1,448 results match your criteria niche space

Priority effects and the macroevolutionary dynamics of biodiversity.

Ecol Lett 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK.

Priority effects can play a fundamental role in the assembly of ecological communities, but how they shape the dynamics of biodiversity over macroevolutionary timescales remains unclear. Here we develop and analyse a metacommunity model combining local priority effects with niche evolution, speciation and extinction. We show that by promoting the persistence of rare species, local priority effects cause the evolution of higher metacommunity diversity as well as major disparities in richness among evolutionary lineages. Read More

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Reopening Schools After a Novel Coronavirus Surge.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:785-813

Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic shook the world in ways not seen since the pandemic influenza of 1918-1919. As of late August 2020, over 25 million persons had been infected, and we will see the global death toll exceed one million by the end of 2020. Both are minimum estimates. Read More

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Earliest Palaeocene purgatoriids and the initial radiation of stem primates.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 24;8(2):210050. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Plesiadapiform mammals, as stem primates, are key to understanding the evolutionary and ecological origins of Pan-Primates and Euarchonta. The Purgatoriidae, as the geologically oldest and most primitive known plesiadapiforms and one of the oldest known placental groups, are also central to the evolutionary radiation of placentals and the Cretaceous-Palaeogene biotic recovery on land. Here, we report new dental fossils of from early Palaeocene (early Puercan) age deposits in northeastern Montana that represent the earliest dated occurrences of plesiadapiforms. Read More

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February 2021

The ecological niche of reported rabies cases in Canada is similar to Alaska.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

The ecology of rabies in the circumpolar North is still not well understood. We use machine learning, a geographic information system and data explicit in time and space obtained for reported rabies cases and predictors in Canada to develop an ecological niche model for the distribution of reported rabies cases in the American north (Alaska and Canada). The ecological niche model based on reported rabies cases in Canada predicted reported rabies cases in Alaska, suggesting a rather robust inference and even similar drivers on a continental scale. Read More

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Combining Mobilizing Agents with Busulfan to Reduce Chemotherapy-Based Conditioning for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Cells 2021 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Immunology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

In the context of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, conditioning with myelo- and immune-ablative agents is used to eradicate the patient's diseased cells, generate space in the marrow and suppress immune reactions prior to the infusion of donor HSCs. While conditioning is required for effective and long-lasting HSC engraftment, currently used regimens are also associated with short and long-term side effects on extramedullary tissues and even mortality. Particularly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), who are generally less than 1-year old at the time of transplantation and often suffer from existing comorbidities. Read More

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Revisiting the drivers of acoustic similarities in tropical anuran assemblages.

Ecology 2021 May 3:e03380. Epub 2021 May 3.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Instituto de Biociências, Rio Claro, 13506-900, São Paulo, Brazil.

Acoustic signaling is key in mediating mate-choice, which directly impacts individual fitness. Because background noise and habitat structure can impair signal transmission, the acoustic space of mixed-species assemblages has long been hypothesized to reflect selective pressures against signal interference and degradation. However, other potential drivers that received far less attention can drive similar outputs on the acoustic space. Read More

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Assessing the equilibrium between assemblage composition and climate: a directional distance-decay approach.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

CRETUS, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

1. The variation of assemblage composition in space is characterised by the decrease of assemblage similarity with spatial distance. Climatic constraint and dispersal limitation are major drivers of distance-decay of similarity. Read More

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Deploying Mass Spectrometric Data Analysis in the Amazon AWS Cloud Computing Environment.

Jonathan E Katz

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2271:375-397

Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

There are many advantages for deploying a mass spectrometry workflow to the cloud. While "cloud computing" can have many meanings, in this case, I am simply referring to a virtual computer that is remotely accessible over the Internet. This "computer" can have as many or few resources (CPU, RAM, disk space, etc. Read More

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January 2021

Biogeographical Modeling of Alien Worlds.

Astrobiology 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Epidemiology, The New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University, New York Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA.

In this article, we partially quantify the biological potential of an exoplanet. We employ a variety of biogeographical analyses, placing biological evolution in the context of the geological evolution of the planet as a whole. Terrestrial (as in Earthly) biodiversity is tightly constrained in terms of species richness by its environment. Read More

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The medical simulation blog: A pilot project in Italy.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1920089

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

: In Italy, medical simulation is undergoing a phase of intense diffusion, establishing a more decisive and uniform role in medical education. Educators receive many opportunities to train in simulation education, but these provide little room for personal growth and collaboration. This could have a negative impact on education quality and the standardization of processes. Read More

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December 2021

Beyond nutrition and physical activity: food industry shaping of the very principles of scientific integrity.

Global Health 2021 Apr 20;17(1):37. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, USA.

