2,055 results match your criteria ng2

A2B5-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cell transplantation improves neurological deficits in rats following spinal cord contusion associated with changes in expression of factors involved in Notch signaling pathway.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, Guizhou, China; Translational Neuroscience Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are myelinated glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), able to regenerate oligodendrocytes and myelin. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of A2B5-positive (A2B5+) OPC transplantation in rats with spinal cord contusion (SCC) and to investigate changes in expression of various factors involved in the Notch signaling pathway after OPC transplantation.

Methods: OPCs were obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) originating from mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Read More

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September 2021

Chronic Exposure to Alcohol Inhibits New Myelin Generation in Adult Mouse Brain.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 27;15:732602. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Brain and Intelligence Research Key Laboratory of Chongqing Education Commission, Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Chronic alcohol consumption causes cognitive impairments accompanying with white matter atrophy. Recent evidence has shown that myelin dynamics remain active and are important for brain functions in adulthood. For example, new myelin generation is required for learning and memory functions. Read More

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The effect of antiepileptic drugs on re-myelinization of axons: Phenytoin, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and valproic acid, used following traumatic brain injury.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Aug 31;209:106911. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objective: Traumatic brain injury is a major health and socioeconomic problem and the first cause of young death worldwide. For this reason, the prevention of post-traumatic brain injury and the research of new methods for it are important today. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the use of antiepileptic drugs contributed to axonal healing after traumatic brain injury. Read More

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Generation of Multipotential NG2 Progenitors From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:688283. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Neuroscience and Ophthalmology Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the potential to generate homogeneous immature cells like stem/progenitor cells, which appear to be difficult to isolate and expand from primary tissue samples. In this study, we developed a simple method to generate homogeneous immature oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells from mouse ESC-derived neural stem cell (NSC). NSC converted to NG2/OLIG2double positive progenitors (NOP) after culturing in serum-free media for a week. Read More

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Characterization and response to inflammatory stimulation of human endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

Cytotherapy 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Orthopedics, UHealth Sports Medicine Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA; Diabetes Research Institute & Cell Transplant Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Background Aims: The human endometrium has emerged as an attractive source of endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (eMSCs) that can be easily isolated by non-invasive procedures. The prominent capacity of the endometrium for efficient and scarless regeneration each menstrual cycle indicates the increased eMSC immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic properties. Herein the authors investigated the molecular responses of eMSCs to an inflammatory environment and whether those intrinsic responses affected their functional attributes. Read More

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Derivation of Oligodendrocyte Precursors from Adult Bone Marrow Stromal Cells for Remyelination Therapy.

Cells 2021 Aug 22;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 22.

School of Biomedical Sciences, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursors (OPs) is potentially therapeutic for myelin disorders but a safe and accessible cell source remains to be identified. Here we report a two-step protocol for derivation of highly enriched populations of OPs from bone marrow stromal cells of young adult rats (aMSCs). Neural progenitors among the aMSCs were expanded in non-adherent sphere-forming cultures and subsequently directed along the OP lineage with the use of glial-inducing growth factors. Read More

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Diversity of Adult Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells in Physiology and Disease.

Cells 2021 Aug 10;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i. Read More

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A qualitative exploration of the psychological impacts of living with the uncertainty of persistent flood risk.

Public Health 2021 Aug 20;198:141-145. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital, Clinical Sciences Building, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: Flooding is associated with increased psychological morbidity; however, the impact of living with the uncertainty of flood risk has not been explored. The aim of this study was to generate insight into individual experiences of living with persistent flood risk, how it affects psychological well-being, and the forms of support deemed appropriate to mitigate psychological risks.

Study Design: A qualitative study was conducted using semistructured interviews with participants who lived in a persistent flood risk area in Nottinghamshire, UK. Read More

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mTOR Signaling Regulates Metabolic Function in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells and Promotes Efficient Brain Remyelination in the Cuprizone Model.

