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Examining factors associated with postintervention recidivism in DUI repeat offenders after alcohol treatment: One-year follow-up study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 21;130:108426. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei City Hospital, 309 Songde Road, 110 Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, 110 Taipei, Taiwan; Psychiatric Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, 110 Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Taiwan has deemed driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) to be criminal, and offenders are subjected to fines and jail penalties without being offered alcohol-related treatment, although alcohol use problems are prevalent in this population. We followed the recidivism records of DUI repeat offenders for one year after they had received a newly established legal-medical joint intervention program for alcohol treatment and examined factors related to postintervention recidivism. In this study, 231 DUI repeat offenders with alcohol use problems screened out by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were referred from the prosecutors' office to one psychiatric hospital for SBIRT-based alcohol treatment. Read More

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High-throughput rat immunoglobulin G N-glycosylation profiling revealed subclass-specific changes associated with chronic stress.

J Proteomics 2021 Jun 9:104293. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation corresponds well with immune system changes, so it can potentially be used as a biomarker for the consequences of chronic stress such as low-grade inflammation and enhanced immunosenescence in older animals. Here we present a high-throughput glycoproteomic workflow, including IgG enrichment, HILIC glycopeptide purification, and nano-LC-MS analysis of tryptic glycopeptides applied for the analysis of rat IgG. A cohort of 80 animals was exposed to seven stressors in a customized chronic stress protocol with blood and tissue sampling in three timepoints. Read More

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CircRNAs: Decrypting the novel targets of fibrosis and aging.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Jun 9:101390. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Xi'an Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Xi'an No.3 Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Medicine, Northwest University, 10 Fengcheng Three Road, Xi'an, 710021, China. Electronic address:

Fibrosis is a typical aging-related pathological process involving almost all organs. It is usually initiated by organic injury and leads to the gradual decline of organ function or even loss. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are being hailed as a newly rediscovered class of covalently closed transcripts without a 5' cap or 3' tail which draw increasing attention. Read More

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A comparison of Prx- and OxyR-based HO probes expressed in S. cerevisiae.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 9:100866. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Faculty of Biosciences, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Genetically encoded fluorescent HO probes continue to advance the field of redox biology. Here we compare the previously established peroxiredoxin-based HO probe roGFP2-Tsa2ΔC with the newly described OxyR-based HO probe HyPer7, using yeast as the model system. While not as sensitive as roGFP2-Tsa2ΔC, HyPer7 is much improved relative to earlier HyPer versions, most notably by ratiometric pH stability. Read More

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Tracking elimination of HIV transmission in men who have sex with men in England: a modelling study.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Background: To manage the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England, treatment as prevention strategies based on test and treat were strengthened between 2011 and 2015, and supplemented from 2015 by scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We examined the effect of these interventions on HIV incidence and investigated whether internationally agreed targets for HIV control and elimination of HIV transmission by 2030 might be within reach among MSM in England.

Methods: We used a novel, age-stratified, CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation model to estimate HIV incidence and undiagnosed infections among adult MSM (age ≥15 years) during the 10-year period between 2009 and 2018. Read More

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Identifying counties at risk of high overdose mortality burden during the emerging fentanyl epidemic in the USA: a predictive statistical modelling study.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: The emergence of fentanyl around 2013 represented a new, deadly stage of the opioid epidemic in the USA. We aimed to develop a statistical regression approach to identify counties at the highest risk of high overdose mortality in the subsequent years by predicting annual county-level overdose death rates across the contiguous USA and to validate our approach against observed overdose mortality data collected between 2013 and 2018.

