1,452 results match your criteria newly pregnant

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in pregnancy: Model reproducibility and external validation.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Aim: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been previously developed for betamethasone and buprenorphine for pregnant women. The goal of this work was to replicate and reassess these models using data from recently completed studies.

Method: Betamethasone and buprenorphine PBPK models were developed in Simcyp V19 based upon prior publications using V17 and V15. Read More

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Contraceptive Needs Among Women Recently Incarcerated at a Rural Appalachian Jail.

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) 2021 16;2(1):263-272. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Human Development and Family Science, College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Incarceration is associated with negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. We examined contraceptive needs among women incarcerated at a rural Appalachian jail with emphasis on pregnancy history, recent contraceptive use, and current and near-future contraceptive needs. A survey was administered to newly incarcerated women at a jail in Southwest Virginia. Read More

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Transcriptome and proteome dynamics of cervical remodeling in the mouse during pregnancy.

Biol Reprod 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Ob/Gyn and Cecil H. and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biological Science, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

During gestation, the female reproductive tract must maintain pregnancy while concurrently preparing for parturition. Here, we explore the transitions in gene expression and protein turnover (fractional synthesis rates [FSR]) by which the cervix implements a transition from rigid to compliant. Shifts in gene transcription to achieve immune tolerance and alter epithelial cell programs begin in early pregnancy. Read More

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What is the optimum time to start antiretroviral therapy in people with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jul;24(7):e25772

Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi.

Background: HIV and tuberculosis are frequently diagnosed concurrently. In March 2021, World Health Organization recommended that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be started within two weeks of tuberculosis treatment start, at any CD4 count. We assessed whether earlier ART improved outcomes in people with newly diagnosed HIV and tuberculosis. Read More

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Depressive symptoms postpartum is associated with physical activity level the year prior to giving birth - A retrospective observational study.

Sex Reprod Healthc 2021 Jul 10;29:100645. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: To examine physical activity level prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy and postpartum and investigate the association with depressive symptoms postpartum among women in Sweden.

Study Design: Retrospective observational study including 532 women on self-assessment of physical activity level before pregnancy, during pregnancy and postpartum, depressive symptoms postpartum as well as stressful life events in the past two years.

Main Outcome Measures: Level and change of physical activity before pregnancy, during pregnancy and postpartum and depressive symptoms postpartum. Read More

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High ambient temperature exposure during late gestation disrupts glycolipid metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial function tightly related to gut microbial dysbiosis in pregnant mice.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

As global warming intensifies, emerging evidence has demonstrated high ambient temperature during pregnancy negatively affects maternal physiology with compromised pregnant outcomes; however, little is known about the roles of gut microbiota and its underlying mechanisms in this process. Here, for the first time, we explored the potential mechanisms of gut microbiota involved in the disrupted glycolipid metabolism via hepatic mitochondrial function. Our results indicate heat stress (HS) reduces fat and protein contents and serum levels of insulin and triglyceride (TG), while increases that of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyric acid (B-HBA), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (P < 0. Read More

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The hidden burden of adolescent pregnancies in rural Sri Lanka; findings of the Rajarata Pregnancy Cohort.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jul 7;21(1):494. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura, 50008, Sri Lanka.

Background: Adolescent fertility is a main indicator of the Sustainable Developmental Goal (SGD) three. Although Sri Lanka is exemplary in maternal health, the utilization of Sexual and Reproductive Health services (SRH) by adolescents is less documented. We describe the hidden burden, associated biological and psychosocial factors and utilization patterns of pre-conceptional services among pregnant adolescents in rural Sri Lanka. Read More

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Cardiac Complications in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of BNP and N-Terminal Pro-BNP.

Cardiol Ther 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Faculty of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran.

Introduction: Serum brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels may be involved in detecting the breakdown of defense mechanisms in pregnant women. BNP and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels can be used in emergency settings as a biomarker to rule out or confirm cardiac complications. The present study was conducted as an attempt to evaluate the performance of BNP and NT-proBNP as diagnostic tools for cardiac complications, including heart failure and pre-eclampsia, in pregnant and recently-delivered women. Read More

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Coverage of maternal viral load monitoring during pregnancy in South Africa: Results from the 2019 national Antenatal HIV Sentinel Survey.

HIV Med 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Centre for HIV and STI, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: South Africa has made remarkable progress in increasing the coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among pregnant women; however, viral suppression among pregnant women receiving ART is reported to be low. Access to routine viral load testing is crucial to identify women with unsuppressed viral load early in pregnancy and to provide timely intervention to improve viral suppression. This study aimed to determine the coverage of maternal viral load monitoring nationally, focusing on viral load testing, documentation of viral load test results, and viral suppression (viral load < 50 copies/mL). Read More

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Laying the Foundation for Pregnancy Physical Activity Profiling: A Framework for Providing Tailored Physical Activity Advice and Guidance to Pregnant Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 3;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Psychology and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Social Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Kent CT1 1QU, UK.

