22,663 results match your criteria nitrous oxide


A predictive model for NO production in anammox-granular sludge reactors: Combined effects of nitrite/ammonium ratio and organic matter concentration.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 23;297:113295. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Laboratory of Biological Processes, Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. João Dagnone, 1100, Jd. Santa Angelina, 13563-120, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Once the use of anammox reactors has been increasing on a global scale, it is important to understand the mechanisms of NO emissions and how to minimise the emissions by optimising the operating conditions. In this study, the influence of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from 0 mgO L to 100 mgO L) and nitrite/ammonium ratio from 0.79 to 2. Read More

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Liming improves the stability of soil microbial community structures against the application of digestate made from dairy wastes.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 23;297:113356. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Global Center for Food, Land and Water Resources, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Electronic address:

Lime is used to reduce soil acidification in agricultural soils. However, its effects on the soil microbial community are not well understood. Additionally, the soil microbial community is known to be influenced by fertilizers. Read More

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[Effects of Coconut Chaff Biochar Amendment on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Paddy Fields in Hot Areas].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3931-3942

College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

Based on the rice-vegetable crop rotation model, in-situ measurements of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) emissions were conducted in double-cropping rice fields in Hainan to determine the impact of coconut chaff biochar on greenhouse gas emissions. The experiment involved four treatments:conventional farming fertilization (CON), nitrogen fertilizer combined with 20 t ·hm biochar (B1), nitrogen fertilizer combined with 40 t ·hm biochar (B2), and no nitrogen fertilizer, as the control (CK). The NO and CH emissions were measured using static chamber-gas chromatography during the two paddy seasons, and the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were also estimated. Read More

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Production of -NaNO and NaNO by Ball Milling NaO and NO in Alkali Metal Halide Salts.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 8;6(28):18248-18252. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124, United States.

Ball milling of sodium oxides and alkali metal halide salts under a pressure of 2 atm nitrous oxide at temperatures of 38 ± 4 °C is reported. After 2.5 h of ball milling, FTIR data for both NO and NO additions show conclusively that -NaNO is formed based on excellent agreement with data reported earlier by Jansen and Feldmann who prepared pure crystalline -NaNO by reaction of sodium oxide and nitrous oxide for 2 h at 360 °C in a tube furnace. Read More

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Temporal triggers of NO emissions during cyclical and seasonal variations of a full-scale sequencing batch reactor treating municipal wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 18;797:149093. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To investigate the major triggers of nitrous oxide (NO) production in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, NO emissions and wastewater characteristics (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific oxygen uptake rate), the results of variations in the cycling of a sequential batch reactor (SBR, where only full nitrification was performed), were monitored seasonally for 16 months. Major triggers of NO production were investigated based on a seasonal measured database using a random forest (RF) model and sensitivity analysis, which was applied to identify important input variables. As the result of seasonal monitoring in the full-scale SBR, the NO emission factor relative to daily total nitrogen removal ranged from 0. Read More

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Nitrous oxide fluxes from long-term limed soils following P and glucose addition: Nonlinear response to liming rates and interaction from added P.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;797:148933. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark; iCLIMATE, Aarhus University Interdisciplinary Centre for Climate Change, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.

Liming of acidic soils to regulate pH for crop growth may decrease emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) due to direct effects of pH on the synthesis of NO reductases by denitrifying bacteria. However, liming also changes general pH-dependent soil properties, including availability of phosphorus (P), with a feedback on NO fluxes that remains largely unknown. Here we used a mesocosm approach to study the combined role of liming and P in regulating NO fluxes from denitrification in an arable coarse sandy soil where NO emissions under field condition coincided with rainfall events and irrigation, which facilitated anoxia. Read More

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Solid-gas reactions for nitroxyl (HNO) generation in the gas phase.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jul 9;223:111535. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica, y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, INQUIMAE-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

We present a novel nitroxyl (HNO) generation method, which avoids the need of using a liquid system or extreme experimental conditions. This method consists of the reaction between a gaseous base and an HNO donor (Piloty's acid) in the solid phase, allowing the formation of gaseous HNO in a fast and economical way. Detection of HNO was carried out indirectly, measuring the nitrous oxide (NO) byproduct of HNO dimerization using infrared spectroscopy, and directly, using mass spectrometry techniques and an electrochemical HNO sensor. Read More

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Long-Term Fertilization Alters Nitrous Oxide Cycling Dynamics in Salt Marsh Sediments.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton 08544, New Jersey, United States.