Methods: We fit mixed-effects negative binomial regression models to predict overdose death rates in the subsequent year for 2013-18 for all contiguous state counties in the USA (ie, excluding Alaska and Hawaii). Read More

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Evidence of a gabapentinoid and diuretic prescribing cascade among older adults with lower back pain.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background/objectives: Gabapentinoids are commonly prescribed to relieve pain. The development of edema, an established adverse effect of gabapentinoids, may lead to a potentially harmful prescribing cascade whereby individuals are subsequently prescribed diuretics and exposed to diuretic-induced adverse events. The frequency of this prescribing cascade is unknown. Read More

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Description of the Metacercaria of Cardiocephaloides sp. (Digenea, Diplostomoidea), Newly Recorded from the Brain of Gangetic Leaffish (Nandus nandus) and Its Genetic Characterization in India.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Molecular Taxonomy Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, 250004, UP, India.

Purpose: Cardiocephaloides comprises strigeid trematodes that represent a small genus. In this study, metacercaria identified as Cardiocephaloides sp. was collected from the Gangetic leaffish Nandus nandus from the Ganga River at Bairaj, Bijnor (29º01'N, 77º45'E) in the state of Uttar Pradesh (U. Read More

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Observations with alpelisib in older patients (≥ 65 year of age) with breast cancer in a non-clinical trial setting.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: Alpelisib is newly-available breast cancer agent that targets PIK3 mutations and confers a somewhat unusual adverse event profile. This study focused on older patients (≥ 65 years of age) treated outside a clinical trial to gain further experience on how these under-studied patients do with this new agent.

Methods: This descriptive, multi-site study relied on medical record review. Read More

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Enhanced Eradication of Mucin-Embedded Bacterial Biofilm by Locally Delivered Antibiotics in Functionalized Microcontainers.

Macromol Biosci 2021 Jun 12:e2100150. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation's Center for Intelligent Drug Delivery and Sensing Using Microcontainers and Nanomechanics (IDUN), Department of Health Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 345C, Lyngby, 2800 Kgs., Denmark.

Bacterial biofilm-related infections are difficult to eradicate and require repeated treatments with high doses of antibiotics. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment strategies that minimize the use of antibiotics while enhancing biofilm eradication. Functionalized reservoir-based microdevices, such as, microcontainers (MCs), offer, high drug loading capacity, mucus embedment, and tuneable drug release. Read More

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Q134R: Small chemical compound with NFAT inhibitory properties improves behavioral performance and synapse function in mouse models of amyloid pathology.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13416. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN) ameliorates pathophysiologic and cognitive changes in aging rodents and mice with aging-related Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology. However, concerns over adverse effects have slowed the transition of common CN-inhibiting drugs to the clinic for the treatment of AD and AD-related disorders. Targeting substrates of CN, like the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs), has been suggested as an alternative, safer approach to CN inhibitors. Read More

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Clinical features, diagnosis, and survival analysis of dogs with glioma.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Gliomas in dogs remain poorly understood.

Objectives: To characterize the clinicopathologic findings, diagnostic imaging features and survival of a large sample of dogs with glioma using the Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium diagnostic classification.

Animals: Ninety-one dogs with histopathological diagnosis of glioma. Read More

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Impact of Adjuvant Medical Therapies on Surgical Outcomes in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Adjuvant medications including proton pump inhibitors (PPI), antibiotics (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX]), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may be prescribed for patients with idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS). We describe medication use with endoscopic dilation (ED) or endoscopic resection with medical treatment (ERMT) and evaluate impact on outcomes.

Study Design: International, prospective, 3-year multicenter cohort study of 810 patients with untreated, newly diagnosed, or previously treated iSGS. Read More

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The Relationship Between Frontal QRS-T Angle and the Severity of Newly Diagnosed Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 12:e14500. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow restriction and respiratory symptoms. Studies demonstrated that cardiac arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality increased in these patients due to altered myocardial repolarization. Frontal QRS-T angle is a novel marker of myocardial depolarization and repolarization heterogeneity. Read More

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Complete genome analysis of the newly isolated Shigella sonnei phage vB_SsoM_Z31.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Dalian SEM Bio-Engineering Technology Co. Ltd, Dalian, 116620, China.