The aim of this study was to examine the predictive utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining pregnant women's physical activity (PA) intentions and behaviour and to scrutinise the role of past behaviour within this context. Pregnant women ( = 89) completed the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and newly developed TPB questionnaire on two separate occasions during their pregnancy. Analyses were carried out in relation to three scenarios. Read More

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Placental Complement Activation in Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: An Observational Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Center of Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a disease that causes thrombocytopenia and a risk of bleeding in the (unborn) child that result from maternal alloantibodies directed against fetal, paternally inherited, human platelet antigens (HPA). It is hypothesized that these alloantibodies can also bind to the placenta, causing placental damage. This study aims to explore signs of antibody-mediated placental damage in FNAIT. Read More

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Clinical Features and Maternal-fetal Results of Pregnant Women in COVID-19 Times.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2021 May 28;43(5):384-394. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Divinópolis, MG, Brazil.

Objective:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which usually leads to non-specific respiratory symptoms. Although pregnant women are considered at risk for respiratory infections by other viruses, such as SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), little is known about their vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, this study aims to identify and present the main studies on the topic, including the postpartum period. Read More

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The yield of HIV testing during pregnancy and postnatal period, Uganda, 2015-2018: analysis of surveillance data.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 06 24;18(1):35. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Sexually Transmitted Infections/AIDS Control Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Uganda has registered a reduction in new HIV infections among children in recent years. However, mother-to-child transmission of HIV still occurs, especially among pregnant women who present late. To eliminate this transmission, all HIV-positive pregnant women should be identified during antenatal HIV testing. Read More

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Prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a meta-analysis.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Jun 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Purpose: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a newly emerged respiratory illness, which has spread around the world. Pregnant women are exposed to additional pressure due to the indirect adverse effects of this pandemic on their physical and mental health. Since the psychological wellness framework is weak in developing countries, it is likely that geographical factors affect the prevalence. Read More

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Attitudes Toward Pregnancy Among Women Enrolled in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Services in Moshi, Tanzania.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

For pregnant women living with HIV (WLWH), feelings about pregnancy may influence their emotional well-being and health seeking behaviors. This study examined attitudes toward pregnancy and associated factors among women enrolled in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Moshi, Tanzania. 200 pregnant WLWH were enrolled during their second or third trimester of pregnancy and completed a structured survey. Read More

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Evaluation of a new foetal shielding device for pregnant brain tumour patients.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 13;16(1):109. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 82 Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 13620, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: The present study aimed to propose a new foetal shielding device for pregnant cancer patients to reduce the foetal dose associated with treatment techniques using multiple gantry angles, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).

Methods: Three shielding structures were designed to minimise the scattered and leaked radiation from various gantry angles and radiation scattering within the patient. The base-plate part that can be placed on the treatment couch was designed to reduce the scattered and leaked radiation generated at gantry angles located near 180°. Read More

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Integrating tuberculosis screening into antenatal visits to improve tuberculosis diagnosis and care: Results from a pilot project in Pakistan.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 1;108:391-396. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

IRD Global, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Active tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy has an adverse effect on maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study analysed the results of a pilot project integrating TB screening into antenatal care (ANC) visits in a high-TB-burden, low-resource setting.

Methods: Data were extracted from the TB screening pilot in obstetrician-gynaecologist clinics of six tertiary care facilities in Karachi, Pakistan from April to December 2017. Read More

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Identification and Validation of Combination Plasma Biomarker of Afamin, Fibronectin and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin to Predict Pre-eclampsia.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(6):804-815

Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo), Tohoku University.

The purpose of the present study was to identify a plasma protein biomarker able to predict pre-eclampsia (PE). Comprehensive quantitative proteomics using mass spectrometry with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH-MS) was applied to plasma samples of 7 PE and 14 healthy pregnant women (for PE subjects, plasma samples were taken before onset of PE), and 11 proteins were selected as candidates potentially able to differentiate the two groups. Plasmas collected at gestational weeks 14-24 from 36 PE and 120 healthy pregnant women (for PE subjects, plasma samples were taken before onset of PE) were used to conduct selected reaction monitoring quantification analysis, optimize protein combinations and conduct internal validation, which consisted of 30 iterations of 10-fold cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Read More

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January 2021

Pregnancy and COVID-19 Pandemic Perception in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 27;18(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Cheras 56000, Malaysia.

Pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19 complications due to gestation-related physiological changes. We aimed to evaluate the level of maternal knowledge, perception, and practice during the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the Malaysian Movement Control Order (MCO) between April and June 2020. Read More

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A Qualitative Study to Explore the Barriers for Nonadherence to Referral to Hospital Births by Women with High-Risk Pregnancies in Nepal.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 28;18(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Women's Health Development Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality tend to decrease if referral advice during pregnancy is utilized appropriately. This study explores the reasons for nonadherence to referral advice among high-risk pregnant women. A qualitative study was conducted in Morang District, Nepal. Read More

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Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization in the United States: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vaccine 2021 06 25;39(28):3696-3716. Epub 2021 May 25.

RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90401, United States; Southern California Evidence Review Center, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 2001 N Soto Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States.

Background: Understanding the safety of vaccines is critical to inform decisions about vaccination. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the safety of vaccines recommended for children, adults, and pregnant women in the United States.