J Neurosci 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience and Center for Cell Signaling, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103

In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), primary loss of myelin and subsequent neuronal degeneration throughout the central nervous system (CNS) impair patient functionality. While the importance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling during developmental myelination is known, no studies have yet directly examined the function of mTOR signaling specifically in the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage during remyelination. Here, we conditionally deleted from adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) using in male adult mice to test its function in new OLs responsible for remyelination. Read More

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Thyroid hormone deficiency during zebrafish development impairs central nervous system myelination.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(8):e0256207. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Querétaro, Qro., México.

Thyroid hormones are messengers that bind to specific nuclear receptors and regulate a wide range of physiological processes in the early stages of vertebrate embryonic development, including neurodevelopment and myelogenesis. We here tested the effects of reduced T3 availability upon the myelination process by treating zebrafish embryos with low concentrations of iopanoic acid (IOP) to block T4 to T3 conversion. Black Gold II staining showed that T3 deficiency reduced the myelin density in the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and the spinal cord at 3 and 7 dpf. Read More

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Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs) and Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) Display a Similar Profile with Pericytes.

Stem Cells Int 2021 24;2021:8859902. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Discipline of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Pericytes play an important role in forming functional blood vessels and establishing stable and effective microcirculation, which is crucial for vascular tissue engineering. The slow ex vivo expansion rate, limited proliferative capacity, and variability of tissue-specific phenotypes would hinder experimental studies and clinical translation of primary pericytes. In this study, the angiogenic and pericyte functions of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) and postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were investigated. Read More

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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote remyelination in spinal cord by driving oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation via TNFα/RelB-Hes1 pathway: a rat model study of 2,5-hexanedione-induced neurotoxicity.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 08 4;12(1):436. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Integrative Laboratory, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, 116001, People's Republic of China.

Background: N-hexane, with its metabolite 2,5-hexanedine (HD), is an industrial hazardous material. Chronic hexane exposure causes segmental demyelination in the peripheral nerves, and high-dose intoxication may also affect central nervous system. Demyelinating conditions are difficult to treat and stem cell therapy using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is a promising novel strategy. Read More

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Transient astrocyte-like NG2 glia subpopulation emerges solely following permanent brain ischemia.

Glia 2021 Nov 27;69(11):2658-2681. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Cellular Neurophysiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

NG2 glia display wide proliferation and differentiation potential under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we examined these two features following different types of brain disorders such as focal cerebral ischemia (FCI), cortical stab wound (SW), and demyelination (DEMY) in 3-month-old mice, in which NG2 glia are labeled by tdTomato under the Cspg4 promoter. To compare NG2 glia expression profiles following different CNS injuries, we employed single-cell RT-qPCR and self-organizing Kohonen map analysis of tdTomato-positive cells isolated from the uninjured cortex/corpus callosum and those after specific injury. Read More

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November 2021

Chronic Exposure to Hypoxia Inhibits Myelinogenesis and Causes Motor Coordination Deficits in Adult Mice.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Brain and Intelligence Research Key Laboratory of Chongqing Education Commission, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Exposure to chronic hypoxia is considered to be a risk factor for deficits in brain function in adults, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since active myelinogenesis persists in the adult central nervous system, here we aimed to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on myelination and the related functional consequences in adult mice. Using a transgenic approach to label newly-generated myelin sheaths (NG2-CreER; Tau-mGFP), we found that myelinogenesis was highly active in most brain regions, such as the motor cortex and corpus callosum. Read More

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Icariin ameliorates the cuprizone-induced acute brain demyelination and modulates the number of oligodendrocytes, microglia and astrocytes in the brain of C57BL/6J mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Oct 15;175:37-47. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, No.119 South 4(th) Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100160, China; Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, No.45 Changchun Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100053, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that treatment with icariin (ICA, a type of flavonoid) could mitigate the cuprizone (CPZ)-induced acute demyelination in the brain of mice and the potential mechanisms. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed continually with regular rodent chow or the chow supplemented with CPZ (0.2 % w/w) for six weeks to induce acute demyelination. Read More

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October 2021

EBF1 is expressed in pericytes and contributes to pericyte cell commitment.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Pathology Unit, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia Medical School, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25125, Brescia, BS, Italy.