This work describes the characterization and genome annotation of the newly isolated lytic phage vB_SsoM_Z31 (referred to as Z31), isolated from wastewater samples collected in Dalian, China. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage Z31 belongs to the family Myoviridae, order Caudovirales. This phage specifically infects Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, and Escherichia coli. Read More

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Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of acute appendicitis in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors:
Chin-Hsiao Tseng

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12400. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

This retrospective cohort study used the nationwide database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance to investigate whether metformin would reduce the risk of acute appendicitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We first identified 423,949 patients newly diagnosed of diabetes from 1999 to 2005. After excluding patients having type 1 diabetes mellitus, missing data, previous history of acute appendicitis, aged < 15 years, aged > 80 years and followed up for < 6 months, 338,172 ever users and 21,861 never users of metformin were followed up from January 1, 2006 until December 31, 2011. Read More

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Contextual prediction errors reorganize naturalistic episodic memories in time.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12364. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cognitive Brain Dynamics Lab, National Brain Research Centre, NH 8, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana, 122052, India.

Episodic memories are contextual experiences ordered in time. This is underpinned by associative binding between events within the same contexts. The role of prediction errors in declarative memory is well established but has not been investigated in the time dimension of complex episodic memories. Read More

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A design strategy for high mobility stretchable polymer semiconductors.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3572. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

As a key component in stretchable electronics, semiconducting polymers have been widely studied. However, it remains challenging to achieve stretchable semiconducting polymers with high mobility and mechanical reversibility against repeated mechanical stress. Here, we report a simple and universal strategy to realize intrinsically stretchable semiconducting polymers with controlled multi-scale ordering to address this challenge. Read More

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IMiDs uniquely synergize with TKIs to upregulate apoptosis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells expressing a dominant-negative IKZF1 isoform.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 11;7(1):139. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan.

The long-term prognosis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL) is still unsatisfactory even after the emergence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against chimeric BCR-ABL, and this is associated with the high incidence of genetic alterations of Ikaros family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), most frequently the hemi-allelic loss of exons 4-7 expressing a dominant-negative isoform Ik6. We found that lenalidomide (LEN), a representative of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), which have been long used for the treatment of multiple myeloma, specifically induced accumulation of Ik6 with the disappearance of functional isoforms within 24 h (i.e. Read More

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Engineered bridge protein with dual affinity for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and collagen enhances bone regeneration for spinal fusion.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

The revolutionizing efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) for clinical spinal fusion is hindered by safety issues associated with the high dose required. However, it continues to be widely used, for example, in InFUSE Bone Graft (Medtronic). Here, we developed a translational protein engineering-based approach to reduce the dose and thereby improve the safety of rhBMP-2 delivered in a collagen sponge, as in InFUSE Bone Graft. Read More

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Reducing emergency department visits in patients with deep vein thrombosis: introducing a standardised outpatient treatment pathway.

BMJ Open Qual 2021 Jun;10(2)

Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is an acute medical condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with DVT frequently present to the emergency department (ED) because the necessary diagnostic investigations and medical treatment for successful outpatient management are not readily accessible in the outpatient clinics. A collaborative quality improvement project was undertaken to implement and evaluate a standardised outpatient treatment pathway designed to direct patients with a newly diagnosed DVT from the ultrasound department to the thrombosis clinic, where guideline-based management for DVT can be accomplished without ED visits. Read More

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D-dopachrome tautomerase activates COX2/PGE pathway of astrocytes to mediate inflammation following spinal cord injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jun 11;18(1):130. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education, Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, People's Republic of China.

Background: Astrocytes are the predominant glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) that can secrete various cytokines and chemokines mediating neuropathology in response to danger signals. D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT), a newly described cytokine and a close homolog of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) protein, has been revealed to share an overlapping function with MIF in some ways. However, its cellular distribution pattern and mediated astrocyte neuropathological function in the CNS remain unclear. Read More

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Management of penicillin allergy in primary care: a qualitative study with patients and primary care physicians.

BMC Fam Pract 2021 Jun 11;22(1):112. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, UK.