Salt marsh sediments are known hotspots for nitrogen cycling, including the production and consumption of nitrous oxide (NO), a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting agent. Coastal eutrophication, particularly elevated nitrogen loading from the application of fertilizers, is accelerating nitrogen cycling processes in salt marsh sediments. Here, we examine the impact of long-term fertilization on nitrogen cycling processes with a focus on NO dynamics in a New England salt marsh. Read More

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Important reminder: nitrous oxide (NO) as a cause of functional vitamin B deficiency.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 21;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Internal Medicine, Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan, USA

A 32-year-old woman who misused multiple substances, including nitrous oxide (NO), sought medical advice after she subacutely developed bilateral lower extremity weakness without a sensory level but with ataxia-her significant other developed similar symptoms with vitamin B deficiency due to NO intake. Laboratory results revealed macrocytic anaemia despite normal B and folate levels, with serum markers pointing towards functional cobalamin deficiency. Spinal MRIs and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were unremarkable. Read More

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Drug-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: Diagnosis and Management.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Internal Medicine Naef K. Basile Cancer Institute American University of Beirut Medical Center Riad El Solh 1107 2020 Beirut, Lebanon.

Peripheral neuropathy comes in all shapes and forms and is a disorder which is found in the peripheral nervous system. It can have an acute or chronic onset depending on the multitude of pathophysiologic mechanisms involving different parts of nerve fibers. A systematic approach is highly beneficial when it comes to cost-effective diagnosis. Read More

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Persistence and spread of tetracycline resistance genes and microbial community variations in the soil of animal corrals in a semi-arid planted forest.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Natural Resources, Gilat Research Center, Agriculture Research Organization, Mobile Post Negev 8531100, Israel.

At the spring, goat and sheep herds are transferred to planted forests, in a semi-arid region in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, to reduce herbaceous biomass and, fire risk. The herds are held overnight in corrals for about four months, enriching the soil with organic matter and nitrogen. This research examined the effect of these enrichments on soil bacterial community structure (BCS) and the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in active and abandoned corrals (1-10 years old). Read More

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Responses of Low-Cost Input Combinations on the Microbial Structure of the Maize Rhizosphere for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Plant Biomass Production.

Front Plant Sci 2021 30;12:683658. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Soil EcoGenomics Laboratory, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The microbial composition of the rhizosphere and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the most common input combinations in maize ( L.) cultivated in Brazil have not been characterized yet. In this study, we evaluated the influence of maize stover coverage (S), urea-topdressing fertilization (F), and the microbial inoculant (I) on soil GHG emissions and rhizosphere microbial communities during maize development. Read More

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Nitrous Oxide Abuse Associated with Severe Thromboembolic Complications.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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How could simulated dewatering of slurry mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from fall and spring injections? - A modelling study in a Chernozem soil in Western Canada.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 6;796:148758. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Process-based ecosystem models, such as ecosys, can be useful tools to gain insights and accurately project nitrous oxide (NO) inventories in national, regional and global scales, and to explore potential emission reduction strategies. Our objectives are to investigate how the ecosys model simulate the effects of fall and spring slurry injections on NO production and if de-watering slurry could become a potential NO mitigation strategy for both fall and spring injections. The ecosys model was used to simulate hourly NO fluxes from 2014 to 2017 in a cropping system with and without slurry (fall and spring additions) in comparison with field measurements in Alberta, Canada. Read More

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Tree manipulation experiment for the short-term effect of tree cutting on NO emission: A evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical modeling.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 9;288:117725. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Japan.