Background: There is evidence that food industry actors try to shape science on nutrition and physical activity. But they are also involved in influencing the principles of scientific integrity. Our research objective was to study the extent of that involvement, with a case study of ILSI as a key actor in that space. Read More

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Microsatellite based molecular epidemiology of Leishmania infantum from re-emerging foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Armenia and pilot risk assessment by ecological niche modeling.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 19;15(4):e0009288. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Research Institute of Epidemiology, Virology and Medical Parasitology after A.B. Alexanyan, Ministry of Health, Yerevan, Armenia.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is re-emerging in Armenia since 1999 with 167 cases recorded until 2019. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure of the causative agent of VL in Armenia; (ii) to compare these genotypes with those from most endemic regions worldwide; (iii) to monitor the diversity of vectors in Armenia; (iv) to predict the distribution of the vectors and VL in time and space by ecological niche modeling.

Methodology/principal Findings: Human samples from different parts of Armenia previously identified by ITS-1-RFLP as L. Read More

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Role of Epigenetic Regulation in Plasticity of Tumor Immune Microenvironment.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:640369. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), an immunosuppressive niche, plays a pivotal role in contributing to the development, progression, and immune escape of various types of cancer. Compelling evidence highlights the feasibility of cancer therapy targeting the plasticity of TIME as a strategy to retrain the immunosuppressive immune cells, including innate immune cells and T cells. Epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, and noncoding RNA-mediated regulation, regulate the expression of many human genes and have been reported to be accurate in the reprogramming of TIME according to vast majority of published results. Read More

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Brain injury instructs bone marrow cellular lineage destination to reduce neuroinflammation.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr;13(589)

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China.

Acute brain injury mobilizes circulating leukocytes to transmigrate into the perivascular space and brain parenchyma. This process amplifies neural injury. Bone marrow hematopoiesis replenishes the exhausted peripheral leukocyte pools. Read More

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Incorporation of feeding functional group information informs explanatory patterns of long-term population changes in fish assemblages.

PeerJ 2021 29;9:e11032. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Agriculture and Water Quality Educational Center, Wright State University-Lake Campus, Celina, OH, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate long term trends of fish taxa in southern Lake Michigan while incorporating their functional roles to improve our understanding of ecosystem level changes that have occurred in the system over time. The approach used here highlighted the ease of incorporating ecological mechanisms into population models so researchers can take full advantage of available long-term ecosystem information. Long term studies of fish assemblages can be used to inform changes in community structure resulting from perturbations to aquatic systems and understanding these changes in fish assemblages can be better contextualized by grouping species according to functional groups that are grounded in niche theory. Read More

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Species packing and the latitudinal gradient in beta-diversity.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 14;288(1948):20203045. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074.

The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall species richness (gamma-diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. Read More

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Dietary plasticity of North American herbivores: a synthesis of stable isotope data over the past 7 million years.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 14;288(1948):20210121. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.

Palaeoecological interpretations are based on our understanding of dietary and habitat preferences of fossil taxa. While morphology provides approximations of diets, stable isotope proxies provide insights into the realized diets of animals. We present a synthesis of the isotopic ecologies (C from tooth enamel) of North American mammalian herbivores since approximately 7 Ma. Read More

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Linking climate niches across seasons to assess population vulnerability in a migratory bird.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Global loss of biodiversity has placed new urgency on the need to understand factors regulating species response to rapid environmental change. While specialists are often less resilient to rapid environmental change than generalists, species-level analyses may obscure the extent of specialization when locally adapted populations vary in climate tolerances. Until recently, quantification of the degree of climate specialization in migratory birds below the species level was hindered by a lack of genomic and tracking information, but recent technological advances have helped to overcome these barriers. Read More

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Biomanufacturing of Small Molecules in the Mammalian Gut by Probiotic .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, United States.

is a probiotic yeast that exhibits rapid growth at 37 °C, is easy to transform, and can produce therapeutic proteins in the gut. To establish its ability to produce small molecules encoded by multigene pathways, we measured the amount and variance in protein expression enabled by promoters, terminators, selective markers, and copy number control elements. We next demonstrated efficient (>95%) CRISPR-mediated genome editing in this strain, allowing us to probe engineered gene expression across different genomic sites. Read More

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Limited sexual segregation in a dimorphic avian scavenger, the Andean condor.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Sexual segregation is widely reported among sexually dimorphic species and generally attributed to intraspecific competition. Prey diversity and human activities can reinforce niche segregation by increasing resource heterogeneity. Here, we explored trophic and spatial sexual segregation in the only avian scavenger that exhibits pronounced sexual size dimorphism (up to 50% difference in body mass) and a highly despotic social system, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Read More

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Plant-pollinator interactions between generalists persist over time and space.

Ecology 2021 Apr 5:e03359. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Argentine Institute for Dryland Research, CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina.