Early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1) is a transcription factor with an important role in cell lineage specification and commitment during the early stage of cell maturation. Originally described during B-cell maturation, EBF1 was subsequently identified as a crucial molecule for proper cell fate commitment of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes, osteoblasts and muscle cells. In vessels, EBF1 expression and function have never been documented. Read More

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Downregulation of EphB2 by RNA interference attenuates glial/fibrotic scar formation and promotes axon growth.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Feb;17(2):362-369

Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China.

The rapid formation of a glial/fibrotic scar is one of the main factors hampering axon growth after spinal cord injury. The bidirectional EphB2/ephrin-B2 signaling of the fibroblast-astrocyte contact-dependent interaction is a trigger for glial/fibrotic scar formation. In the present study, a new in vitro model was produced by coculture of fibroblasts and astrocytes wounded by scratching to mimic glial/fibrotic scar-like structures using an improved slide system. Read More

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February 2022

Essential roles of plexin-B3 oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Commun Biol 2021 07 15;4(1):870. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Affective Disorders Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.

The role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells, the largest glial population in the adult central nervous system (CNS), in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive. Here, we developed a culture method for adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (aOPCs). Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) promotes survival and proliferation of NG2 aOPCs in a serum-free defined medium; a subpopulation (~5%) of plexin-B3 aOPCs was also found. Read More

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Ultrastructural Characterization of Human Oligodendrocytes and Their Progenitor Cells by Pre-embedding Immunogold.

Front Neuroanat 2021 23;15:696376. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Compared Neurobiology, University of Valencia-CIBERNED, Paterna, Spain.

Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. They provide trophic, metabolic, and structural support to neurons. In several pathologies such as multiple sclerosis (MS), these cells are severely affected and fail to remyelinate, thereby leading to neuronal death. Read More

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Identification of key molecular biomarkers involved in reactive and neurodegenerative processes present in inherited congenital hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2021 Jul 2;18(1):30. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Cell Biology, Genetics, and Physiology, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Malaga, Spain.

Background: Periventricular extracellular oedema, myelin damage, inflammation, and glial reactions are common neuropathological events that occur in the brain in congenital hydrocephalus. The periventricular white matter is the most affected region. The present study aimed to identify altered molecular and cellular biomarkers in the neocortex that can function as potential therapeutic targets to both treat and evaluate recovery from these neurodegenerative conditions. Read More

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Exercise Inhibits Doxorubicin-Induced Damage to Cardiac Vessels and Activation of Hippo/YAP-Mediated Apoptosis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 1;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics-Research, Division of Pediatrics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Dose-related cardiomyopathy is a major side effect following doxorubicin (Dox). To investigate whether exercise (Ex)-induced vasculogenesis plays a role in reducing Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, GFP bone marrow (BM) cells from GFP transgenic mice were transplanted into wild-type mice. Transplanted mice were treated with Dox, Ex, Dox+Ex, or control. Read More

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Targeting Tissue Factor to Tumor Vasculature to Induce Tumor Infarction.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Medicine A (Hematology, Hemostaseology, Oncology, Pneumology), University Hospital Muenster, D-48149 Muenster, Germany.

Besides its central functional role in coagulation, TF has been described as being operational in the development of malignancies and is currently being studied as a possible therapeutic tool against cancer. One of the avenues being explored is retargeting TF or its truncated extracellular part (tTF) to the tumor vasculature to induce tumor vessel occlusion and tumor infarction. To this end, multiple structures on tumor vascular wall cells have been studied at which tTF has been aimed via antibodies, derivatives, or as bifunctional fusion protein through targeting peptides. Read More

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A Preclinical Study of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treating Detrusor Underactivity by Chronic Bladder Ischemia.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea.

Background: The therapeutic effects of human embryonic stem cell-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (M-MSCs) were evaluated for detrusor underactivity (DUA) in a rat model with atherosclerosis-induced chronic bladder ischemia (CBI) and associated mechanisms.