Considerable uncertainty exists with regard to the effects of thinning and harvesting on NO emissions as a result of changes caused in the belowground environment by tree cutting. To evaluate on the effects of changes in the belowground environment on NO emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction or slash falling near measurement chambers and measured NO emission at distances of 50 and 150 cm from the tree stem (stump) before and after cutting. In addition, we inferred the effects of logging on the emission using a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) model. Read More

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Microbial Communities and Interactions of Nitrogen Oxides With Methanogenesis in Diverse Peatlands of the Amazon Basin.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:659079. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.

Tropical peatlands are hotspots of methane (CH) production but present high variation and emission uncertainties in the Amazon region. This is because the controlling factors of methane production in tropical peats are not yet well documented. Although inhibitory effects of nitrogen oxides (NO ) on methanogenic activity are known from pure culture studies, the role of NO in the methane cycling of peatlands remains unexplored. Read More

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Hot moments drive extreme nitrous oxide and methane emissions from agricultural peatlands.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Ecosystem Science Division, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California at Berkeley, USA.

Agricultural peatlands are estimated to emit approximately one third of global greenhouse gas emissions from croplands, but the temporal dynamics and controls of these emissions are poorly understood, particularly for nitrous oxide (N O). We used cavity ringdown spectroscopy and automated chambers in a drained agricultural peatland to measure over 70,000 individual N O, methane (CH ), and carbon dioxide (CO ) fluxes over 3 years. Our results showed that N O fluxes were high, contributing 26% (annual range: 16-35%) of annual CO e emissions. Read More

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Effects of microplastics on soil organic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in the context of straw incorporation: A comparison with different types of soil.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 8;288:117733. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, And State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

Plastic mulching and straw incorporation are common agricultural practices in China. Plastic mulching is suspected to be a significant source of microplastics in terrestrial environments. Straw incorporation has many effects on the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas emissions, but these effects have not been studied in the presence of microplastic pollution. Read More

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Effects of experimental fire in combination with climate warming on greenhouse gas fluxes in Arctic tundra soils.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 3;795:148847. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.

The frequency and severity of fire is increasing in Arctic tundra regions with climate change. Here we investigated effects of experimental low-intensity fire and shrub cutting, in combination with warming, on soil biogeochemical cycles and post-fire greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a dry heath tundra, West Greenland. We performed in vitro incubation experiments based on soil samples collected for up to two years after the fire. Read More

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A rise in cases of nitrous oxide abuse: neurological complications and biological findings.

J Neurol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Service de Neurologie, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 Avenue Molière, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The recent lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to a higher incidence of psychiatric manifestations and substance abuse. The recreative use of nitrous oxide is more and more widespread and neurological complications are frequent.

Methods: We report clinical characteristics and biological findings of five consecutive patients presenting to our tertiary care center between April 2020 and February 2021 with various neurological symptoms occurring after recent nitrous oxide abuse. Read More

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New local electrical diagnostic tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD).

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):053552

Service Commun d'ELectronique, SCEL-UPS, 31062 Toulouse, France.

A new diagnostic tool to study dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) at atmospheric pressure by local electrical measurements is introduced. The square ground electrode is divided into 64 square segments (3.44 mm side length) so as to measure the discharge currents and gas voltages with spatial resolutions, which allows a 2D mapping. Read More

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Sodium borohydride and thiol mediated nitrite release from nitroaromatic antibiotics.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jul 7;48:128245. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Wake Forest University, Department of Chemistry, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, United States of America. Electronic address:

Nitroaromatic antibiotics are used to treat a variety of bacterial and parasitic infections. These prodrugs require reductive bioactivation for activity, which provides a pathway for the release of nitrogen oxide species such as nitric oxide, nitrite, and/or nitroxyl. Using sodium borohydride and 2-aminoethanol as model reductants, this work examines release of nitrogen oxide species from various nitroaromatic compounds through several characterization methods. Read More

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Photochemistry of NHNO and implications for chemistry in the atmosphere.