Generalist species are the linchpins of networks, as they are important for maintaining network structure and function. Previous studies have shown that interactions between generalists tend to occur consistently across years and sites. However, the link between temporal and spatial interaction persistence across scales remains unclear. Read More

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Nanofiber-Based Delivery of Bioactive Lipids Promotes Pro-regenerative Inflammation and Enhances Muscle Fiber Growth After Volumetric Muscle Loss.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 19;9:650289. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries after extremity trauma results in an important clinical challenge often associated with impaired healing, significant fibrosis, and long-term pain and functional deficits. While acute muscle injuries typically display a remarkable capacity for regeneration, critically sized VML defects present a dysregulated immune microenvironment which overwhelms innate repair mechanisms leading to chronic inflammation and pro-fibrotic signaling. In this series of studies, we developed an immunomodulatory biomaterial therapy to locally modulate the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling axis and resolve the persistent pro-inflammatory injury niche plaguing a critically sized VML defect. Read More

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The Origin of Niches and Species in the Bacterial World.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:657986. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Center for Biotechnology (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Niches are spaces for the biological units of selection, from cells to complex communities. In a broad sense, "species" are biological units of individuation. Niches do not exist without individual organisms, and every organism has a niche. Read More

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Trophic Ecology of Endangered Gold-Spotted Pond Frog in Ecological Wetland Park and Rice Paddy Habitats.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Environmental Impact Assessment Team, National Institute of Ecology, Seochen 33657, Korea.

The gold-spotted pond frog () is an endangered amphibian species in South Korea. In order to obtain ecological information regarding the gold-spotted pond frog's habitat environment and biological interactions, we applied stable isotope analysis to quantify the ecological niche space (ENS) of frogs including black-spotted pond frogs () and bullfrogs () within the food web of two different habitats-an ecological wetland park and a rice paddy. The gold-spotted pond frog population exhibited a broader ENS in the ecological wetland park than in the rice paddy. Read More

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Persistence and dynamics of fluorescent in the healthy inflamed gut.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-16

Univ. Lille, CNRS, INSERM, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019 - UMR 9017 - Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F-59000 Lill, France.

The gastrointestinal tract is the main ecological niche in which strains may provide health benefits in mammals. There is currently a need to characterize host-microbe interactions in space and time by tracking these bacteria . We combined noninvasive whole-body imaging with fluorescence confocal microscopy imaging to monitor the impact of intestinal inflammation on the persistence of orally administered NCIMB8826 in healthy and inflamed mouse colons. Read More

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Intraspecific trait variability and community assembly in hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: ) across an elevational gradient in the eastern Himalayas, India.

Ecol Evol 2021 Mar 25;11(6):2471-2487. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune India.

We investigated some aspects of hawkmoth community assembly at 13 elevations along a 200- to 2770-m transect in the eastern Himalayas, a little studied biodiversity hot spot of global importance. We measured the morphological traits of body mass, wing loading, and wing aspect ratio of 3,301 free-ranging individuals of 76 species without having to collect or even constrain them. We used these trait measurements and metrics to assess the strength of intracommunity ("internal") and extra-community ("external") filters which determine the composition of communities the regional pool of species. Read More

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Range edges of North American marine species are tracking temperature over decades.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Understanding the dynamics of species range edges in the modern era is key to addressing fundamental biogeographic questions about abiotic and biotic drivers of species distributions. Range edges are where colonization and extirpation processes unfold, and so these dynamics are also important to understand for effective natural resource management and conservation. However, few studies to date have analyzed time series of range edge positions in the context of climate change, in part because range edges are difficult to detect. Read More

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Changing our view of the Schistosoma granuloma to an ecological standpoint.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, São Pedro, Juiz de Fora, MG, 36036-900, Brazil.

Schistosomiasis, a neglected parasitic tropical disease that has plagued humans for centuries, remains a major public health burden. A primary challenge to understanding schistosomiasis is deciphering the most remarkable pathological feature of this disease, the granuloma - a highly dynamic and self-organized structure formed by both host and parasite components. Granulomas are considered a remarkable example of how parasites evolved with their hosts to establish complex and intimate associations. Read More

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Diel niche variation in mammals associated with expanded trait space.

Nat Commun 2021 03 19;12(1):1753. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK.

Mammalian life shows huge diversity, but most groups remain nocturnal in their activity pattern. A key unresolved question is whether mammal species that have diversified into different diel niches occupy unique regions of functional trait space. For 5,104 extant mammals we show here that daytime-active species (cathemeral or diurnal) evolved trait combinations along different gradients from those of nocturnal and crepuscular species. Read More

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Phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche conservatism in killifish (Profundulidae) in Mesoamerica.

J Fish Biol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

CONACyT Research Fellow, Instituto de Ecología A. C., Red de Estudios Moleculares Avanzados, Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351, Veracruz, Mexico.

The family Profundulidae is a group of small-sized fish species distributed between southern Mexico and Honduras, where they are frequently the only fish representatives at higher elevations in the basins where they occur. We characterized their ecological niche using different methods and metrics drawn from niche modelling and by re-examining phylogenetic relationships of a recently published molecular phylogeny of this family to gain a better understanding of its biogeographic and evolutionary history. We assessed both lines of evidence from the perspective of niche conservatism to set a foundation for discussing hypotheses about the processes underlying the distribution and evolution of the group. Read More

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