Methods: Sixteen-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 10). The DUA groups underwent 30 bilateral repetitions of endothelial injury to the iliac arteries to induce CBI, while the sham control group underwent a sham operation. Read More

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Renal NG2-expressing cells have a macrophage-like phenotype and facilitate renal recovery after ischemic injury.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 08 28;321(2):F170-F178. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan.

Pericytes play an important role in the recovery process after ischemic injury of many tissues. Brain pericytes in the peri-infarct area express macrophage markers in response to injury stimuli and are involved in neovascularization. In the kidney, nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) pericytes have been found to accumulate after renal injury. Read More

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Auxiliary Subunits Control Function and Subcellular Distribution of AMPA Receptor Complexes in NG2 Glia of the Developing Hippocampus.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 10;15:669717. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Cellular Neurosciences, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Synaptic and axonal glutamatergic signaling to NG2 glia in white matter is critical for the cells' differentiation and activity dependent myelination. However, in gray matter the impact of neuron-to-NG2 glia signaling is still elusive, because most of these cells keep their non-myelinating phenotype throughout live. Early in postnatal development, hippocampal NG2 glia express AMPA receptors with a significant Ca permeability allowing for plasticity of the neuron-glia synapses, but whether this property changes by adulthood is not known. Read More

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Can intersectionality help with understanding and tackling health inequalities? Perspectives of professional stakeholders.

Health Res Policy Syst 2021 Jun 25;19(1):97. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Race Equality Foundation, 27 Greenwood Pl, Kentish Town, London, NW5 1LB, United Kingdom.

Background: The concept of "intersectionality" is increasingly employed within public health arenas, particularly in North America, and is often heralded as offering great potential to advance health inequalities research and action. Given persistently poor progress towards tackling health inequalities, and recent calls to reframe this agenda in the United Kingdom and Europe, the possible contribution of intersectionality deserves attention. Yet, no existing research has examined professional stakeholder understandings and perspectives on applying intersectionality to this field. Read More

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Trillium tschonoskii rhizomes' saponins induces oligodendrogenesis and axonal reorganization for ischemic stroke recovery in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 21;279:114358. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China; Beijing Key Lab of TCM Collateral Disease Theory Research, Beijing, 100069, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. is one of traditional Chinese medical herbs that has been utilized to treat brain damages and cephalalgia. The neuroprotective effect of total saponins from Trillium tschonoskii rhizome (TSTT) has been demonstrated efficacy in rats following ischemia. Read More

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October 2021

Neutrophil, Extracellular Matrix Components, and Their Interlinked Action in Promoting Secondary Pathogenesis After Spinal Cord Injury.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)-Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

Secondary pathogenesis following primary mechanical damage to the spinal cord is believed to be the ultimate reason for the limitation of currently available therapies. Precisely, the complex cascade of secondary events-mediated scar formation is the sole hurdle in the recovery process due to its inhibitory effect on axonal regeneration, plasticity, and remyelination. Neutrophils initiate this secondary injury along with other extracellular matrix components such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Read More

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Mechanical Loading Disrupts Focal Adhesion Kinase Activation in Mandibular Fibrochondrocytes During Murine Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Adjunct Professor, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL; Professor and Head, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: Mechanical overloading is a key initiating condition for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). The integrin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling axis is implicated in the mechanobiological response of cells through phosphorylation at Tyr397 (pFAK) but poorly defined in TMJ health and disease. We hypothesize that mechanical overloading disrupts TMJ homeostasis through dysregulation of FAK signaling. Read More

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Distinct Fibroblast Lineages Give Rise to NG2+ Pericyte Populations in Mouse Skin Development and Repair.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:675080. Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

We have examined the developmental origins of Ng2+ perivascular cell populations that adhere to the basement membrane of blood vessels, and their contribution to wound healing. Neural/glial antigen 2 (Ng2) labeled most perivascular cells (70-80%) in developing and adult mouse back skin, a higher proportion than expressed by other pericyte markers Tbx18, Nestin and Pdgfrβ. In adult mouse back skin Ng2+ perivascular cells could be categorized into 4 populations based on whether they expressed Pdgfrα and Pdgfrβ individually or in combination or were Pdgfr-negative. Read More

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