altruistic cell death system to protect the λ prophage and its host from T4r superinfection. Read More

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December 2020

Role of Amino Acids in Blood Glucose Changes in Young Adults Consuming Cereal with Milks Varying in Casein and Whey Concentrations and Their Ratio.

J Nutr 2020 12;150(12):3103-3113

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Increasing the total protein content and reducing the casein to whey ratio in milks consumed with breakfast cereal reduce postprandial blood glucose (BG).

Objectives: We aimed to explore associations between plasma amino acids (AAs), BG, and glucoregulatory hormones.

Methods: In this repeated-measures design, 12 healthy adults consumed cereal (58 g) and milks (250 mL) with 3. Read More

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December 2020

Over-activation of a nonessential bacterial protease DegP as an antibiotic strategy.

Commun Biol 2020 Oct 1;3(1):547. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

Rising antibiotic resistance urgently begs for novel targets and strategies for antibiotic discovery. Here, we report that over-activation of the periplasmic DegP protease, a member of the highly conserved HtrA family, can be a viable strategy for antibiotic development. We demonstrate that tripodal peptidyl compounds that mimic DegP-activating lipoprotein variants allosterically activate DegP and inhibit the growth of an Escherichia coli strain with a permeable outer membrane in a DegP-dependent fashion. Read More

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October 2020

Accessory Gene Products of Influenza A Virus.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian EH25 9RG, United Kingdom.

Influenza A virus has long been known to encode 10 major polypeptides, produced, almost without exception, by every natural isolate of the virus. These polypeptides are expressed in readily detectable amounts during infection and are either fully essential or their loss severely attenuates virus replication. More recent work has shown that this core proteome is elaborated by expression of a suite of accessory gene products that tend to be expressed at lower levels through noncanonical transcriptional and/or translational events. Read More

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September 2020

Identification of the largest non-essential regions of the C-terminal portion in 3A protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus for replication in cell culture.

Virol J 2020 09 14;17(1):137. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1 Xujiaping, Yanchangbao, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, PR China.

Background: Recent study has shown that the C-terminal portion of 3A (amino acids (aa) 81-153) is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cell culture, however, the complete C-terminal portion (aa 77-153) of 3A is highly variable and prone to occur deletions and mutations, therefore, we presume that this region plays a very limited role and probablely is completely nonessential for virus viability.

Methods: In this study, to identify the largest non-essential region of the C-terminal portion in 3A for FMDV viability, several deletions containing aa 80-153, 77-153 and 76-153 of 3A protein were introduced into an FMDV full-length infectious cDNA clone pOFS by the overlapping extension PCR. Additionally, to explore the importance of the highly conserved residue 76 L of 3A for the FMDV of Cathay topotype, two mutants containing 3A L76I and 3A L76V were generated based on the 3A deletion mutant by point mutation. Read More

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September 2020

DrpB (YedR) Is a Nonessential Cell Division Protein in Escherichia coli.

J Bacteriol 2020 11 4;202(23). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

We report that the small membrane protein DrpB (formerly YedR) is involved in cell division. We discovered DrpB in a screen for multicopy suppressors of a Δ mutation that prevents divisome assembly when cells are plated on low ionic strength medium, such as lysogeny broth without NaCl. Characterization of DrpB revealed that (i) translation initiates at an ATG annotated as codon 22 rather than the GTG annotated as codon 1, (ii) DrpB localizes to the septal ring when cells are grown in medium of low ionic strength but localization is greatly reduced in medium of high ionic strength, (iii) overproduction of DrpB in a Δ mutant background improves recruitment of the septal peptidoglycan synthase FtsI, implying multicopy suppression works by rescuing septal ring assembly, (iv) a Δ mutant divides quite normally, but a Δ Δ double mutant has a strong division and viability defect, albeit only in medium of high ionic strength, and (v) DrpB homologs are found in and a few closely related enteric bacteria, but not outside this group. Read More

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November 2020

Systematic Reconstruction of the Complete Two-Component Sensorial Network in Staphylococcus aureus.

mSystems 2020 Aug 18;5(4). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Laboratory of Microbial Pathogenesis, Navarrabiomed, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN)-Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA), IDISNA, Pamplona, Spain

In bacteria, adaptation to changes in the environment is mainly controlled through two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs). Most bacteria contain dozens of TCSs, each of them responsible for sensing a different range of signals and controlling the expression of a repertoire of target genes (regulon). Over the years, identification of the regulon controlled by each individual TCS in different bacteria has been a recurrent question. Read More

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Functions of the BamBCDE Lipoproteins Revealed by Bypass Mutations in BamA.

J Bacteriol 2020 10 8;202(21). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

The heteropentomeric β-barrel assembly machine (BAM complex) is responsible for folding and inserting a diverse array of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) into the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. The BAM complex contains two essential proteins, the β-barrel OMP BamA and a lipoprotein BamD, whereas the auxiliary lipoproteins BamBCE are individually nonessential. Here, we identify and characterize three mutations, the E-to-K change at position 470 ( ), the A-to-P change at position 496 ( ), and the A-to-S change at position 499 ( ), that suppress the otherwise lethal Δ, Δ Δ Δ, and Δ Δ Δ mutations. Read More

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October 2020

Diverse functions of deadenylases in DNA damage response and genomic integrity.

Authors:
Yong-Bin Yan

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 May 13;12(3):e1621. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

DNA damage response (DDR) is a coordinated network of diverse cellular processes including the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA lesions, the adjustment of metabolic network and cell fate determination. To deal with the unavoidable DNA damage caused by either endogenous or exogenous stresses, the cells need to reshape the gene expression profile to allow efficient transcription and translation of DDR-responsive messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and to repress the nonessential mRNAs. A predominant method to adjust RNA fate is achieved by modulating the 3'-end oligo(A) or poly(A) length via the opposing actions of polyadenylation and deadenylation. Read More

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