Methods: We searched the literature in November 2020 to update a 2014 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality review by integrating newly available data. Read More

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Do non-invasive prenatal tests promote discrimination against people with Down syndrome? What should be done?

J Perinat Med 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

By implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) in maternity care, an ethical debate is newly inflamed how to deal with this information. Fears of the consequences of an increased use of NIPT are justified with the same arguments when amniocentesis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) were introduced decades ago. It can be expected that the prevalence of people with DS would significantly increase in Western societies as a result of the increasing age of pregnant women and the improved medical care for people with DS. Read More

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Maternal Intervention to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: Moving Beyond Antiretroviral Therapy.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May;40(5S):S5-S10

From the Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women living with HIV has greatly reduced the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV across the globe. However, while Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has set targets to reduce the annual number of new pediatric HIV infections to fewer than 40,000 in 2018 and fewer than 20,000 in 2020, progress towards these targets has plateaued at an unacceptably high global estimate of greater than 160,000 children newly infected with HIV in 2018. Moreover, it has become clear that expansion of maternal antiretroviral therapy alone will not be sufficient to close the remaining gap and eliminate MTCT of HIV. Read More

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The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Stress and Anxiety of Non-infected Pregnant Mothers.

J Reprod Infertil 2021 Apr-Jun;22(2):125-132

Endometriosis Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: The newly emerging COVID-19 has caused severe anxiety around the world and it is infecting more people each day since there is no preventive measure or definite therapy for the diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate its effect on anxiety and stress of pregnant mothers during perinatal care.

Methods: Three-hundred pregnant mothers without COVID-19 infection who were referred to the hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences for delivery during April 2020, based on negative clinical symptoms and the results of polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for COVID-19, were recruited by census method and asked to complete the Persian version of the perceived stress scale (PSS); participants views about their anxiety level and the role of COVID-19 as the source of their stress and worries were recorded. Read More

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Portable health clinic for sustainable care of mothers and newborns in rural Bangladesh.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Aug 9;207:106156. Epub 2021 May 9.

Medical Information Center, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background And Objective: Regular health checkups are important for mothers and newborns to detect health problems at an early stage; however, this is often difficult in resource-limited settings. Therefore, the portable health clinic (PHC) for maternal and child health (MCH), a telemedicine health checkup system, was introduced as an intervention study in a rural area in Bangladesh. The aim of this research project was to report findings that we had observed at a mid-point of the intervention period. Read More

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In vitro activity, safety and in vivo efficacy of the novel bumped kinase inhibitor BKI-1748 in non-pregnant and pregnant mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum tachyzoites and Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2021 May 18;16:90-101. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) target the apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). BKI-1748, a 5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide compound when added to fibroblast cells concomitantly to the time of infection, inhibited proliferation of apicomplexan parasites at ECs of 165 nM (Neospora caninum) and 43 nM (Toxoplasma gondii). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that addition of 2. Read More

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Counseling at all contacts for postpartum contraceptive use: can paper-based tools help community health workers improve continuity of care? A qualitative study from Ethiopia.

Gates Open Res 2019 29;3:1652. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Jhpiego, Conakry, Immeuble Guinomar, 5ème étage, Guinea.

Globally, there has been a resurgence of interest in postpartum family planning (PPFP) to advance reproductive health outcomes. Few programs have systematically utilized all contacts a woman and her baby have with the health system, from pregnancy through the first year postpartum, to promote PPFP. Nested into a larger study covering two districts, this study assessed the use, acceptability, and feasibility of tools for tracking women's decision-making and use of PPFP in the community health system in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Read More

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Maternal Interleukin-6 Hampers Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rat Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

Dev Neurosci 2021 21;43(2):106-115. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.

Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy leads to long-lasting effects on brain development and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the maternal inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 plays a crucial role in the long-lasting effects of MIA on adult offspring. IL-6 is naturally produced during pregnancy in the absence of any underlying immune activation. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of rituximab in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Malawi: a prospective, single-arm, non-randomised phase 1/2 clinical trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Jul 19;9(7):e1008-e1016. Epub 2021 May 19.

Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: There are no clinical trials involving patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in sub-Saharan Africa since antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV became widely available in this region. We aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in patients with DLBCL in Malawi.

Methods: This prospective, single-arm, non-randomised phase 1/2 clinical trial was done at Kamuzu Central Hospital Cancer Clinic (Lilongwe, Malawi). Read More

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Early ADAMTS13 testing associates with pre-eclampsia occurrence in antiphospholipid syndrome.

Thromb Res 2021 07 27;203:101-109. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Russian Federation; Department of Haematology, CHU Nîmes, Univ Montpellier, Nîmes, France; Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France; UA 011 INSERM- Université de Montpellier, Institut Desbrest d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (oAPS) still develop placental diseases, mainly pre-eclampsia (PEcl), which diagnosis is associated with reduced ADAMTS13 levels. Testing ADAMTS13 in newly pregnant oAPS may provide evidence for risk stratification.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of ADAMTS13 activity, antigen and antibodies on stored plasma samples obtained prior to beginning low-molecular weight heparin-low dose aspirin treatment in 513 oAPS women. Read More

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