J Chem Phys 2021 May;154(19):194301

Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323, USA.

Recent studies have indicated that nitramide (NHNO) may be formed more plentifully in the atmosphere than previously thought, while also being a missing source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) via catalyzed isomerization. To validate the importance of NHNO in the Earth's atmosphere, the ground and first electronic excited states of NHNO were characterized and its photochemistry was investigated using multireference and coupled cluster methods. NHNO is non-planar and of singlet multiplicity in the ground state while exhibiting large out-of-plane rotation in the triplet first excited state. Read More

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Responses of soil N O emissions and their abiotic and biotic drivers to altered rainfall regimes and co-occurring wet N deposition in a semi-arid grassland.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Microbial Ecology Centre LEM, INRAE UMR 1418, CNRS UMR 5557, VetAgroSup, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France.

Global change factors such as changed rainfall regimes and nitrogen (N) deposition contribute to increases in the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N O) from the soil. In previous research, N deposition has often been simulated by using a single or a series of N addition events over the course of a year, but wet N deposition actually co-occurs with rainfall. How soil N O emissions respond to altered rainfall amount and frequency, wet N deposition, and their interactions is still not fully understood. Read More

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The Role of Dexmedetomidine in Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Via a Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanism in Rats.

Transplant Proc 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Dexmedetomidine is known to protect against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in various organs; however, the mechanisms of dexmedetomidine in the liver remain unclear. We investigated whether dexmedetomidine preconditioning leads to hepatic protection and whether nitric oxide was associated with this protective mechanism by employing N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitrous oxide synthase inhibitor.

Methods: Experiment 1 included 24 rats in 4 groups: sham, IR, 30 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine, and 50 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine. Read More

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Synergistic Effects of Aquatic Plants and Cyanobacterial Blooms on the Nitrous Oxide Emission from Wetlands.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ecological Sciences and Engineering, College of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045, China.

Wetlands provide a habitat for the symbiosis of multiple plants and play a significant role in global NO emissions. The metabolic traits and effects on microorganisms, which regulate the conversion of nitrogen to NO, varies with plant species. The frequent occurrences of cyanobacterial blooms in wetlands can also have a positive or negative effect on denitrification, entangling NO emissions. Read More

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Diurnal variability in soil nitrous oxide emissions is a widespread phenomenon.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK.

Manual measurements of nitrous oxide (N O) emissions with static chambers are commonly practised. However, they generally do not consider the diurnal variability of N O flux, and little is known about the patterns and drivers of such variability. We systematically reviewed and analysed 286 diurnal data sets of N O fluxes from published literature to (i) assess the prevalence and timing (day or night peaking) of diurnal N O flux patterns in agricultural and forest soils, (ii) examine the relationship between N O flux and soil temperature with different diurnal patterns, (iii) identify whether non-diurnal factors (i. Read More

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Organic fertility inputs synergistically increase denitrification-derived nitrous oxide emissions in agroecosystems.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jul 7:e02403. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Soil fertility in organic agriculture relies on microbial cycling of nutrient inputs from legume cover crops and animal manure. However, large quantities of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in these amendments may promote the production and emission of nitrous oxide (N O) from soils. Better ecological understanding of the N O emission controls may lead to new management strategies to reduce these emissions. Read More

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Cerebral Blood Flow of the Neonatal Brain after Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective:  Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in infants can have long-term adverse neurodevelopmental effects and markedly reduce quality of life. Both the initial hypoperfusion and the subsequent rapid reperfusion can cause deleterious effects in brain tissue. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessment in newborns with HIE can help detect abnormalities in brain perfusion to guide therapy and prognosticate patient outcomes. Read More

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