Background: Six percent of patients are allergic to penicillin according to their medical records. While this designation protects a small number of truly allergic patients from serious reactions, those who are incorrectly labelled may be denied access to recommended first line treatment for many infections. Removal of incorrect penicillin allergy may have positive health consequences for the individual and the general population. Read More

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A multi-laboratory assessment of congenital thrombophilia assays performed on the ACL Top 50 family for harmonisation of thrombophilia testing in a large laboratory network.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Haematology, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research (ICPMR), NSW Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: Thrombophilia testing is commonly performed within hemostasis laboratories, and the ACL TOP 50 family of instruments represent a new 'single platform' of hemostasis instrumentation. The study objective was to evaluate these instruments and manufacturer reagents for utility of congenital thrombophilia assays.

Methods: Comparative evaluations of various congenital thrombophilia assays (protein C [PC], protein S [PS], antithrombin [AT], activated protein C resistance [APCR]) using newly installed ACL TOPs 550 and 750 as well as comparative assessments with existing, predominantly STAGO, instrumentation and reagents. Read More

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Establishment and characterization of a rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cell line.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 9;72:101573. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

Intestinal microvascular endothelial cell (IMVEC) is a fundamental and essential component of gut-vascular barrier which is closely associated with intestinal disorders However, there is still a lack of established intestinal microvascular endothelial cell line. In the present study, a newly established rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cell line termed RIMVEC-11 was described and characterized which has been stably cultured for more than 90 passages so far. RIMVEC-11 was characterized by endothelial features with the cobblestone morphology under light microscopy, the Weibel-Palade body and rich vesicles in the cytoplasm on the ultrastructural level, and positive endothelial specific markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor by immunocytochemistry analysis. Read More

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Recent advances in biotechnology for marine enzymes and molecules.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jun 8;69:308-315. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

The marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on Earth, and provides numerous marine-derived products, including enzymes and molecules, for industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Marine biotechnology provides important biological resources from marine habitat conservation to applied science. In recent years, advances in techniques in interdisciplinary research fields, including metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have significantly improved the production of marine-derived commodities. Read More

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A higher percentage of leukemic blasts with vacuoles predicts unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Jun 6;109:106638. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Hematology, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cytoplasmic vacuoles, which are a morphological feature of dysplasia, can be observed under a microscope at initial diagnosis. Recently, this typical morphological feature has been found to be associated with impaired survival. To investigate the clinical significance of the grading of blasts with vacuoles in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we retrospectively studied 152 patients newly diagnosed with non-M3 AML. Read More

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Analysis of the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 5;566:45-52. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China. Electronic address:

A newly-emergent beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, rapidly has become a pandemic since 2020. It is a serious respiratory disease and caused more than 100 million of deaths in the world. WHO named it COVIA-19 and there is no effective targeted drug for it. Read More

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Rapid and highly selective electrochemical sensor based on ZnS/Au-decorated f-multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites produced via pulsed laser technique for detection of toxic nitro compounds.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 1;418:126269. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Core-Facility Center for Photochemistry & Nanomaterials, Department of Chemistry (BK21 FOUR), Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Novel ZnS/Au/f-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanostructures were produced via a pulsed laser-assisted technique followed by a wet chemical process. ZnS nanospheres were synthesized via pulsed laser ablation of a Zn target in DMSO, which was used as a solvent and sulfur source. Notably, no additional sulfur sources, surfactants, or reducing agents were used during the synthesis. Read More

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Rational engineering of a human GFP-like protein scaffold for humanized targeted nanomedicines.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Sant Antoni Mª Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona Spain; Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute (IJC Campus Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), C/ Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. Electronic address:

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used scaffold for protein-based targeted nanomedicines because of its high biocompatibility, biological neutrality and outstanding structural stability. However, being immunogenicity a major concern in the development of drug carriers, the use of exogenous proteins such as GFP in clinics might be inadequate. Here we report a human nidogen-derived protein (HSNBT), rationally designed to mimic the structural and functional properties of GFP as a scaffold for nanomedicine. Read More

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